U fhp 2012-13-l3-sla-handout 1-2 - inconnu(e)

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U fhp 2012-13-l3-sla-handout 1-2 - inconnu(e)

  1. 1. SIDIKY DIARASSOUBA, Ph. D Universite F. H. Boigny Department d’Anglais, LAA 2012-2013, L3, Semester 5
  2. 2. Theories & Models  What is a theory?  What is a model?  What is a hypothesis  What is construct?
  3. 3. What is a Theory?  A theory does a couple of things: - explains or account for natural phenomena - ought to make predictions - tend to unify a series of generalizations/observations about the world • Kuhn (1996) theories help solve “puzzles” - germ theory of disease (Louis Pasteur) - Theory of relativity (Einstein) - Theory of individual differences in working memory (Cognitive psychology)
  4. 4. What is a model?  A model basically describes processes of phenomena  It is thus concerned with the ‘how,” a theory accounts for the “why.”  Unlike a theory a model does not predict based on generalizations  However, there is huge confusion about them
  5. 5. What is a hypothesis?  A hypothesis derives from a theory  It is an idea of about a single phenomenon  A valuable hypothesis can be tested  Theory help generate hypotheses - EX: give a couple of hypotheses from the theory of “individual differences in working memory” +Hypo 1: +Hypo 2: * caution: do not use them interchangeably
  6. 6. What is a construct?+  They are features /characteristics of theories  They are built-in definable identifying quality of theories  Theories rest on constructs + Give a construct from the “germ theory,” “theory of relativity,” “working memory,” or “Second Language Acquisition.”
  7. 7. Second Language Acquisition  What is it?  Central query that encompasses issues in SLA: Who learns how much of what language under what conditions? * Answers to the above will capture the essence of SLA - Who learns? - How much of what language? - Under what conditions?
  8. 8. Central issues in SLA  “who” - characteristics of individual learner (differences)  “How much” & “what” - 1. what is learnt: what language skills/how success is gauged - 2. what type of language, i.e., dialect.  “Under what conditions” - Influence of learning situation/context
  9. 9. An overview of SLA Theories  Two major classes of theories (tentative) - Mainstream SLA theories - Sociocultural theories (Vygotskyan school)
  10. 10. Mainstream SLA  A wide range of theories to SLA  Behaviorism (Skinner)  Mentalist theory (Chomsky)  Current theories: intervening in between, i.e., - Universal Grammar; Autonomous induction theory; Associative Cognitive CREED Framework; Skill Acquisition theory; input processing theory; processibility Theory; concept-Oriented approach and Interaction Framework
  11. 11. BEHAVIORISM  Originate from behavioral psychology  Heavily hinges on Pavlov’s experiment with dogs - meat powder (stimulus)= salivate (response) - then a tone is added as stimulus is presented - tone alone = dog salivate  Operant / behavioral conditioning
  12. 12. BEHAVIORISM (CONT’D)  An organism may be conditioned to behave in a certain way even when the stimulus is not there  Central to behaviorism is that ASSOCIATION OF EVENTS helps explain behaviors  SRR (Stimulus, Response, & Reinforcement)  Human much like animal behavior is regarded as a set of responses to external stimuli
  13. 13. BEHAVIORISM (Cont’d)  Learning consists in acquiring new behaviors/habits – no mental processing  Learning a language is habit formation: active participation of Lners  Feedback (positive reinforcement or correction) is central to the theory  Implications for L2 and classroom practice
  14. 14. Mentalism (Noam Chomsky)  Casts doubt on behaviorist theory: learning cannot solely be habit formation  Human beings are pre-wired to learn languages - Language Acquisition Device (LAD)  Language is not only surface patterns & habits  Language also consists of deep structure  There is an innate knowledge of grammar - Rules underlying individual lang. competence are abstract
  15. 15. DOMINANT SLA THEORIES 1950s -1990s Behaviorism Structural linguistics The monitor Theory (Stephen Krashen)
  16. 16. BEHAVIORISM & STRUCTRUAL LINGUISTICS  Recall: behaviorist’s view on learning:  Acquisition of a set of behaviors/habits * modeled and highly controlled behaviors * under operant conditioning  Structural Linguistics that knew its hay days at the same time posited similar view on learning - lng consists acquisition of a set of discrete and finite patterns
