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Lecture 3: Marketing Plan, Strategies,
      Distribution and Channels
             Dr Bernard Leong
             CTO & Co-founder




                                MPS 812 Course Taught in:




                                                            1
What is Marketing?
• Marketing deals and social needs.&
  meeting human
                  with identifying

• Marketing isa“an organizationalfor
  function and set of processes
  creating, communicating & delivering
  value for customers & for managing
  relationships in ways that benefit the
  organizations & its stake
  holders.” (American Marketing
  Association)


                                           2
What is Marketing?
•   Marketing Management: the art &
    science of choosing target
    markets & getting, keeping &
    growing customers thru creating,
    delivering, & communicating
    superior customer value.
•   Marketing is a societal process by
    which individuals & groups obtain
    what they need and want thru
    creating, offering & freely
    exchanging products/services of
    value with others.

                                         3
What is Marketed?
•   Goods
•   Services
•   Events
•   Experiences
•   Persons
•   Places
•   Properties
•   Organizations
•   Information
•   Ideas
                                4
Marketers & Prospects




• A marketer: purchase, vote, donation) from
  (attention, a
                Someone seeking a response

  another party call the prospect.

                                               5
8 Demand States
•   Negative Demand: Consumers
    dislike the product & may pay a
    price to avoid it.
•   Non-existent Demand:
    Consumers are unaware or
    uninterested in the product.
•   Latent Demand: Consumers
    share a strong need that cannot
    be satisfied by an existing
    product.
•   Declining Demand: Consumers
    begin to buy the product less
    frequently.
                                      6
8 Demand States
•   Irregular Demand: Consumer
    purchases vary on a seasonal,
    monthly, weekly, daily or even hourly
    basis.
•   Full Demand: Consumers are
    adequately buying all products put in
    the market place.
•   Overfull Demand: More consumers
    would like to buy the product that
    can be satisfied.
•   Unwholesome demand: Consumers
    may be attracted to products that
    have undesirable social consequences.

                                            7
Resources                                                  Resources
                                   Resource
              Money                Markets                   Money



                               Taxes,        Services,
                               Goods          Money

                  Services,
                   Money                                 Taxes
Manufacture                     Government                            Consumer
 Markets                         Markets                               Markets
                   Taxes,                                Services
                   Goods

                              Services,     Taxes,
                               Money        Goods

              Money                                           Money
                                Intermediary
        Goods & Services                                  Goods & Services
                                   Markets
                  Structure of Flows in a Modern Exchange Economy
                                                                                 8
Marketers use the term market to cover various
           groupings of customers.




                                                 9
Types of Markets
• Consumer Markets
• Business Markets
• Global Markets
• Non-Profit & Governmental
  Markets




                              10
Marketing Practices
• Marketing steps: process
  involves 5
              planning

  • Analyzing marketing
    opportunities
  • Selecting target markets
  • Designing marketing
    strategies
  • Developing market
    programs.
  • Managing the marketing
    effort - Execution
                               11
Integrated Marketing Approach: 4 Ps of Marketing




                                                   12
Product




          13
Positioning of Product




                         14
Price
                   Quality of Product
                   High         Low
         High


                 Superior       Brand
                  Quality
    Price




                 Value for
Low




                             Economical
                  Money


                Pricing Strategy Matrix
                                          15
How to Set the Price
•   Selecting the Price Objective - Position
    of market offering due to survival,
                                                     High Price
    maximum current profit, maximum            (No possible demand
    market share or maximum market-               at this price)
    skimming pricing.
•   Determining Demand - Price Sensitivity
    - methods include surveys, price
                                                    Costing Price
                                                 Customers assement of
    experiments and statistical analysis.        unique product features

•   Estimating Costs - Charging a price
    based on cost of producing, distributing
                                                     Orienting Point
                                               Competitors’ prices & prices
                                                    of substitutes
    and selling of a product.                             Costs

•   Analyzing competitors’ costs, prices &
    offers
                                                     Floor Price


•   Selecting a price method: for e.g.
    markup pricing, target return pricing,
                                                    Low Price
                                                (No possible profit
    value pricing.                                at this price)


                                                                              16
Promotion: Common Platforms
                           Sales              Events/           Public Relations       Personal               Direct
 Advertising            Promotion           Experiences           & Publicity           Selling              Marketing




