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NASA RFP

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NASA RFP

  1. 1. i Tarleton Aeronautical Team Tarleton State University 2012 – 2013 NASA University Student Launch Initiative Proposal Science Mission Directorate Payload Option August 31, 2012
  2. 2. Executive Summary ii The Tarleton Aeronautical Team is pleased to submit this proposal in response to the 2012-2013 University Student Launch Initiative (USLI). University Background Tarleton State University is a public university located near Dallas-Fort Worth. The university was founded in 1899 and became a part of the Texas A&M System in 1917. Tarleton is one of the state’s fastest growing institutions and currently has the second largest enrollment in the Texas A&M System. Tarleton State University has a diverse student population, representing 49 states and 34 countries. Students have the opportunity to choose from 85 undergraduate and graduate degree programs. Our Proposal To facilitate review of our proposal, we have mirrored the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Student Launch Project Statement of Work (SOW) so that our numbering system corresponds to those in the SOW. We believe that we have been responsive to each requirement and have documented our analyses in the appropriate sections. Through the advisement of NASA engineers at the Advance Rocketry Workshop on July 18-21, we have included as much detail as possible. We present a baseline design that we plan to refine over the next several months through additional testing, evaluation and analysis. Our Team We are an interdisciplinary team comprised from six different disciplines. The majority of the team competed in the 2012 Texas CanSat competition in preparation for USLI. CanSat is an international design-build-launch competition sponsored by The American Astronautical Society (AAS), American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), NASA, and Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). The Tarleton Aeronautical Team was the only Texas team participating in the 2012 International CanSat competition, placing 6th of 41 teams. Our competition included institutions such as Virginia Tech, the University of Minnesota, the University of Michigan, Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, as well as teams from Canada, Turkey, Columbia, and India. Figure 1 – 2012 CanSat Payload
  3. 3. Executive Summary iii We believe this competition prepared us well for the NASA USLI Project. It involved the end-to-end life cycle of a complex engineering project including Preliminary Design Review (PDR), Critical Design Review (CDR), post-mission summary, and debrief. Building on the experience from the 2012 CanSat competition, we have assembled a team whom we are confident will perform well at the NASA USLI competition. Our Funding We have secured a significant portion of the funding required for this project through a wide range of University organizations and other community support functions. We have $11,500 committed from the Tarleton President’s Circle, the Provost’s Office, the Dean of the College of Science, and the Tarleton Foundation. The Office of Student Research has also committed $8,000-$12,000. Additional sources necessary to fund the project have been identified. We are pursuing USLI Science Mission Directorate (SMD) funding. Figure 3 – Initial USLI Funding Our Facilities The Team will have unlimited access to a 5,000 square-foot fabrication and test launch facility off-campus. The team will also have scheduled access to a 600 acre high-altitude test launch and building facility owned by Team Mentor Pat Gordzelik; he is Level three Figure 2 – Sixth Place CANSAT Team
  4. 4. Executive Summary iv TRA certified and Vice President of the Tripoli Rocketry Association. His facility features 5,280-foot Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) flight waivers and access to static motor test stands. On campus, all team members will have access to the 900-square-foot rocketry lab in the Mathematics building, as well as facilities in the Science and Engineering buildings. The on-campus facilities offer unlimited access to computers, printers, projectors, workspace, conference tables, soldering station and circuit fabrication, oscilloscopes, logic analyzers, regulated power supplies, electronics prototyping equipment, circuit testing equipment, circuit simulators, teleconference room equipped with a portable projector, and wireless Internet access. Safety Plan We have an experienced team; five members are level 1 NAR certified. These members will be seeking level 2 National Association of Rocketry (NAR) certification under Pat Gordzelik, VP of TRA. In addition, you will find a comprehensive safety plan presented in the Safety Section. Our Baseline Design The flight vehicle will total 103 inches in length with a 4-inch body diameter. This is composed of a nosecone, upper body structure, payload housing structure, and lower body structure. All sections of the flight vehicle will be made of fiberglass with the exception of the clear acrylic payload housing where the SMD payload will be stored. (Reference section: Technical Design 1.a) The upper body structure will house the main parachute. The lower body structure will house the drogue parachute and the motor. The nosecone and lower body structure are designed to separate and deploy the appropriate descent control systems. (Reference section: Technical Design 1.b) From the four motors we reviewed, we selected the Cesaroni K1440. We concluded that the total calculated mass would likely increase, thus decreasing the calculated apogee of 5,515 feet. Additionally, its high thrust to weight ratio will allow the rocket to easily depart from the launch rail. Trade studies will be conducted to reaffirm this selection throughout the design process. (Reference section: Technical Design 1.c) The SMD payload will be mounted to a payload framework within the acrylic payload housing. This design is intended to allow the UV sensor, Solar Irradiance sensor, and cameras to function without being externally exposed. (Reference section: Technical Design 1.d)
