Learning Styles and Preferences
Indicators of how learners perceive, interact with
and respond to the learning environment, influenced
by nature and nurture.
They take information best with their
They love to watch someone else do
something before they try it themselves.
They love color and are typically
Visuals often maintain a neat appearance.
They will use visual language when they
talk...“I seequot;....quot;Imaginequot;...quot;Look at this.quot;
They use their ears to take in
They love to listen to others and
often like to talk a bit themselves.
They need to talk with others to
cement what they are learning and
are easily distracted by noise in the
They use language like, quot;I hear what
you're sayingquot;...quot;Listen to mequot;.
They need to move their bodies to keep
their brains fully functioning.
Most kids in a classroom are highly
kinesthetic and have a hard time sitting
and listening for long periods of time.
Use body shots and frequent state
changes to keep them alert and to
They dress with comfort in mind (loose)
and often use language like, quot;I feel
tiredquot;...quot;Can I try that?quot;
They prefer to read instructions from books
Look words up in a dictionary
They like to rewrite ideas
Appropiate readings will fully enlighten the
Some tips if you are…
• Try using colour • Try studying with a • Try moving around
notes. friend and when you are
explaining to each studying at home.
• Use different
other what you
coloured pens or • Make some jigsaw
know about each
highlighters. study cards when
topic. you have to fit
• Try different
• Record your notes, questions and
lie back in a answers together.
• Draw pictures and
comfortable spot • Try making up a
diagrams or mind
and try to listen to rhyme or a song to
maps to help
them. help you remember
explain your notes.
• Also called
« thinking style »
• It is the way that
think, process and
Field independent learners:
Are able to break up an organized visual field
and keep part of it separate.
Excel at remembering names.
Understand visual cues and are better at
Prefer learning environments that require
Enjoy discovery learning and individualized
Are unable to separate figures from
Excel at remembering faces.
Have trouble understanding visual cues, for
example, recognizing icons on a computer
Prefer well-structured learning environment
with much positive feedback.
Tolerance of ambiguity
A person who has a high tolerance of ambiguity can deal
with uncertainty fairly comfortably; they don’t mind if a
question has several possible answers.
A person who has a low tolerance of ambiguity may
become frustrated when a task presents unknown
elements or seems ambiguous or difficult; they prefer
questions to have one correct answer
Persons who can easily find alternative
solutions to a problem or can find a
variety of answers to a question are
characterized as flexible, while other
posibilities, or who tend to think in terms
of one « right » answer, would be
characterized as inflexible in this
dimension of cognitive style.
This style is concerned with the
speed with which a person makes
Impulsive individuals tend to
produce quick answers (without
thinking about them
first), whereas reflective
individuals prefer to take their
time before deciding on an answer
or making a choice.
• Movement of
• Movement of the left hand
the right hand
• Spatial abilities
• Language thought
• Writing • Fantasy
• Logic • Artistic abilities
• Mathematics • Musical
• Science abilities
Social Interaction Style
Communicative Learning Style
• Learners prefer a social
approach to learning.
• They need personal
interaction, and learn well
from discussion and
• They thrive in a
democratically run class
Authority-oriented learning style
• Learners are said to be
responsible and dependable.
• They need structure and
• They relate well to a
• They prefer the teacher as an
• They like to have clear
instructions and to know
exactly what they are doing.
• They are comfortable with a
• Isabel Mayers • Katherine Briggs
Myers-Briggs indicator, based on
Carl Jung’s work.
• People are different .
• Each individual’s psychological preferences or
ways that are typical or characteristic of that
• They are eight psychological types:
SENSING (OR CONCRETE-SEQUENTIAL )
JUDGING (OR CLOSURE-ORIENTED) TYPE
PERCEIVING (OR OPEN-ENDED) TYPE
• General self-esteem. Stable
Value that an individual places
in a mature adult
• Situational self-esteem.
Referes to one’s appraisals
of oneself incertain life
situations, such as social
interaction, work, education
, etc. Learning a foreign
• Task self-esteem relates to
particular tasks within
specific situations. One’s
self-evaluation of a
• Risk taking
• Language ego