Print & Broadcast
         Ads,           Contests, games,
Packaging-outers,         sweepstakes,
 Packaging inserts,         lotteries,                              Press Kits,
 Motion Pictures,       Premium & gifts,                            Speeches,
   Brochures &               Samples,                               Seminars,
      Booklets        Fairs & trade shows,       Sports,         Annual Reports,                                Catalogs,
Posters & leaflets,          Exhibits,       Entertainment,         Charitable     Sales presentations,         Mailings,
    Directories         Demonstrations,         Festivals,          Donations,       Sales meetings,         Tele-marketing,
  Reprint of Ads,           Coupons,              Arts,           Sponsorships,    Incentive programs,    Electronic Shopping,
     Billboards,             Rebates            Courses,           Publications,         Samples,             TV shopping,
   Display Signs,         Low-interest       Factory Tours,        Community         Fairs and Trade             Fax-mail
Point of purchase           financing,     Company Museums,         Relations,            Shows                   Email
      displays,          Entertainment,     Street Activities       Lobbying,                                  Voice mail
    Audiovisual       Trade-in allowances,                        Identity Media
     materials,            Continuity                           Company Magazine
Symbols and logos           Programs,                            or newsletters
  Videotapes, CD,             Tie-ins
       DVDs




                                                                                                                                 17
Place
                                 Customer
• Distribution Channel
• Integration based on Merger
  & Acquisition:
                                  Retailer/
 • Manufacturer acquires
    Wholesaler (Forward
                                   Dealer
    Integration)
 • Wholesaler acquires
   Manufacturer (Backward
                                Wholesaler/
                                Distributor
    Integration)
 • Retailer buys over another
   Retailer (Parallel           Manufacturer/
    Integration)                Sole Importer

                                                18
Packaging

• Physical Presentation
• Value Added Qualities
• Bundled Package
  (Product with
  Service)
• One Stop Services

                            19
SWOT Analysis

• Strength, Weaknesses,
  Opportunities and
  Threats (SWOT)
• Involves monitoring
  the external and
  internal marketing
  environment.



                          20
Strength/Weaknesses
                         Features to measure performance or
  Functionality                      importance


                     Company reputation, Market Share, Customer Satisfaction,
                      Customer Retention, Product or Service Quality, Pricing
 Marketing               Effectiveness, Distribution Effectiveness, Promotion
                  Effectiveness, Sales Force Effectiveness, Innovation Effectiveness,
                                        Geographical Coverage.




   Finance          Cost & Availability of Capital, Cash Flow, Financial Stability.




                    Facilities, Economics of Scale, Capacity, Able & Dedicated
Manufacturing     Workforce, Ability to produce on time, Technical manufacturing
                                               skill.




                       Visionary & capable leadership, Dedicated Employees,
Organization           Entrepreneurial Orientation, Flexible or Responsive.



                                                                                        21
Opportunity/Threat
•   A marketing opportunity is an area
    of buyer need & interest in which
    there is a high probability that a
    company can profitably satisfy that
    need.
•   Three main sources of market
    opportunities:
    •   Supply something that is in
        demand.
    •   Supplying product or service in a
        new or superior way.
    •   Totally new product that bring
        about a new consumer behavior
        or impact.

                                            22
Opportunities
•   A company may benefit from converging
    industry trends & introduce hybrid
    products or services that are new to the
    market.
•   A company may make a buying process
    more convenient or efficient.
•   A company can meet the need for more
    information or advice.
•   A company can customize a product or
    service that was formerly offered in a
    standard form.
•   A company can introduce a new capability.
•   A company may be able to deliver a
    product or service faster.
•   A company may be able to offer a product
    at a much lower price.
                                                23
Questions for Market Opportunity Analysis

• Can the benefits involved ina the opportunity be
  articulated convincingly to defined target market?
• Can the targetmedia & trade located & reached with
  cost effective
                 market(s) be
                              channels?
• Does the company&process or have accessdeliver
  critical capabilities resources needed to
                                            to the

  customer benefits?
• Can the company deliver the benefits better than any
  actual or potential competitors?
• Will the financial ratefor investment? or exceed the
  company’s threshold
                          of return meet


                                                         24
Success Probability
                   High         Low           Example
                                         1. Company develops
                                            more powerful
 Attractiveness
           Low


                    1             2         lighting system.
                                         2. Company develops
                                            device to measure
                                            energy efficiency.
                                         3. Company develops
High




                    3             4         device to measure
                                            illumination level.
                                         4. Company develops
                                            software program to
                                            teach lighting
                  Opportunity Matrix        fundamentals to TV
                                            studio personnel.