  5. 5. v Table of Contents General Information.…………………….…………………..………………………………… 1 1. Organization…………..…………………………….................................................. 1 2. Adult Educators………………………………………………………………………… 1 3. Safety Officer…………………………………...………………………………………. 1 4. Team Leader…………………………………………………………………………..... 1 5. Team Infrastructure………………..……………………........................................... 2 6. TRA Section…………………………………………….………………………………. 6 Facilities / Equipment……………………………..……………………………………………. 6 1. Facilities……………………………….………….….................................................. 6 2. Computers Equipment……………………………………………............................. 8 3. EIT Accessibility Standards ………………………………………...……….............. 9 Safety…………………………………………………………................................................ 9 1. Safety Plan………………………………………………………….…………………… 9 2. Procedures for NAR/TRA Adherence………………………………………...……… 11 3. Plan for Briefing Students………………………………………………..................... 11 4. Incorporation of All Caution Statements…………………………………………..…. 12 5. Acknowledgement of Regulations…………………………………………….……… 12 6. Rocket Motors ………………………………………………………………………….. 13 7. Safety Statement ……………………………………………………………………… 13 Technical Design …………………………………………..………………………………….. 13 a. General Vehicle Description…………………………….…………………………… 14 b. Recovery System………………………………………..…………………………….. 15 c. Motor……………………..…………………………………………………………....... 24
  6. 6. vi Table of Contents Continued: d. Payload Description ……………………………………..…………………………… 28 e. Requirements……………………………………...………………………………….. 37 f. Challenges and Solutions……………………………………………………………. 43 Educational Engagement ……………………………………………………………………. 43 Project Plan………………………………….………………………………………………… 48 1. Timeline …………………………………………………..…………………………… 48 2. Budget Plan ………………………………………………....................................... 51 3. Funding – Tarleton State University (TSU) and others………………….……….. 53 4. Community Support Plan ……………………………………………...……………. 54 5. Challenges and Solutions …………………………………………………...…….... 54 6. Project Sustainability Plan………………………………..………………………….. 55 Appendix A: Resumes ………………………………………………………....................... 56 Appendix B: EIT Accessibility Standards………………………………………………….. 65 Appendix C: Pre-Launch Checklist ………………………………..….…………….……… 70 Appendix D: Launch Pad Checklist ………………………………………………………… 71 Appendix E: Material Safety Data Sheets …………………………………………………. 72 Appendix F: Risks, Failures, and Hazards……………………………….……………….. 117 Appendix G: NAR High Power Rocket Safety Code…………………..…………………. 122 Appendix H: Federal Aviation Regulations 14 CFR………………………………………. 125 Appendix I: Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Rules and Procedures….… 128 Appendix J: Lab Safety…………….………………………………………………………… 137 Appendix K: Hazard Waste Management………….………………………………………. 157
  7. 7. vii Table of Contents Continued: Appendix L: Fire Safety……………………….………………………………….………….. 171 Appendix M: Safety Statement……………………………………………………………… 177 List of Graphics Figure 1: 2012 CanSat Payload……..…………………………………………………….…… ii Figure 2: Sixth-Place CanSat Team…………………………………………………………… iii Figure 3: Initial USLI Funding……………………………………..…………………………… iii Figure 4: Team Hierarchy…………………………………………………………………….… 2 Figures 5: Team Members…………………...........................……………………………..… 5 Figure 6: Rocket Lab……………………………………………………..……………………… 6 Figure 7: Low-Altitude Test Launch Facility…………………………………………………… 8 Figure 8: Internal Vehicle Presentation ………………………………………………..……. 13 Figure 9: External Vehicle Presentation…………………………….……………………….. 13 Figure 10: Fin Design………………….………………………………….…………………… 15 Figure 11: E-Match Diagram …………………………………..…………………………...… 17 Figure 12: Ejection Staging…………………………………………….……………………… 20 Figure 13: Cesaroni K1440 Thrust Curve…………………………………..……………….. 25 Figure 14: Cesaroni K1850 Thrust Curve………………………..………………………….. 26 Figure 15: Aero-Tech K700 Thrust Curve …………………………………………………... 27 Figure 16: Cesaroni K820 Thrust Curve………………..……………………………….…... 28 Figure 17: Payload Layout…………………………………………………………………….. 29 Figure 18: CAD Rendering of Payload Layout………………….…………………………… 30
  8. 8. viii List of Graphics (Cont’d) Figure 19: Conceptual Wiring Diagram………………………………………………………. 35 Figure 20: Payload Software Flow Chart…………….….…………………………………... 36 Figure 21: Travelling Estimate…………..……………………………………………….…… 47 Figure 22: USLI Dates….................................................................................................. 49 Figure 23: Team Dates…………………………..…….…………………………………….... 50 Figure 24: Launch Day Rocket and Payload……………..…………….…………………… 52 Figure 25: Research and Development……………………………..……………………….. 53 Figure 26: Total Project Budget……………………….……………………………………… 53
  9. 9. ix List of Tables Table 1: Facilities and Equipment………………….……………………………….………. 7 Table 2: Material Safety Summary………………………….………………………………. 9 Table 3: Fin Specifications…………………………………………………….……………. 15 Table 4: Recovery Systems Budget Summary……………………………………………. 22 Table 5: Motor Trade and Selection………………………………………………………… 24 Table 6: Electronic Trade and Selection……………………..…………………………….. 31 Table 7: Technical Design Cost Summary……………………….………………………… 38 Table 8: Lessons and Group Activities……………………………………………………… 45 Table 9: Field Trips and Rocket Day ……………………………………..………………… 45 Table 10: Educational Budget…………………………………..……………………………. 46 Table 11: Educational Engagement Travel Budget………………………………………… 47 Table 12: Tarleton Rocket Day Budget…………………….…………………………….…. 47 Table 13: Tentative Meeting Schedule …………………………..……………………….… 48 Table 14: Propulsion Budget……………………………………………………………….… 51 Table 15: Payload Electronic Components Budget………………………………………... 51
  10. 10. 1 General Information 1. Organization Tarleton Aeronautical Team Tarleton State University Box T-0470 Stephenville, Texas 76402 DUNS: 801781865 Cage Code: 5RTD4 2. Adult Educators Dr. Bowen Brawner, Professor Mathematics Department brawner@tarleton.edu Dr. Bryant Wyatt, Department Head Mathematics Department wyatt@tarleton.edu 3. Safety Officer Blake Lohn-Wiley Graduate Mathematics Student blake.lohnwiley@gmail.com 4. Team Leader Dustin Neighbors Undergraduate Engineering Physics Student dustywithsparks@gmail.com