  17. 17. BEHAVIORISM & STRUCTURAL LINGUISTICS (Cont’d)  Together Behav. And Struc. L. provided major approaches to language education  Structural approach which has several methods under its umbrella (e.g., grammar translation, audiolingual) * items are presented in chunks * patterns are regarded as finite * highly structured exercises * high control from teacher
  18. 18. THE MONITOR THEORY (S. Krashen)  Forerunner of theories developed to address SLA  Broad in scope  Supposedly suggests language specific models of learning  It has strong connections with Chomskian views on Lg and Lng - children are biologically endowed with language - this innate knowledge just needs to be triggered by appropriate data in the input
  19. 19. THE MONITOR THEORY (Cont’d)  Core views in the theory * comprehensible and meaningful messages * interaction of linguistic information in the messages with the innate language acquisition faculty (ILAF)  It proved to be very popular among teachers and learners  The MT rests on five (5) HYPOTHESES  Hypotheses which consist of a number of constructs
  20. 20. CORE HYPOTHESES OF THE MT  The Acquisition –Learning Hypothesis  The monitor Hypothesis  The natural Order Hypothesis  The input Hypothesis  The Affective Filter Hypothesis
  21. 21. THE ACQUISITION-LEARNING HYPOTHESIS  ACQUISITION OCCURS NATURALLY  LEARNING RESULTS FROM CONSCIOUS, DELIBERATE AND EFFORTFUL PROCESS  ACQUISITION & LEARNING ARE TWO SEPARATE KNOWLEDGE BASES  ONLY ACQUISITION IS USED IN SPONTANEOUS & MEANINGFUL INTERACTIONS  IT SEEMS VERY INTICING OM MANY COUNTS, i.e., * spontaneous & accurate use, yet rule may not be known * Rules learned but may not be used in spontaneous conversations
  22. 22. THE MONITOR HYPOTHESIS Status bearing of Learned Lg  Limited role in real spontaneous and meaningful interactions  May play an editing role when accuracy is sought  Unimportant in overall language use  Learned language is negligible  Implications for L2 classes!
  23. 23. THE NATURAL ORDER HYPOTHESIS  Some specific forms follow a natural route - some morphemes: ing; ed; s - grammatical structures: questions, negation, relative clauses  There seems a predictable order of acquisition  Instruction does not alter the order  At the right time and order the ILAF will trigger acquisition Innate Lg Acquisition Faculty
  24. 24. THE INPUT HYPOTHESIS  Only Comprehensible input will result in acquisition  It must be slightly above the learner’s current level (i+1)  Input which is i+1 is central data to SLA  Meaning rather than form should be emphasized  Copious and rich input in a tandem with ILAF leads to acquisition
  25. 25. THE AFFECTIVE FILTER HYPOTHESIS (STOP 21.06.2013)  Rich and comfortable environment forwards acquisition: * low affective filter allows for optimal processing of input * higher affective is an impediment to input processing  Acquisition-rich environments are those that are not stressful
  26. 26. OBSERVATIONS EXPLAINED OR NEED EXPLAINING BY SLA THEORIES (cf. VanPatten, 2008)  1. Exposure to input is necessary for SLA to happen  2. A good deal of SLA happens incidentally  3. learners come to know more than what they have been  - exposed to in the input 4. Learners output (speech) often follows predictable paths with predictable stages in the acquisition of a given, i.e., structure Stage 1: no + phrase: no want that Stage 2: subject + no + phrase: he no want that Stage 3: don’t, can’t, not may alternate with no: he don’t no want that Stage 4: negation is attached to modal verbs: she can’t do that Stage 5: negation is attached to auxiliaries: he doesn’t want that
  27. 27. OBSERVATIONS EXPLAINED OR NEED EXPLAINING BY SLA THEORIES (cf. VanPatten, 2008)  5. SLLearning is variable in its outcome  6. SLLearning is variable across linguistic subsystems  7. There are limits on the effects of frequency on SLA  8. there are limits on the effects of L1 on SLA  9. There are limits on the effect of instruction on SLA  10. There are limits on the effects of output (learner’s production) on language acquisition
  28. 28. THE 10 OBSERVATION COMBINED INTO 5 MAJOR AREAS (Ortega, 2008)  Any SLA theory seems to be concerned with these 5  areas: The nature of SL knowledge The nature of interlanguage development The contribution of knowledge of a first language The linguistic environment The role of instruction SLA theories, current ones included often have a different take on the above areas. However, some overlap is observed here and there.