                                                                  25
Probability of Occurrence
                   High         Low             Example
                                            1. Competitor
          Low

                                               develops superior
  Seriousness



                    1             2
                                               lighting system.
                                            2. Major prolonged
                                               economic
                                               depression.
High




                    3             4
                                            3. Higher Costs.
                                            4. Legislation to
                                               reduce number of
                    Threat Matrix              TV licenses.




                                                                 26
Marketing Channels
• Marketing Channels are sets
  of interdependent
  organizations involved in the
  process of marketing a
  product or service available
  for consumption and use.
• Set of pathways which
  follows after production,
  culminating in purchase &
  use by the final user.

                                  27
Push/Pull Strategy
• A push strategy involves the manufacturer using
  its sales force & trade promotion money to
  induce intermediaries to carry, promote & sell the
  product to the end-user.
• A pull strategyinduce consumers to ask using
  advertising to
                  involves the manufacturer

  intermediaries for the product and is appropriate
  when there is high brand loyalty & involvement in
  the category when people perceive differences
  between brands.

                                                       28
29
What is branding?
• A brand is the symbolic embodiment of all information encoded
  with a product or service.

• Branding is the processwithwhich of company, product or image
  becomes synonymous
                          by       a
                             a set values, aspirations or states.




                                                                    30
Brands in the World




                      31
Key Elements in Brands


Experiential                             Visual




Functional           Brand              Cultural




 Emotional                              Rational




                                                   32
Principles of Influence for Marketing/Sales

• Aristotle (Rhetoric)
  • Logos (Logic)
  • Pathos (Emotion)
  • Ethos (Ethics)
• R. Cialdini - 6 Rules of
  Influence
  • Reciprocation, Commitment
    & Consistency, Authority,
    Social Proof, Liking & Scarcity

                                                33
Reciprocation
• People generally feel obliged to return favours
  to them.




                                                    34
Commitment & Consistency
• People have a general desire to appear consistent in
  their behavior.

• Strongthem. to commitments by providing reasons to
  justify
          desire




                                                         35
Social Proof
• People generally look to decisions. similar
  to themselves in making
                           other people




                                                36
Liking
• People are more likely agree to brands which
  they like:
 • Physical Attractiveness
 • Common goals




                                                 37
Authority
• People act in anparticularly to leading brands.
  from authority,
                   automated fashion to commands




                                                    38
Scarcity
• People tend to want brands as they become
  less available.




                                              39
Inventory Storage & Distribution Costs Insignificant
User Driven Innovation
Opportunities for Niches Markets

Signal to Noise is higher
Niche getting to the Mainstream is tough
Platforms are “Walled Gardens”




                                                       40
What is social media?




                        41
Why Startups need Social Media

• Getting the attention of the
  mainstream media.
• Budget afford big marketing
  able to
          constraints and not

  budgets.
• Advertising and Marketing
  purposes.
• Crisis management given no
  PR channels


                                 42
Crisis Management - Kryptonite




                                 43
44
Mainstream Media                       Social Media

  Principle behind            80-20 Rule                           Long Tail
Channel Distribution

       Users                  Consumers                          Prosumers

                       Cable TV, Radio, Printed Media - YouTube, Blogs, Social Networks
 Channel Examples                Newspaper               (Facebook, Ning), Flickr, Twitter
                                                              UStream, Qik, Wikis


                                                          Bottom Up (Niche)
     Approach              Top to Bottom                       to Top

Feedback/Engagement            Very little                           A lot

                                                                                             45
Social Media Tools
•   Blogs - Blogger/Wordpress/Tumblr/
    Posterous
•   Rich Media Sharing - Flickr,YouTube,
    Vimeo, PhotoBucket, Picasa, Phlook,
    Todou.
•   Social Networks - Facebook,
    Linkedin, Ning, CyWorld
•   MicroBlogging - Twitter, Plurk,
    Yammer
•   Aggregators - Digg, StumbleUpon
•   Online Forums - HardwareZone
    (HWZ), Comsenz
•   Mobile: FourSquare, Gowalla
                                           46
Social Technographics Ladder


                           47
Case Study 1: Corporate Blog Page for Start-Ups



                               Singapore based
                                 Case Study:
                               blog.zopim.com
                            To engage users and
                             let them know the
                            latest features of the
                               web application.