  11. 11. 2 5. Team Infrastructure The team currently consists of nine team members representing six different majors from the STEM fields. The complete team will consist of between nine and fifteen members. The key participants and duties are listed below as well as a team hierarchy. All resumes can be found in appendix A. Team Member Duties Name: Duties: Dustin Project Manager, Lead Engineer Jake Lead Engineer, Technical Editor Billy Electronics Engineer, Chief Draftsman John Chief Programmer, Simulation Data Analyst Amber Recovery Systems Engineer, Research Bert Structural Engineer, Electrical Engineer Blake Safety Officer, Research Chelsea Web Design, Draftsman Lou Educational Outreach Coordinator Figure 4 – Team Hierarchy
  12. 12. 3 Team Member Bios Dustin N. – Team Manager/Chief Engineer Dustin is currently a sophomore Engineering Physics student at Tarleton State University. He is soon to be a new father. He formed and led the Tarleton Aeronautical Team through the 2012 International CanSat Competition in Abilene, TX, in which the team placed sixth overall. His reason for starting and continuing in the Tarleton Aeronautical Team is to apply what he is learning in the classroom to a real world engineering project. Dustin aspires to be a successful entrepreneur and start his own engineering firm. Lou F.– Educational Outreach Lou is a junior biology major working towards his teacher’s certification. He wants to teach secondary school after graduation with the ability to teach physics, chemistry, earth science, and biology. He joined the team because he has always had a great passion for science and mathematics. He hopes to create new experiences, meet new people, and incorporate real world experiences into his education while working on this project. He loves small animals and enjoys participating in outdoor activities. Jake R. – Lead Engineer Jake is a graduate Mathematics student with a B.S. in Engineering Physics. He enjoys playing music, particularly guitar, and is interested in rebuilding and tinkering with vintage tube amplifiers. He joined the team in hopes to gain knowledge and experience in aerospace engineering and high powered rocketry. Jake worked for the Tarleton State University Observatory for 3 years, where he was involved in photometric analysis of eclipsing binary star systems and asteroid detection. He is now a graduate assistant for the Mathematics department while working on his Masters in Mathematics. Blake L. – Safety Officer, Blake is a graduate Mathematics student with a B.S. in Mathematics. He enjoys playing guitar and wakeboarding with friends. He joined the team to further his pursuit of knowledge and to gain expertise in areas outside of mathematics. The subject of aerospace engineering and high powered rocketry has always fascinated him. Blake worked for the Math Department as a tutor in the Math Clinic for 4 years. Blake plans to complete his M.S. in Mathematics, followed by a Master’s in aerospace engineering.
  13. 13. 4 Chelsea K. – Web Design Chelsea is a junior in Manufacturing Engineering Technology. She recently found a love for storm chasing. Joining the Tarleton Aeronautical Team this year, she hopes to gain experience in applying drafting, web managing, mathematics, and physics to the real world. Chelsea’s background includes experience in website managing using Cascade for Tarleton’s Keeping It R.E.A.L. program and tutoring students in mathematics and English. Her future plans are to complete her B.S. in Manufacturing Engineering Technology, followed by a continued education for a M.S. in Manufacturing and Quality and Leadership. Bert H. – Electrical Engineer Bert is a graduate Mathematics student with a B.S. in Electrical Engineering. He enjoys playing drums and classical guitar. He joined the team in order to expand his experience with real-world electronic circuits, particularly with real-time data acquisition and long-distance data transmission. Bert is a member of IEEE Robotics and Automation Society and IEEE Computer Society, where he attended lectures and participates in projects aimed at building his understanding of robotic kinematics and software development. He is now a graduate assistant for the Mathematics department while working on his Master’s degree in Applied Mathematics. Bert plans to complete his M.S. in Mathematics, followed by joining the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon for a PhD in Robotics Engineering. Amber D. – Recovery Systems Amber is a senior double major in physics and mathematics. She is multilingual and plays the flute. She joined the Tarleton State Aeronautical Team this year on the USLI project as a way to get hands on experience in rocket design and as an opportunity to use her education in a real world application. Her experience includes working as an undergraduate research assistant on two disease population model optimization projects, as well as research in conducting a nonparametric regression analysis of CMB angular power spectra. She plans on getting a PhD in solid state physics and working in industry.
  14. 14. 5 John P. – Propulsion and Software John is a senior computer science major. He loves his mother. He joined the Tarleton Aeronautical Team for an opportunity to apply skills learned in the classroom to a real world project. His experience includes participating in the CanSat competition and working as a computer science tutor. He plans on getting a PhD in computer science and working for NASA. Billy F. – Electronics Engineer Billy is a senior in Mathematics with support in Computer Science. He is sometimes known to eat a Raw Vegetation and Animal Food diet. He joined the team to apply his education towards gaining real world experience in aeronautics and to watch rockets disappear into the sky. He participated in the 2012 International CanSat competition in Abilene, TX. Billy hopes to become an inventor and change the world. Five team members, pictured below, attended the 2012 NASA Advanced Rocketry Workshop in Huntsville, Alabama where they received their level 1 NAR certification. The workshop was a phenomenal learning experience and provided an excellent introduction to the USLI Competition. Figure 5 – Team members at the workshop listed from left to right: Blake L., Jake R., Dustin N., John P., Lou F.
