Foundations for Reading and
North Carolina Foundations Task Force. (2013). North Carolina
foundations for early learning and development. Raleigh: Author.
Foundations for Reading Goals
• LDC-8: Children develop interest in books and motivation to read
• LDC-9: Children comprehend and use information presented in books
and other print media.
• LDC-10: Children develop book knowledge and print awareness
• LDC-11: Children develop phonological awareness.
• LDC-12: Children begin to develop knowledge of the alphabet and the
• Note the progressive developmental indicators for each goal.
• Early skills begin with infants and progress sequentially through
preschool aged children.
• Some skills related to comprehension and the alphabet are
considered emerging for infants; we cannot yet measure or observe
behaviors that indicate related skills associated with those goals.
Encouraging Interest in Books
• Model reading with a various types of books
• Choose appropriate length books, stories, poems, and finger plays for
the age and interest level of the child
• Provide a variety of books (fiction and non-fiction) and print materials
for children to use in all areas of the room
• When children want to hear the same book repeatedly, accommodate
that interest. This is an indication of their interest.
• Note that some cultures have different “print conventions” than our
left to right reading and writing.
• Phonological sounds may also vary from one language to another.
Support dual language learners and their families.
• Sound play is more appropriate for phonological awareness than
explicit instruction in phonics for preschool and younger aged
Strategies for Infants and Toddlers
• Provide lap time for individual children daily. Read, play with sounds,
and mimic sounds babies make.
• Have books available daily. Choose books that can be easily
manipulated and may be cleaned as needed.
• Make books of children’s families, experiences, and familiar objects
• Place pictures, signs, posters, and print at children’s eye level.
• Model reading and care for books
Strategies for Preschoolers
• Provide both fiction and non-fiction books that reflect children’s
• Allow children to choose books for you to read
• Provide books for children to take home
• Share reading and word games ideas with parents
• Provide reading skills throughout room using a variety of delivery
methods and multiple senses
• Provide materials for retelling and acting out stories both indoors and
Strategies for Preschoolers (2)
• Provide books and stories in child’s home language
• Reflect home cultures of children
• Promote natural opportunities for phonological awareness rather
than formal instruction
• Increase letter awareness in natural occurrences rather than through
• Provide opportunities for all children to participate in reading
activities at their level
Foundations for Writing Goals
• LDC-13: Children use writing and other symbols to record information
and communicate for a variety of purposes
• LDC-14: Children use knowledge of letters in their attempts to write.
• LDC -15: Children use writing skills and conventions.
• Emerging writing skills may not look like writing as we know it, but
lines and squiggles represent those emerging skills.
• Random letters will begin to show up, but they may be upside down
or backwards. That is typical and does not indicate dysgraphia or
other learning disability at this stage.
• Provide multiple opportunities to draw and write using a variety of
methods, writing materials, and natural experiences.
• Avoid worksheets and formal instruction of letter writing!
• Some adaptive equipment may be necessary for children with fine
motor delays – larger pencils and crayons, special grips, methods for
Strategies for Infants and Toddlers - Writing
• Provide and adapt art materials for infants and toddlers
• Model using those materials everyday
• Use books, writing, and art materials outside
• Provide literacy related materials in all areas of the room and for a
variety of play activities
• Allow children to tell about their experiences through art and
dictation; teacher writes what children say.
• Make individual and class books with the children
Strategies for Preschoolers - Writing
• Provide multiple opportunities for art, drawing, and writing with a
variety of methods, materials, and experiences.
• Encourage play activities that make use of literacy related materials
• Support children in writing at their request and based on their
interest levels; avoid formal instruction in writing
• Write what children dictate about their pictures or experiences
• Help children make individual and class books
• Display children’s writing
• Provide unlined paper rather than worksheets or lined paper