                                                     48
Case Study 2: Facebook Pages for Non-Profit Organizations




                                                        49
How to measure ROI for marketing for Facebook
                              Source: Ogilvy 360 “Facebook For Businesses”

                                                                         50
Case Study 3: Twitter for Start-Ups
•   Start by identifying your start-ups or
    communications objective using
    Twitter:
    •   Customer Service - e.g
        @starhubcares
    •   Product Promotion & Sales - e.g.
        @vodafonenews_au
    •   Crisis Management - e.g.
        @flusingapore
    •   Events activation
    •   Issue Advocacy
    •   Corporate Reputation Management
                                             51
Source: Ogilvy 360 “Twitter For Businesses”
                                              52
Twitter to track major events: Singapore Idol 2009




                                                     53

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Entrepreneur 3: Marketing Plan, Strategies, Distribution and Channels

  • 1. Lecture 3: Marketing Plan, Strategies, Distribution and Channels Dr Bernard Leong CTO & Co-founder MPS 812 Course Taught in: 1
  • 2. What is Marketing? • Marketing deals and social needs.& meeting human with identifying • Marketing isa“an organizationalfor function and set of processes creating, communicating & delivering value for customers & for managing relationships in ways that benefit the organizations & its stake holders.” (American Marketing Association) 2
  • 3. What is Marketing? • Marketing Management: the art & science of choosing target markets & getting, keeping & growing customers thru creating, delivering, & communicating superior customer value. • Marketing is a societal process by which individuals & groups obtain what they need and want thru creating, offering & freely exchanging products/services of value with others. 3
  • 4. What is Marketed? • Goods • Services • Events • Experiences • Persons • Places • Properties • Organizations • Information • Ideas 4
  • 5. Marketers & Prospects • A marketer: purchase, vote, donation) from (attention, a Someone seeking a response another party call the prospect. 5
  • 6. 8 Demand States • Negative Demand: Consumers dislike the product & may pay a price to avoid it. • Non-existent Demand: Consumers are unaware or uninterested in the product. • Latent Demand: Consumers share a strong need that cannot be satisfied by an existing product. • Declining Demand: Consumers begin to buy the product less frequently. 6
  • 7. 8 Demand States • Irregular Demand: Consumer purchases vary on a seasonal, monthly, weekly, daily or even hourly basis. • Full Demand: Consumers are adequately buying all products put in the market place. • Overfull Demand: More consumers would like to buy the product that can be satisfied. • Unwholesome demand: Consumers may be attracted to products that have undesirable social consequences. 7
  • 8. Resources Resources Resource Money Markets Money Taxes, Services, Goods Money Services, Money Taxes Manufacture Government Consumer Markets Markets Markets Taxes, Services Goods Services, Taxes, Money Goods Money Money Intermediary Goods & Services Goods & Services Markets Structure of Flows in a Modern Exchange Economy 8
  • 9. Marketers use the term market to cover various groupings of customers. 9
  • 10. Types of Markets • Consumer Markets • Business Markets • Global Markets • Non-Profit & Governmental Markets 10
  • 11. Marketing Practices • Marketing steps: process involves 5 planning • Analyzing marketing opportunities • Selecting target markets • Designing marketing strategies • Developing market programs. • Managing the marketing effort - Execution 11
  • 12. Integrated Marketing Approach: 4 Ps of Marketing 12
  • 13. Product 13
  • 15. Price Quality of Product High Low High Superior Brand Quality Price Value for Low Economical Money Pricing Strategy Matrix 15
  • 16. How to Set the Price • Selecting the Price Objective - Position of market offering due to survival, High Price maximum current profit, maximum (No possible demand market share or maximum market- at this price) skimming pricing. • Determining Demand - Price Sensitivity - methods include surveys, price Costing Price Customers assement of experiments and statistical analysis. unique product features • Estimating Costs - Charging a price based on cost of producing, distributing Orienting Point Competitors’ prices & prices of substitutes and selling of a product. Costs • Analyzing competitors’ costs, prices & offers Floor Price • Selecting a price method: for e.g. markup pricing, target return pricing, Low Price (No possible profit value pricing. at this price) 16