  15. 15. 6 6. TRA Section The TRA section we will be associating with for launches will be West Texas Rocketry Prefecture number 121, as well as Cloud Busters Prefecture number 34. Facilities / Equipment 1. Facilities Throughout the course of this project, the Tarleton Aeronautical Team will have 24/7 access to various saws, routers, hand tools, welders, and an acetylene torch at a 5,000 square-foot test launch facility in Glen Rose, TX owned and supervised by Dr. Bryant Wyatt. Also off campus, the team will have scheduled access to a 600 acre high- altitude test launch and building facility owned and supervised by team mentor, Pat Gordzelik, featuring 5,280-foot FAA flight waivers and access to static motor test stands. On campus, all team members will have 24/7 access to the 900-square-foot rocketry lab in the Mathematics building, as well as facilities in the Science building and Engineering building. The Mathematics Building offers unlimited access to computers, printers, projectors, white boards and tables, with the additional availability of a conference table, soldering station and circuit fabrication tools offered by the team conference room in Room 337. The Science Building offers access to oscilloscopes, logic analyzers, and regulated power supplies. The Engineering building offers access to electronics prototyping equipment, circuit testing equipment, and circuit simulators. The Administration building offers access to a twenty-person teleconference room equipped with a portable projector, and wireless Internet access. Figure 6 – Rocketry Lab
  16. 16. 7 Table 1 – Facilities and Equipment Facility Hours of Accessibility Access Type Necessary Individuals Work Area Equipment Low-Altitude Test-Launch and Fabrication Facility 24/7 Off- Campu s Dr. Bryant Wyatt 800 acres + 5,000 ft² Fabrication Building Saws, Routers, Machining tools, Welders, Acetylene torch, Safety equipment High-Altitude Test-Launch Facility Scheduled Off- Campu s Pat Gordzelik 600 acres + 6,000 ft² Fabrication Building 5,280-foot FAA flight waivers, Static motor test stands, Safety equipment Mathematics Building- Rocketry Lab 24/7 On- Campu s Any Team Member 900 ft² Computers, Software, Printers, Projectors, Circuit fabrication tools Conference table, Soldering station Science Building- Physics Lab 24/7 On- Campu s Any Team Member 1,500 ft² Oscilloscopes, Logic analyzers, Regulated power supplies, Vacuum chamber Engineering Building- Circuitry Lab 24/7 On- Campu s Any Team Member 1,800 ft² Electronics prototyping equipment and software, Circuit testing equipment, Circuit simulators
  17. 17. 8 Figure 7 – Low-Altitude Test Launch and Fabrication Facility 2. Computer Equipment The Tarleton Aeronautical Team has access to a wide range of computing equipment. University desktops, which are available in every campus building, operate on Windows 7 and Linux systems, offer broadband Internet and e-mail access, and provide AutoDesk Inventor used for CAD design, Conifer Systems Cascade used for Web development, and Microsoft Word used for document development. Additional software available to the team includes:  MATLAB  Maple  AutoCAD Electrical  Arduino IDE  PCB Express  Solid Works 2010  RASAero  RockSim  CadSoft Eagle  NI Multisim  Wolfram Mathematica  AutoDesk Inventor Professional
  18. 18. 9 3. EIT Accessibility Standards The Tarleton Aeronautical Team shall implement the technical standards posed by Subpart B of the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board Electronic and Information Technology (EIT) Accessibility Standards (36 CFR Part 1194) (http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title36/36cfr 1194_main_02.tpl). Regulations (a) through (l) of §1194.21 (refer to Appendix B.1) on software applications and operating systems will be met. The team shall adhere to regulations (a) through (p) of §1194.22 (refer to Appendix B.2) concerning web-based intranet and internet information and applications. Regulations (a) through (d) of §1194.26 (refer to Appendix B.3) regarding desktop and portable computers shall be satisfied. Safety 1. Safety Plan Material Safety The appropriate Materials Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) (Located in Appendix E) shall be referenced in each instance involving the handling of potentially hazardous materials. The MSDS will be available at locations where the hazardous materials are used or stored. All team members shall be knowledgeable of the Material Safety Data Sheet associated with each hazardous material. Table 2 – Material Safety Datasheet Summary Material Prevalence Risks Mitigation Ammonium Perchlorate Found in rocket motors Risk of fire, burns Keep away from heat, treat burns normally Black Powder Found in injection charges Risk of fire, burns Keep away from heat, treat burns normally Epoxy 3M DP420 Found in bonding parts of fiberglass together Skin Irritation, Risk of Fire Flush area with water, Keep away from heat Paint Used to coat outside layer of rocket Risk of Fire, Skin Irritation Flush area with water Keep away from heat
  19. 19. 10 Facilities a. Rocket construction will take place at the Team Test Launch Facility, which provides access to all the necessary fabrication equipment. The construction of the payload will take place at the Math Building located on the Tarleton State University Campus. The team shall conduct their low altitude test launches at the Team Test Launch Facility. The team shall conduct high altitude test launches at the launch facilities of Pat Gordzelik, the team mentor. b. For a team member to enter the above mentioned facilities, they must adhere to the following guidelines:  Always ask a well-informed member of the team or the Safety Officer if unsure about equipment, tools, procedures, or materials.  Always follow the safety regulations associated with hazardous materials and federal, local, and state laws.  Always adhere to the following safety equipment rules: 1 Protective clothing must be worn. 2 Use goggles where appropriate. 3 Use face mask where appropriate. 4 Wear gloves where appropriate.  Always be aware of your surroundings. Risk Assessment Risk assessment includes consideration of relevant risks to the completion of the project, how likely they are to happen, and their consequences. A risk assessment was completed for the possible loss of access to facilities. Each area has several risks and each risk is associated with a number of possible impacts. Techniques for mitigation have been established. In the event that a problem arises possible actions are addressed. The Facility Risks to the Completion of the Project Table can be found in Appendix F.1 on page 117.
