The origin of Instructional Design (ID)
dates back to the U.S. military during World War II in the
early 1940’s. The materials were based in the principles
of instruction, learning and human behavior. The
primary purposes were to assist in the
selection of candidates for the armed forces and to
train large numbers of troops. The focus of the
design was to meet the needs of learners through
the uses of:
• Before launching in, recognize the
model’s as interconnected in nature.
Each model has built upon the
structure and idealism of the
• Making connections between past
models will allow you to better
understand the previous and current
structure of instructional design.
• It will also help in the conception of
upcoming movements in HIED today.
Benjamin Bloom- Blooms Taxonomy
• A classification of the objectives that educators set for
students divided into three
"domains": cognitive, affective, and psychomotor.
Within the domains, learning at the higher levels is
dependent on having attained prerequisite knowledge
and skills at lower levels.
Edgar Dale- Cone of Experience
• A hierarchy of instructional methods and their
effectiveness in learner achievement.
Dick & Carey-Instructional Design
• A systems view of instruction as opposed to
viewing instruction as a sum of isolated parts. The
model addresses instruction as an entire system,
focusing on the interrelationship between context,
content, learning and instruction.
Robert Gagné - 9 Events for Instruction
• A series of events which follow a systematic instructional
design process that share the behaviorist approach to
learning (focuses on the outcomes or behaviors of instruction
Instructional Design Model
9 Event for Instruction
The ADDIE Model
• Most current ID models are variations of this model or
incorporate it’s structure/ideas.
• Developed in 1975 at Florida State
University for the United States
• In 1997, J. J. G. Van Merrienboer
connected the idea that the ADDIE
model components can “plug and
play” with various other ID models.
• Because the model was designed through a
university a summative approach was infused in
order to evaluate the validity of the
• Instructional Designers using this model are
typically more concerned with actually
producing, leading to a
more formative approach in order to refine
goals and evolve strategies.
DesignThis form of instructional design works backwards by
focusing on the learning outcomes and desired end
result as the first approach. After identifying an end goal
the process moves to identify how the instructor can
recognize student learning and finally how to create the
instructional experiences to engage students within the
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• The Quality Matters Rubric has become the most widely used set of
standards for the design of online and blended courses at the college level.
• It is important to note; one rubric type is not better than another. Instead,
both serve unique purposes in education development and assessment.
Rubrics that identify and assess
components of a finished
Holistic- Rubrics that assess
student work as a whole.