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Causes of Intellectual
Disability
EDU 248 Chapter 2 from Education of Students with an Intellectual
Disability: Research a...
Causes in Relation to Time
• Prenatal – before birth
• Perinatal –at about the time of birth
• Postnatal – following a chi...
Etiology (cont.)
• Etiology (causes) of intellectual disabilities was once thought to be
biological and/or psychosocial
• ...
Parents as Partners
• The author suggests researching any intellectual disability of
particular interest
• He suggests tha...
Prenatal Causes
• Prenatal causes of ID may be genetic
• Prenatal causes of ID may have occurred during the gestational pe...
Prenatal Causes (cont.)
• Inherited disorders
• Dominant gene disorders need only be carried by one parent
• Recessive gen...
Prenatal Causes (cont.)
• Inherited disorders (cont.)
• Recessive gene disorders –
• PKU requires 2 carrier parents to pas...
Prenatal Causes (cont.)
• Multifactorial transmission – just as the names suggests, several
genes are associated as a caus...
Prenatal Causes (cont.)
• Developmental/Neural Brain Disorders
• Spina Bifida – neural tube defect believed to have multif...
Prenatal Causes (cont.)
• Developmental/Neural Brain disorders (cont.)
• Myelomeningocele spina bifida (cont. about – hydr...
Prenatal Causes (cont.)
• Maternal Infections
• Rubella – once a leading cause of sensory and intellectual disorders in ba...
Prenatal Causes (cont.)
• Maternal toxicity –
• Fetal Alcohol syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) are the most
...
Prenatal Causes (cont.)
• Maternal Toxicity (cont.)
• FAS and FAE (cont.)
• There are generally environmental factors asso...
Prenatal Causes (cont.)
• Other teratogens
• Thalidomide – a prescription drug that caused numerous developmental
disorder...
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Causes of intellectual disability chapter 2 pp. 23 43

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EDU 248, 2014sp, CCC, chapter 2, eBook