  20. 20. 11 Failure mode analysis was done for the following systems: vehicle, payload, and recovery. This is structured around three main categories: possible failures, failure consequences, and mitigations. The Failure Modes Table can be found in Appendix F.2 on page 118. Hazard analysis was done for use of facilities. This analysis has six elements: risk, sources, likelihood, consequences, mitigation, and actions. The Hazard Analysis Table can be found in Appendix F.3 on page 120. 2. Procedures for NAR/TRA adherence The Tarleton Aeronautical Team will be advised by NAR Level 3 certified Pat Gordzelik. Mr. Gordzelik will help ensure that all NAR high-powered safety code requirements (Located in Appendix G) are met. He will be responsible for the purchase, safe storage, transport, and handling of the rocket motors. He will also be present whenever the rocket is being launched. Tripoli # 121 West Texas Rocketry will help in assisting with our launches as well. 3. Plan for briefing students Prior to the construction of the rocket, a risk assessment and safety meeting will be conducted to describe proper procedures. The information will be displayed in PowerPoint format and will contain the following subjects: Federal Aviation Regulations, NAR/TRA High Power Rocket Safety Code, NFPA 1127 Code for High Power Rocketry, Risk Assessment, Chemical Safety, Fire Safety, and Lab Safety. A week after the safety presentation, the Team will be given a test, which they must pass in order to take part in any aspect related to the rocket. Prior to every launch, meetings will be conducted that reinforce the material covered in the risk assessment and safety meeting. Before any rocket can be launched the rocket must go through a pre-launch and launch pad safety checklist.
  21. 21. 12 4. Incorporation of all caution statements A safety binder shall be kept throughout the entirety of the design, construction, and launch process. Also, a safety checklist shall be maintained at each launch. Caution statements will be included in all necessary proceedings. 5. Acknowledgement of Regulations All team members shall be thoroughly briefed on the project risks, NAR high-power safety code, and the FAA's laws and regulations regarding the use of airspace. Each team member shall be required to read NAR's Safety Presentation slides. The team shall have a safety briefing conducted by NAR/TRA personnel before any launch takes place. 5.1 The team shall be cognizant and abide by all federal, state, and local laws regarding unmanned rocket launches and motor handling, including the following regulations and checklists: 5.2 14 CFR 101, Subchapter F, Subpart C: Amateur Rockets (Located in Appendix H) 5.3 27 CFR Part 55: Commerce in Explosives (Located Appendix I) 5.4 The handling and use of low-explosives (Ammonium Perchlorate Rocket Motors, APCP) (Located in Appendix E) 5.5 NAR Model Rocket Safety Code (Located in Appendix G) 5.6 Hazardous Waste Management (Located in Appendix K) 5.7 Fire Safety (Located in Appendix L) 5.8 Lab Safety (Located in Appendix J) 5.9 Pre-Launch Checklist (Located in Appendix C) 5.10 Launch Pad Checklist (Located in Appendix D) 6. Rocket Motors Team mentor, Pat Gordzelik, will be responsible for the purchase, safe storage, transport, and handling of the rocket motors. He will also supervise all test launches. Mr. Gordzelik is level three certified with TRA and NAR and is also the vice president of TRA.
  22. 22. 13 7. Safety Statement All team members have participated in a safety presentation and signed the Safety Statement, Appendix M. The Safety Statement acknowledges that each member will adhere to the rules and regulations of all relevant governing bodies. Technical Design A proposed and detailed approach to our rocket and payload design is shown in figures 8 and 9, which display an internal and external presentation of the proposed vehicle. The center of pressure is marked accordingly at 83.8 inches from the tip of the nosecone, while the center of gravity is at 66.5 inches. These measurements, calculated by Open Rocket software, show that the center of gravity is 4.31 caliber ahead of the center of pressure; this assures adequate flight stability. Figure 8 – Internal Presentation of Vehicle Figure 9 – External Presentation of Vehicle
  23. 23. 14 a. General Vehicle Description The rocket body will be 4 inches in diameter. This size was chosen to allow adequate room for our payload and recovery system electronics. The rocket body will be 8 feet and 7 inches long, consisting of four main sections: the nosecone (fiberglass), upper body structure (fiberglass), payload housing structure (acrylic), and the lower body structure and fins (fiberglass). Fiberglass was chosen for the majority of the vehicle body due to its high durability, high melting temperature, low cost, and availability. All fiberglass will be 0.125 inches thick, unless otherwise specified. All sections will be attached via couplers. Our nosecone will be a short, blunt, smooth, elliptical shape, and approximately 11 inches in length. This includes a 4-inch shoulder length based on the 4-inch body diameter, as the nosecone shoulder should be no less than one body diameter in length. This shape was chosen because the contest requires our rocket to remain subsonic throughout flight. At less than 0.8 Mach this choice is best. (Page 9 of 2012 Advanced Rocketry Workshop NASA SLP Manual) The upper body structure is 2 feet in length. This is to ensure adequate room for all components (Including altimeters, black powder ejection charges, arming switches, main parachute with accessories, and e-match). The payload housing