E-waste: DefinitionAre those electronic equipments/ productsthat connect with power plug, batteries whichhave become obsolete due to : - advancement in technology - changes in fashion, style and status - nearing the end of their useful life
Classification: types of e-waste• Mobile Phones • Washing Machine• Computers • Cartridges• Servers • Military electronic• Telecom • Mother board• TV • Alarm• Calculators • Sirens• Audio • Automobile Catalytic• Scanners Converter• Printers • Sensor• Air Conditioner • CD• Microwave • Security Device
Hazardous wasteChemicals Present in which part of electronic devicesLead Cathode ray tubes and solderArsenic Older cathode ray tubesAntimony trioxide Flame retardantsMercury SwitchesSelenium Circuit boardsCadmium Circuit boardsChromium Steel as corrosion protectionCobalt Steel for structure and magnetivity
Quick Facts• 1200 tons of scrap / yr , Only 11% of e-waste get recycled• Indias hospitals to see patients with 10 times the expected level of lead in their blood• In India, a water sample revealed levels of lead 190 times as high as the drinking water standard set by the World Health Organization.
• Old computers and, mobiles are being dumped in Asia where they are releasing toxic materials into the environment.• A pile of 500 computers contains 717kg of lead, 1.36kg of cadmium, 863 grams of chromium and 287 grams of mercury – all poisonous metals.• CRT tubes contain avg of 4 pounds of lead• Thousands of children throughout the India are attending schools that were built on or near toxic waste sites, with increased risk of developing asthma, cancer, learning disorders and other diseases linked to environmental pollutants.
Scenario• Batteries have toxic constituents such as cadmium and brominated flame-retardants and are replaced at least once before retiring the phones.• Indian mobile phone users are expected to rise to over 120 million by 2008, making telecom sector one of the most lucrative markets.• In the United States alone, experts estimate that 130 million cell phones will be discarded by the year 2005, resulting in 65,000 tonnes of cell phone waste -- most probably headed towards Indian shores to be dumped here.
The Indian picture• India, one of the fastest growing mobile telephone markets in the world• Boasted over 14.17 million mobile phone subscribers in May 2003• About 102.8 per cent more than the previous year.
• Mobile phone users are expected to rise to over 120 million by 2008• The advent of ‘use and throw’ , ‘low value-low life’ CHINA MOBILES has caused havoc in e- waste.
Composition of chemicals• The composition of toxic chemicals in an average computer of 31.5 kg
Why exported to India ???• Cheap labour US - $ 30/ computer India - $ 2/ computer Saving - $ 28/ computer• Weak environmental laws• Excess dumping of CRT tubes due to the ramp walk of flat screen monitors• Driven by the potential for corporate profits
Indian Scenario• Delhi, Bangalore, Hyderabad-largest contributors• Informal recylers (cheap labour)• Technology rudimentary• 7 million ppl in Bangalore – direct contributors of e- waste• Dioxins in the recyling place• Lead to cancer• 330000 tonnes generated in 2007• 19000 processed
Health impact• DNA : damage in lymphocytes, fetal and developmental toxicity; growth retardation; abnormal brain development, which can result in intellectual impairment; and possible long-term impacts on memory, learning and behaviour.• Nervous System: damage to the central nervous system (CNS) and blood system, including CNS depression and neurotoxicity; immune system suppression, including inhibition of a key blood cell enzyme.• Organs : damage to the brain, including swelling; liver, including liver necrosis; kidney, including renal toxicity; thyroid; pancreas; lymph nodes; spleen; and bone, including bone toxicity.• Skin : contact dermatitis; skin lesions; carcinogenic, including tumour promotion and lung cancer; anaemia; CBD (a currently-incurable, debilitating disease that can sometimes be fatal); and mortality.• Other: hypertension (high blood pressure); cardiovascular and heart disease; respiratory tract irritation, including irritation of the nose, mouth and eyes.
Future !!!• India emerging as a graveyard for the world’s e-waste• More amount of money to be spent on medical bills if proper attention and care not given importance• Less availability of space as playgrounds for children and the presence of more number of dumping grounds
Recommendations• Promote recycling units to ease process and to encourage generators to have proper e-waste disposal• Impart training to generators on e-waste handling• Awareness program on recycling
• Fix duties and responsibilities to recyclers• Tax incentives for scrap dealers• Reward and reprimand schemes for performance and non-compliance of e-waste management• To make recycling business viable one
• Government should encroach legal import of e-waste• Should subsidize recyling and disposal industry• Incentive schemes for garbage collectors, general public• Disposal fee from manufacturers and consumers