  • 17. Promotion: Common Platforms Sales Events/ Public Relations Personal Direct Advertising Promotion Experiences & Publicity Selling Marketing Print & Broadcast Ads, Contests, games, Packaging-outers, sweepstakes, Packaging inserts, lotteries, Press Kits, Motion Pictures, Premium & gifts, Speeches, Brochures & Samples, Seminars, Booklets Fairs & trade shows, Sports, Annual Reports, Catalogs, Posters & leaflets, Exhibits, Entertainment, Charitable Sales presentations, Mailings, Directories Demonstrations, Festivals, Donations, Sales meetings, Tele-marketing, Reprint of Ads, Coupons, Arts, Sponsorships, Incentive programs, Electronic Shopping, Billboards, Rebates Courses, Publications, Samples, TV shopping, Display Signs, Low-interest Factory Tours, Community Fairs and Trade Fax-mail Point of purchase financing, Company Museums, Relations, Shows Email displays, Entertainment, Street Activities Lobbying, Voice mail Audiovisual Trade-in allowances, Identity Media materials, Continuity Company Magazine Symbols and logos Programs, or newsletters Videotapes, CD, Tie-ins DVDs 17
  • 18. Place Customer • Distribution Channel • Integration based on Merger & Acquisition: Retailer/ • Manufacturer acquires Wholesaler (Forward Dealer Integration) • Wholesaler acquires Manufacturer (Backward Wholesaler/ Distributor Integration) • Retailer buys over another Retailer (Parallel Manufacturer/ Integration) Sole Importer 18
  • 19. Packaging • Physical Presentation • Value Added Qualities • Bundled Package (Product with Service) • One Stop Services 19
  • 20. SWOT Analysis • Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) • Involves monitoring the external and internal marketing environment. 20
  • 21. Strength/Weaknesses Features to measure performance or Functionality importance Company reputation, Market Share, Customer Satisfaction, Customer Retention, Product or Service Quality, Pricing Marketing Effectiveness, Distribution Effectiveness, Promotion Effectiveness, Sales Force Effectiveness, Innovation Effectiveness, Geographical Coverage. Finance Cost & Availability of Capital, Cash Flow, Financial Stability. Facilities, Economics of Scale, Capacity, Able & Dedicated Manufacturing Workforce, Ability to produce on time, Technical manufacturing skill. Visionary & capable leadership, Dedicated Employees, Organization Entrepreneurial Orientation, Flexible or Responsive. 21
  • 22. Opportunity/Threat • A marketing opportunity is an area of buyer need & interest in which there is a high probability that a company can profitably satisfy that need. • Three main sources of market opportunities: • Supply something that is in demand. • Supplying product or service in a new or superior way. • Totally new product that bring about a new consumer behavior or impact. 22
  • 23. Opportunities • A company may benefit from converging industry trends & introduce hybrid products or services that are new to the market. • A company may make a buying process more convenient or efficient. • A company can meet the need for more information or advice. • A company can customize a product or service that was formerly offered in a standard form. • A company can introduce a new capability. • A company may be able to deliver a product or service faster. • A company may be able to offer a product at a much lower price. 23
  • 24. Questions for Market Opportunity Analysis • Can the benefits involved ina the opportunity be articulated convincingly to defined target market? • Can the targetmedia & trade located & reached with cost effective market(s) be channels? • Does the company&process or have accessdeliver critical capabilities resources needed to to the customer benefits? • Can the company deliver the benefits better than any actual or potential competitors? • Will the financial ratefor investment? or exceed the company’s threshold of return meet 24
  • 25. Success Probability High Low Example 1. Company develops more powerful Attractiveness Low 1 2 lighting system. 2. Company develops device to measure energy efficiency. 3. Company develops High 3 4 device to measure illumination level. 4. Company develops software program to teach lighting Opportunity Matrix fundamentals to TV studio personnel. 25