structure will be constructed of a clear acrylic cylinder; 4 inches in diameter and 0.25 inch thick. Both ends will have 4.5 inches of the clear acrylic cylinder milled down to 0.125 inch thickness; making a shoulder at each end of 3.75 inches diameter. These shoulders will be used to couple the payload housing structure to both the upper body structure and the lower body structure. Clear acrylic was chosen for the payload housing structure due to its strength, light weight, and transparency; transparent payload housing allows external observation of electronics once installed. The transparent payload housing structure will allow ultraviolet radiation and solar irradiance measurements to be taken internally. This will also allow the cameras to function within the payload housing structure. The lower body structure is 3 feet in length. This section will be comprised of two compartments: drogue parachute compartment and motor housing. The drogue parachute compartment will be one foot in length and sealed apart from the motor housing by a solid fiberglass disk (0.25 inches) using epoxy. The length was chosen to provide adequate room for the altimeters, e-match, parachute, and parachute
  24. 24. 15 accessories without compromising accessibility. The motor housing will be two feet in length which was determined by the motor selection. There will be four fins equally spaced and mounted with epoxy. The fin specifications and appearance are displayed in Table 3 and Figure 10, respectively. Table 3 – Fin Specifications b. Recovery System In order to increase the chances of a successful recovery by minimization of drift distance, a dual-stage deployment recovery system will be employed (requirement 2.1). This recovery system is composed of a drogue parachute and a main parachute. The main parachute will be located and eject from the top of the upper body structure, just below the nosecone. In order to minimize both landing radius and terminal velocity, the main parachute will be released approximately 500 feet from the ground. The drogue parachute will be located and ejected from the drogue parachute compartment at the front of the lower body structure, rather than the motor housing compartment at the rear of the lower body structure (requirement 2.14.2). It will be released when the vehicle is at apogee. This will ideally occur at 5,280 feet, but no higher than 5,600 feet (requirements 1.1 and 1.2.3.3). It is imperative that the drogue parachute be deployed at apogee and no later in order to avoid damage to the rocket body caused by the jarring that would ensue should the vehicle be in descent upon release. S Sweep length 4.5 inches Sweep angle 45 degrees Height 4.5 inches Tip chord 1.5 inches Root chord 7.5 inches Fin cant Zero degrees Fin rotation Zero degrees Figure 10 – Fin Design
  25. 25. 16 Many high-powered rocket designs ignite the ejection charges via time-delay elements in the motor, appropriate timing and redundancy are difficult to achieve by such methods. In order to eliminate the burden of choosing the right delay and to improve redundancy, each deployment will be controlled by two altimeters (requirement 2.5). Two altimeter systems shall be employed, composed of a main altimeter, backup altimeter, and e-match wiring. The main altimeter will be a Featherweight Raven3 and the backup will be a PerfectFlite StratoLogger, programmed independently of the payload and monitored remotely (requirement 2.4). Each altimeter will be housed in a sealed 4.5-inch compartment below each parachute compartment in the vehicle body (requirements 2.12, 2.12.1, 2.12.3, and 2.12.4). Each altimeter will have its own dedicated power supply, a standard 9-volt battery(requirement 2.7). Each altimeter system shall be mounted vertically on a 0.25-inch-thick, 3.75-inch-wide, 4-inch-tall fiberglass board. Each board will then be epoxied on either end to a 0.25-inch-thick, 3.75-inch-diameter fiberglass disk. The entire setup will then be bolted to the bulkhead, in the sealed compartments, below each parachute compartment. One additional PerfectFlite altimeter will be mounted with the system below the drogue parachute compartment. This will serve as the scoring altimeter since it has a beeper. The Featherweight altimeter has been chosen as the main altimeter for its remarkable versatility. It has full functionality regardless of positioning, has visible and audible readout of individual channel continuity and battery voltage, allows for user calibration of the accelerometer rather than presets, can record up to eight minutes of high-rate data plus an additional 45 minutes per flight, and has a downloadable interface program which is easy to read. The PerfectFlite altimeter has been chosen as a backup altimeter for its high level of reliability. False triggering has been eliminated for up to 100 miles per hour wind gusts, the precision sensor and 24-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) allow for 99.9 percent accurate altitude readings, and the selectable apogee delay for dual setups such as the one we are using prevents overpressure from simultaneous charge firing. Additionally, each altimeter will be equipped with an externally-accessible magnetic arming switch capable of being locked in the “on” position for launch (requirements 2.6, 2.8). The arming switches dedicated to the dual altimeters which control main parachute deployment will be located at least 6 feet above the base of the launch vehicle (requirement 2.9). Those dedicated to the dual altimeters which control drogue parachute deployment will be located 2 feet above the base of the launch vehicle (requirement 2.9).