Causes of intellectual disability chapter 2 pp. 23 43

  1. 1. Causes of Intellectual Disability EDU 248 Chapter 2 from Education of Students with an Intellectual Disability: Research and Practice; Foreman, Phil; 2009
  2. 2. Causes in Relation to Time • Prenatal – before birth • Perinatal –at about the time of birth • Postnatal – following a child’s birth • Check out Table 2.1 on p. 24
  3. 3. Etiology (cont.) • Etiology (causes) of intellectual disabilities was once thought to be biological and/or psychosocial • According to our author, etiology is now considered a mix of “biomedical, social, behavioral, and educational risk factors”. • Social, behavioral, and educational risk factors are variables that may lessen or prevent secondary disabilities. • The author describes several reasons that it is beneficial to know the etiology of an intellectual or developmental disability on pp. 25-26
  4. 4. Parents as Partners • The author suggests researching any intellectual disability of particular interest • He suggests that parents of children with intellectual disabilities are likely to be well versed in their child’s disability • In planning a child’s educational journey, parents can provide a wealth of information specific to their child’s disability
  5. 5. Prenatal Causes • Prenatal causes of ID may be genetic • Prenatal causes of ID may have occurred during the gestational period • Rett syndrome and other similar problems cause some confusion – degenerative problems happen postnatally, yet it is a genetic disease. • Other examples of prenatal causes of intellectual disabilities: • Chromosomal abnormalities • Down syndrome – better educational prospects in recent years; goal of maximum personal independence in adult years with adequate literacy and numeracy skills • Turner syndrome – found in girls; fewer incidences of intellectual disabilities associated with this syndrome, but likely to have some learning difficulties
  6. 6. Prenatal Causes (cont.) • Inherited disorders • Dominant gene disorders need only be carried by one parent • Recessive gene disorders require both parents to be carriers • Geneticists can help parents determine chances of passing on an inherited disorder • Dominant gene disorders that express themselves in serious physical or intellectual disabilities generally die out; an exception – Apert syndrome • Children with Apert syndrome may have multiple physical disabilities but generally have normal intellect. • Key point! One must not assume that a child with serious physical disabilities also has intellectual disabilities.
  7. 7. Prenatal Causes (cont.) • Inherited disorders (cont.) • Recessive gene disorders – • PKU requires 2 carrier parents to pass on the recessive gene. It rarely causes intellectual disabilities in developed countries because a simple blood test for newborns identifies this disorder. A special diet can prevent intellectual disabilities from developing • Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) – a recessive gene disorder that may cause intellectual, physical, and behavioral disabilities (including self-mutilation and aggression) in boys, but is passed through girls. • Fragile X syndrome – discovered about 45 years ago, but is the most common form of inherited intellectual disabilities; educational interventions may need to focus on behaviors and communication
  8. 8. Prenatal Causes (cont.) • Multifactorial transmission – just as the names suggests, several genes are associated as a cause, perhaps in conjunction with environmental factors • “Cultural-familial” intellectual disability – generally associated with parents who have a mild disability have children with mild intellectual disabilities; also likely to have poor education, live in poverty, and/or have difficulties parenting; early intervention strategies would include help related to the environmental factors • See “Kaylah’s Story” on p. 35.
  9. 9. Prenatal Causes (cont.) • Developmental/Neural Brain Disorders • Spina Bifida – neural tube defect believed to have multifactorial causes; research suggests there is genetic involvement that is affected by environmental factors, such as lack of folic acid in mother’s diet, obesity, diabetes, and some medications; 4 kinds of spina bifida, with myelomeningocele having the most significant physical disabilities. • Anencephaly – most of the brain is missing; will result in spontaneous abortion (miscarriage), stillbirth, or neonatal death • Encephalocele – part of the brain protrudes from the skull
  10. 10. Prenatal Causes (cont.) • Developmental/Neural Brain disorders (cont.) • Myelomeningocele spina bifida (cont. about – hydrocephalus may require a shunt to remove excess fluid from the brain • Some children with spina bifida may have some mild intellectual disabilities • Children likely to attend regular school, use wheelchairs and accompanying medical issues, have lower average intelligence or other learning and attention difficulties • Goals for mobility and general self-care, physical and occupational therapy, and general education are appropriate
  11. 11. Prenatal Causes (cont.) • Maternal Infections • Rubella – once a leading cause of sensory and intellectual disorders in babies born to mothers who contracted Rubella (German measles) during the first trimester of their pregnancy • Immunizations in most developed countries has decreased the numbers of children born who have been affected by Rubella in utero • Toxoplasmosis – high risk of having a child who is deaf, has microcephaly, or intellectual disabilities; thought to be contracted from cats and handling and eating undercooked meats • Cytomegalovirus – common virus with potentially harmful effects on the fetus of pregnant women; causes sensory and/or intellectual disabilities • Cerebral palsy – studies indicate that 40% of mothers with children having CP had a serious infection while pregnant; further studies need to be done in this area
  12. 12. Prenatal Causes (cont.) • Maternal toxicity – • Fetal Alcohol syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) are the most preventable intellectual disabilities and the most common cause of intellectual disabilities; caused by maternal consumption of alcohol during pregnancy • There are common characteristics of children with FAS including microcephaly, facial abnormalities, growth problems, and central nervous system disorders • There is evidence that genetics impacts the severity of problems associated with maternal alcohol consumption • There is variability in the severity of disabilities associated with exposure to maternal alcohol consumption (FAE is less severe)
  13. 13. Prenatal Causes (cont.) • Maternal Toxicity (cont.) • FAS and FAE (cont.) • There are generally environmental factors associated with alcoholic mothers, but problems with FAS and FAE will continue even if environmental factors are addressed • Children may exhibit intellectual disabilities ranging from mild to severe, problems with executive function, speech and language difficulties, memory problems, attention deficit disorder, social and behavioral disorders, and mental health issues • Classroom recommendations include behavior support, specific problem solving instruction, structure and routines, and a multidisciplinary approach; diplomacy is necessary because of the direct link to maternal alcohol abuse during pregnancy
  14. 14. Prenatal Causes (cont.) • Other teratogens • Thalidomide – a prescription drug that caused numerous developmental disorders in the 1950s and 1960s that increased awareness of maternal toxicity on developing fetuses • Prescription drugs - women on prescription drugs should seek medical advice prior to becoming pregnant and during pregnancies • Tobacco and recreational drugs – increased risk of low birth weight babies and premature births • Other prenatal causes • Congenital hypothyroidism – related to maternal malnutrition, but rare in developed countries and with iodized salt • Maternal prenatal trauma -
  • ushayaadav

    Jan. 24, 2018
  • ghulammohyuddin921

    Oct. 10, 2017

EDU 248, 2014sp, CCC, chapter 2, eBook

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