  • 26. Probability of Occurrence High Low Example 1. Competitor Low develops superior Seriousness 1 2 lighting system. 2. Major prolonged economic depression. High 3 4 3. Higher Costs. 4. Legislation to reduce number of Threat Matrix TV licenses. 26
  • 27. Marketing Channels • Marketing Channels are sets of interdependent organizations involved in the process of marketing a product or service available for consumption and use. • Set of pathways which follows after production, culminating in purchase & use by the final user. 27
  • 28. Push/Pull Strategy • A push strategy involves the manufacturer using its sales force & trade promotion money to induce intermediaries to carry, promote & sell the product to the end-user. • A pull strategyinduce consumers to ask using advertising to involves the manufacturer intermediaries for the product and is appropriate when there is high brand loyalty & involvement in the category when people perceive differences between brands. 28
  • 29. 29
  • 30. What is branding? • A brand is the symbolic embodiment of all information encoded with a product or service. • Branding is the processwithwhich of company, product or image becomes synonymous by a a set values, aspirations or states. 30
  • 31. Brands in the World 31
  • 32. Key Elements in Brands Experiential Visual Functional Brand Cultural Emotional Rational 32
  • 33. Principles of Influence for Marketing/Sales • Aristotle (Rhetoric) • Logos (Logic) • Pathos (Emotion) • Ethos (Ethics) • R. Cialdini - 6 Rules of Influence • Reciprocation, Commitment & Consistency, Authority, Social Proof, Liking & Scarcity 33
  • 34. Reciprocation • People generally feel obliged to return favours to them. 34
  • 35. Commitment & Consistency • People have a general desire to appear consistent in their behavior. • Strongthem. to commitments by providing reasons to justify desire 35
  • 36. Social Proof • People generally look to decisions. similar to themselves in making other people 36
  • 37. Liking • People are more likely agree to brands which they like: • Physical Attractiveness • Common goals 37
  • 38. Authority • People act in anparticularly to leading brands. from authority, automated fashion to commands 38
  • 39. Scarcity • People tend to want brands as they become less available. 39
  • 40. Inventory Storage & Distribution Costs Insignificant User Driven Innovation Opportunities for Niches Markets Signal to Noise is higher Niche getting to the Mainstream is tough Platforms are “Walled Gardens” 40
  • 41. What is social media? 41
  • 42. Why Startups need Social Media • Getting the attention of the mainstream media. • Budget afford big marketing able to constraints and not budgets. • Advertising and Marketing purposes. • Crisis management given no PR channels 42
  • 43. Crisis Management - Kryptonite 43
  • 44. 44
  • 45. Mainstream Media Social Media Principle behind 80-20 Rule Long Tail Channel Distribution Users Consumers Prosumers Cable TV, Radio, Printed Media - YouTube, Blogs, Social Networks Channel Examples Newspaper (Facebook, Ning), Flickr, Twitter UStream, Qik, Wikis Bottom Up (Niche) Approach Top to Bottom to Top Feedback/Engagement Very little A lot 45
  • 46. Social Media Tools • Blogs - Blogger/Wordpress/Tumblr/ Posterous • Rich Media Sharing - Flickr,YouTube, Vimeo, PhotoBucket, Picasa, Phlook, Todou. • Social Networks - Facebook, Linkedin, Ning, CyWorld • MicroBlogging - Twitter, Plurk, Yammer • Aggregators - Digg, StumbleUpon • Online Forums - HardwareZone (HWZ), Comsenz • Mobile: FourSquare, Gowalla 46
  • 48. Case Study 1: Corporate Blog Page for Start-Ups Singapore based Case Study: blog.zopim.com To engage users and let them know the latest features of the web application. 48
  • 49. Case Study 2: Facebook Pages for Non-Profit Organizations 49
  • 50. How to measure ROI for marketing for Facebook Source: Ogilvy 360 “Facebook For Businesses” 50
  • 51. Case Study 3: Twitter for Start-Ups • Start by identifying your start-ups or communications objective using Twitter: • Customer Service - e.g @starhubcares • Product Promotion & Sales - e.g. @vodafonenews_au • Crisis Management - e.g. @flusingapore • Events activation • Issue Advocacy • Corporate Reputation Management 51
  • 52. Source: Ogilvy 360 “Twitter For Businesses” 52
  • 53. Twitter to track major events: Singapore Idol 2009 53