  26. 26. 17 Each altimeter will be programmed to light a 1-foot low-current Daveyfire N28BR electric match (requirements 2.13, 2.14, and 2.14.1). The basic construction of an electric match, or e-match, is shown in Figure 11. Each match will ignite two separate black powder charges, one main and one backup. This will ensure separation and ejection of the proper parachute at the proper time. At 5,000 feet on ascent the electric matches for the drogue parachute black powder charges will be ignited to ensure full release at apogee. The e-matches for the main parachute will be ignited at 700 feet on descent to ensure a slowed impact and minimal drift. With the assumption that the entire mass of each charge will be burned and converted into a gas, the basic Ideal Gas Law is used, PV = NRT. P = design pressure (pounds per square inch), V = volume of cylindrical compartment in the rocket body which houses the two charges and the parachute (inches cubed), N = mass of powder (pounds) to be evenly distributed between and packed into two plastic tubes, R = universal gas constant (inches-pound force per pound mass), and T = initial combustion temperature of the powder (Rankine). Using commercially available FFFFg black powder, P = 15 pounds per square inch since the inside body diameter (D = 3.5 inches) is less than 7.5 inches, V = 0.25πD²L from the volume of a cylinder where L is the compartment length (inch), N = PV/RT is the mass to be found in ounces by accounting for the conversion 1 pound = 16 ounces = 454 grams, R = 266, and T = 3307 Rankine. From this the mass equation reduces to N = 0.0735*L (in grams). For ejection of the drogue parachute L = (12 – 4.5 inches) = 7.5 inches, to give N = 0.539 grams = 0.019 ounces for each the main and backup charges. For ejection of the main parachute L = (24 – 4.5 inches) = 19.5 inches, to give N = 1.434 grams = 0.0506 ounces for each the main and backup charges. Assuming use of a Cesaroni K1440 motor, the total vehicle launch weight is estimated to be 326 ounces = 20.375 pounds. We considered the addition of up to 10 percent ballast, as well as the fuel compartment being empty by deployment of the drogue parachute, and estimated the vehicle weight at 20 pounds. These values may change throughout the design process, but the process will not. Note that the drag coefficient for domed parachutes is approximately 1.5, atmospheric density at sea level and 70 degrees Fahrenheit is approximately 0.0024 slugs per cubic foot, and descent rate Figure 11 – E-match Diagram
  27. 27. 18 should be no more than 15 feet per second in order to minimize damage to the launch vehicle. The size of the drogue parachute can then be estimated from D = 24√ , where D is the ideal diameter of the drogue parachute and is the weight of the launch vehicle. This gives D = 28.397 inches = 2.366 feet. Since commercial availability limits parachute size to 0.5 foot increments, the diameter of the drogue is chosen to be 2.5 feet. By similar analysis, the size of the main parachute is estimated from D = 39.6√ . This gives D = 84.377 inches = 7.031 feet. The diameter of the main parachute is chosen to be 8 feet. This is a conservative estimate with regard to terminal velocity but slightly immoderate with regard to landing radius if wind speeds are in excess of 15 miles per hour. However, programming full deployment to occur no later than 500 feet from the ground on descent should allow for minimal drift. These equations are derived from Newton’s Second Law of Motion s = 2w/ρv²c, where s = reference area, w = vehicle weight, ρ = density of air, v = terminal velocity, and c = drag coefficient as provided by the parachute manufacturer. The chosen sizes of the main and drogue parachutes should be such that the kinetic energy of each independent (tethered) section of the launch vehicle upon landing is no greater than 75 foot-pounds. Based on Newton’s Second Law of Motion, with the assumptions of constant descent rate between ejections and simple downward motion, the maximum descent rate upon ejection of each parachute is given by v =√ . In the above equation, note that w = vehicle weight in pound-mass, ρ = sea-level air density at 70 degrees Fahrenheit = 0.075 pound-force per cubic foot, c = drag coefficient, and s = surface area of each parachute dome = π(height)²[3*(radius) – (height)] where height is assumed to be *(radius). With a total vehicle weight of 20 pounds = 320 ounces = 9.24 kilograms, the maximum descent rate for the first 4,780 feet upon drogue release at apogee is 73.47 feet per second = 22.39 meters per second. Upon release of the main this drops to a maximum 12.83 feet per second = 3.91 meters per second descent rate for the remaining 500 feet. Descent time after each event can be calculated from t = d/v, where d = distance travelled in feet and v = maximum descent velocity. The first 4,780 feet of descent thus takes no less than 65.06 seconds. Similarly the final 500 feet of descent takes no less
  28. 28. 19 than 38.97 seconds. In a constant 15 mile per hour wind, the concept of relative velocity enables the calculation of a landing radius of 1,430.46 feet for the first half of the descent with an additional 857.44 feet for the second half. The maximum landing radius is thus found to be (1,430.46 + 857.44) feet = 2287.9 feet from the launch pad which is within the required 2,500 feet maximum landing radius (requirement 2.3). The top component contains tethered together the nosecone, main parachute, main parachute altimeter housing, and payload sections. The bottom component contains tethered together the drogue parachute, drogue parachute altimeter housing, and motor sections. The proposed total weight of the top component is then = 4.60 kilograms, while that of the bottom component is = 4.64 kilograms. By the maximum final descent rate of = 3.91 meters per second, the maximum terminal kinetic energy of the top component is found to be = 35.16 Joules = 25.93 foot-pounds. Similarly, the maximum terminal kinetic energy of the bottom component is found to be 35.47 Joules = 26.16 feet pound force. These are each less than the maximum allowable 75 foot-pound-force terminal kinetic energy (requirement 2.2). The selected parachutes are made of silicone-coated low-porosity ripstop nylon with all seams reinforced with nylon webbing and 0.5 inches mil spec nylon sewn around the canopy to ensure both strength and light weight. The hexagonal 2.5 foot drogue weighs 1.45 ounces, while the dual-cross-form 8 foot main weighs 26.3 ounces. These parachutes have also been selected for their low probability of entanglement. There are only four suspension lines on the main parachute but which have a tested tensile strength of 200 pounds per square inch. There are only six suspension lines for the drogue parachute but which have a tested tensile strength of 160 pounds per square inch. Additionally standard high-power model rocketry 900 pound-working-strength swivels will be implemented on each shock harness. Further, each parachute will be quick-linked to the bridle of a 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit-plus-heat-resistant Nomex deployment bag and neatly folding each parachute along with all shroud lines and shock cord into the bag. This keeps each parachute contained long enough to get it away from the fins and to eject in an orderly fashion. This also keeps the material away from the heat of the ejection charge firing. Figure 12 demonstrates the ejection staging.