  29. 29. OTHER OBSERVATIONS PREVALENT IN SLA  Interlanguage: the route travel by every learner toward  -   the target language L1 influence: the role of L1 in SLA Transfer: L1 buttresses L2 in a number of ways Interference : Contrastive rhetoric (Kaplan): discourse organization & thought patterns Language universals: common to all languages Languages are systems (organized and predictable in a certain way)
  30. 30. CURRENT MSLA THEORIES  Universal Grammar  Autonomous induction theory (Reading assignment,       pp. 225-250, VanPatten, 2008) Associative Cognitive CREED Framework Skill Acquisition theory input processing theory processibility Theory concept-Oriented approach, and Interaction Framework
  31. 31. UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR (UG)  What is it?  Its nature and content coincide with the realm of linguistic theory  It stems from generative linguistic  It is dynamic theory: proposal alter over time  But its CENTRAL assumptions run across all versions * government & Binding (GB) (Chomsky, 1981), or * Minimalism (Chomsky, 1995 )
  32. 32. UG (cont’d)  It is concerned with the logical problem of language acquisition(the poverty of stimulus)  L1 acquirer production and comprehension cannot be explained solely by input effect  L1 and L2 learners understand or say things they have never exposed to
  33. 33. UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR (Cont’d)  There is unconscious knowledge Lners derived from UG * native speaker grammars * interlanguage grammars  For L2 learners get stronger influence from L1 grammar (e.g., Bley-Vroman, 1989; Schachter, 1990)  The debate is ongoing: the distance between L1 & L2 may be brought to bear
  34. 34. UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR (Cont’d)  UG rests on PRINCIPLES & PARAMETERS  Principles: * guide form of grammar and rules operation * Lners do not have to learn them * they are built in UG  Parameters: * they are language specific linguistic characteristic encoded in UG * data in a given system will trigger particular parametric choice available in UG * learning a new language is about resetting parameters
  35. 35. S0CI0CULTURAL THEORIES  Originates from Lev Vygotsky’s works; a Russian (1896-1934)  From the school of cognitive psychology  Cognitive psychology, a term coined by Ulric Neisser  CP is about understanding mental processes  CP here is concerned with mental process allowing for learning
  36. 36. SCT (Cont’d): VYGOTSKY  Vygotsky became prominent in the 1930  Some of his theories are regarded as unfinished  His theories are often referred to a Social Development Theory  His theories emphasize the role of social interaction in the development of cognition  “Making meaning,” central to the process of learning is social
  37. 37. SCT (CONT’D): VYGOTSKY  Learning comes before development (vs. J. Piaget)  Cultural and psychological function in human societies are dependent on learning  Cultural and historical contexts within which people are situated help understand their development  Higher mental function originate from social processes
  38. 38. SCT (CONT’D)  MENTAL FUNCTIONS (ATTENTION, SENSATION, PERCEPTION, AND MEMORY) ARE SOCIAL  THROUGH SOCIAL INTERACTION THE ABOVE DEVELOP INTO HIGHER FUNCTION  COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IS DEPENDENT ON CULTURE  LANGUAGE, A CULTURAL ARTIFACT, IS A SEMIOTIC TOOL  LANGUAGE PLAYS A CENTRAL ROLE IN COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  39. 39. CENTRAL CONSTRUCTS  MEDIATION - USE OF INTERFACE  REGULATION - HAVING CONTROL  SYMBOLIC ARTIFACTS (e.g., LG) - SOCIAL TOOLS WITH SPECIFIC ROLES
  40. 40. CENTRAL CONSTRUCTS OF SCT (CONT’ED)  INTERNALIZATION - LEARNING OCCURS AT TWO LEVELS + AT THE INTERPSYCHOLOGICAL LEVEL + AT THE INTRAPSYCHOLOGICAL LEVEL  IMITATION (LUDIC PLAYS) - A RECAST OF SOCIAL DRAMA
  41. 41. SCT:TENETS OF VYGOTSKYAN THEORY • Central tenet of Vygotsky theory of learning - The MORE KNOWLEDGEABLE OWM (MKO) + expert + novice - The ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMEMT (ZPD)
  42. 42. ZPD  Primarily it is a metaphor for assistance in learning  The zone is located between what is known and what is aimed at  From what you know the MKO provides assistance to get what you don’t know  It is about what a learner (e.g., a child) can do on their own and what they need help with
  43. 43. ZPD  It is the most sensitive SPACE for guidance and instruction  The ZPD is about interaction as it lead to DEVELOPMENT  The concept of the ZPD has major implications for SLA - scaffolding - apprenticeship - reciprocal teaching

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