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Learning and behavior disorders


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EDU 221, fa2014, Chapter 8, CCC, Learning and behavior disorders,

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Learning and behavior disorders

  1. 1. Learning and Behavior Disorders Chapter 8 from The Exceptional Child: Inclusion in Early Childhood Education; Allen, K. Eileen and Cowdery, Glynnis E.; 2015
  2. 2. Overview • Learning and Behavior Disorders • Are not the result of a primary disability • Are diagnosed based on diagnostic criteria • May be diagnosed by medical doctors, psychologists, neurologists, and/or psychiatrists (but not teachers!) • There is no actual medical test that can be used to make a diagnosis of these disorders • Parents or other primary caregivers are part of the diagnostic process • Knowledge of typical development and developmentally appropriate behaviors is crucial for working with children who have challenging or inappropriate behaviors.
  3. 3. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) • Diagnosis of ADHD has 3 patterns of behavior • Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type • Predominantly inattentive type • Combined type (Allen and Cowdery, 2015) • Certain behavior symptoms must manifest themselves prior to the age of 12 for a diagnosis of ADHD • ADHD may be diagnosed in conjunction with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
  4. 4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (cont.) • There is no known specific cause of ADHD • Boys are twice as likely as girls to be diagnosed with ADHD • Additional disorders that may be present in children with ADHD are learning disabilities, depression, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and behavior disorders • Current research suggests that combination of medication and behavior management provide the best treatment for children with ADHD • Parents and teachers inadvertently sabotage treatment with comments that suggest a child has not taken his medication. Such comments send the message that a child is not responsible for his behaviors.
  5. 5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (cont.) • Behavior management • Must be individualized • Should offer positive reinforcement for appropriate behaviors • Note: Look at “the starting point for teachers” on p. 179 of your text through the end of the section on behavior management. These suggestions are not only appropriate for children with ADHD, but for all children. This is key in your observations and in your considerations for creating an inclusive environment for your Key Assessment!
  6. 6. Learning Disabilities • Approximately 20% of the population may have learning disabilities • The term “learning disability” covers many disorders • See the “Learning Disabilities Defined” section on p. 180 in your text. • Note the “nondisadvataged ruling” on p. 180 in your text yet #s 4-6 under “genetic or environmental conditions” in the “Risk Indicators for Learning Disabilities” table on p. 181 in your text. • Learning disabilities are primarily related to academic performance, yet there are many early signs for younger children at risk for a later LD diagnosis
  7. 7. Learning Disabilities (cont.) • Rather than being concerned about a specific diagnosis, it is more beneficial to provide developmentally appropriate learning experiences that will maximize a child’s development. • Readiness or prerequisite skills are best provided through developmentally appropriate experiences. Teachers plan formal experiences carefully and utilize informal opportunities to support development. • The sensory-motor difficulties, both gross motor and fine motor, remind us of the interactions of all developmental domains in the holistic development of each child. “Brain Gym” was popular several years ago and speaks to many of these skills and their interaction with academic skills
  8. 8. Learning Disabilities (cont.) • Additional at risk indicators • Perseveration – repeating a behavior or words over and over • Failure to generalize; the child is not able to perform a behavior across settings • Various visual and auditory perception problems – see text for vocabulary (pp. 184 – 185 • Language delays • Social skills delays (again, think holistic development)
  9. 9. Response to Intervention (RTI) • Once again, the law and the trend is toward helping children who may exhibit a developmental delay rather than waiting for an official diagnosis prior to the child being able to receive services. • The success of RTI is dependent on the culture, knowledge, and commitment of professionals and families; note the need for high-quality instruction and support • RTI is a tier-model that is data driven and provides intensive interventions as needed. • The Pre-K RTI model is based on the K-12 RTI model and is gaining attention
  10. 10. Learning Disabilities (cont.) • Recurring themes • All children exhibit developmental problems as some time or another • Teachers must be knowledgeable of typical development and normal ranges of development • Teachers must be aware of extreme problem behaviors that persist outside of typical age ranges • A first step for caregivers and teachers is to evaluate the learning environment for meeting the needs of each child, including the child exhibiting developmental problems. • Teaching strategies, plans and activities must also be examined for developmental appropriateness. Are plans and activities being created and implemented to support the development in the identified problem area(s)? • Many reminders are in the bulleted list on p. 188 in your text.
  11. 11. Behavior Disorders • Behaviors are “extreme, chronic, and unacceptable” (Allen and Cowdery, 2015) • The term “behavior disorders” places the emphasis on the behavior, the observable part of a child’s problems. • Unfortunately, insurance often does not pay for treatment for children (or adults) with mental illness • Children with mental illness are often the least understood and most underserved of any other disability. • TACSEI (Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention) provides some excellent resources for teachers and families of young children with behavior disorders
  12. 12. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) • See criteria in Table 8-3 on p. 191 of your text • Girls with autism generally have more severe symptoms, but boys are 4x more likely to be diagnosed with autism. • “Autism Speaks” provides excellent information families and teachers. • The jury is still out as to why the prevalence of autism has increased so drastically.
  13. 13. ASD (cont.) • Note the other problems that may accompany ASD on p. 195 in your text • Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) – highly individualized • Discrete trial teaching – requires task analysis • Incidental teaching • Pivotal response training • Interventions teachers can implement on p. 197 – 198 and planning questions on Table 8-4 on p. 199. • Go back to p. 186 in your text and read the section on Autism Therapy and Insurance. Do you know whether insurance pays for behavior therapy for children with autism in NC?
  14. 14. Eating and Elimination Disorders • Pica • Food jags • Encopresis • Enuresis • Final note: Continue to meet children’s individual needs and specifically address problems that may arise through reflective, intentional teaching.