  29. 29. 20 Figure 12 – Ejection Staging In order to enable deceleration of the two separated components on descent, 0.5-inch tubular Kevlar shock harnesses will be put in place. These have been chosen for strength and flame-proof construction. Additionally, these shock harnesses include pre- sewn Nomex loops for safe and secure connection to the chutes by quick links. The body length is approximated to be 8 feet, 7 inches including the nosecone. The main harness is chosen to be approximately two body lengths to keep the main parachute away from the body plus 15 percent (calculated 18.45 feet) to account for knotting. The drogue harness is chosen to be approximately three body lengths to pull the drogue parachute up and away from the vehicle while minimizing the risk of denting or zippering plus 15 percent (calculated 27.04 feet) to account for knotting. Thus, based on commercial availability, the length of the main shock harness is chosen to be 20 feet, while that for the drogue is chosen to be 25 feet.
  30. 30. 21 In order to ensure that separation in the rocket body only occurs upon ejection, removable threaded nylon shear pins will be used. These will be inserted through holes drilled on either side of the couplings between the nosecone shoulder and main parachute compartment, as well as between the payload and drogue parachute compartments (requirement 2.10). When the ejection charge fires, the force of the coupler sliding past will snap the shear pins. However, other stresses under 25 pound force such as those caused by shifting mass, drag, or ejection from another compartment should not be strong enough to cause separation. Stainless steel delta- shaped quick links, with a working load of 1,000 pounds, will be used. These will secure each parachute to its shock harness, and each shock harness to a u-bolt at the bulkhead of each altimeter compartment to ensure secure tethering throughout the flight. A 1.25-inch BeeLine GPS will be used to recover each component upon landing, in the event that tethering separation on descent occurs or visual contact is lost. The first will be mounted inside the nosecone and the second will be mounted under the bulkhead of the drogue compartment. These placements should shield the devices from parachute, black powder charge, and fuel ejection (requirements 2.11.1 and 2.12.2). A corresponding ground receiver will be located on the launch site (requirements 2.4 and 2.11). A fully integrated RF transmitter, GPS and RF antennas, GPS Module, and battery will all be contained in one package (requirement 2.11.3). Altogether, these devices simultaneously transmit latitude, longitude, altitude, course, and speed. The BeeLine GPS has been chosen for its small size, reasonable cost, transmission range at up to 20 miles line of sight, frequent usage in high-powered model rocketry, use of standard decoding hardware (automatic packet reporting system, or APRS), and operation frequency on any frequency in the 70-centimeter amateur radio band. The additional features of course and speed will allow for real-time calculation of landing distance and terminal kinetic energy, as well as serve as a check of the altimeters. The mounting precautions taken along with the 8 hour battery life of the included Lithium-Poly battery, the non-volatile flight-data memory storage (3 hours at 1 Hertz), and the user-programmable transmission rates and output power will together ensure that the devices remain fully functional during the course of the flight (requirement 2.11.2). The components of the recovery section are itemized in Table 4. This includes the total cost and mass (where available) of each item. The total cost reflected in this table is for one fully assembled rocket.
  31. 31. 22 Table 4 – Recovery Systems Budget Item Distributor Item Number Unit Dimensions Unit Cost Qty. Total Cost Main Altimeters Featherweight Altimeters Raven3 1.8” x 0.8” x 0.55”, 0.34oz $155.00 2 $310.00 Backup Altimeters PerfectFlite StratoLogger SL100 2.75” x 0.9” x 0.55”, 0.45oz $79.95 3 $239.85 Electric Matches Coast Rocketry Daveyfire N28BR 1’ long $2.95 4 $11.80 FFFFg Black Powder Goex Goex 4F Black Powder 1lb $15.75 1 $15.75 Black Powder Ejection Charge Holders Aerocon Systems BPSmall 15, 0.0676oz $3.00 1 $3.00 Swivels Commonwealth Rocketry SWLDK80 1.5” $1.99 2 $3.98 Main Shock Cord Giant Leap Rocketry Tubular Kevlar 0.5” x 25’ $37.79 1 $37.79 Drogue Shock Cord Giant Leap Rocketry Tubular Kevlar 0.5” x 20’ $31.49 1 $31.49 Main Parachute Rocketman Enterprises 8 ft. Standard Low-Porosity 1.1oz Ripstop 8’ round $65.00 1 $65.00 Flame- proof Main Rocketman Enterprises DB8 3.25” x 3.25” x 6.5” $40.00 1 $40.00
  32. 32. 23 Parachute Deployme nt Bag (custom) Drogue Parachute Rocketry Warehouse TopFlight 30” 1.7oz Ripstop 30” round $12.95 1 $12.95 Flame- proof Drogue Parachute Deployme nt Bag Rocketman Enterprises DB2 3.25” x 3.25” x 18.5” (custom) $25.00 1 $25.00 U-Bolts Sunward Aerospace U-Bolt Assembly – ¼” (Compact) 0.212” x 1.5” x 2.125”, 1.77oz $4.29 2 $8.58 Quick Links Commonwealth Rocketry ¼” Stainless Steel Delta Quick Link 2.375” x 0.375” x 1.25” $2.99 4 $11.96 Main Shock Cord Giant Leap Rocketry Tubular Kevlar 0.5” x 25’ $37.79 1 $37.79 Shear Pins Missile Works 2-56 Nylon Shear-Pin (10 pack) 10 at 0.08” x 0.5” each, 0.002oz $1.00 1 $1.00 Arming Switches Featherweight Altimeters Featherweig ht Magnetic Switch 0.55” x 0.75” $25.00 4 $100.00 GPS Big Red Bee BeeLine GPS- Package Deal 2 oz, 1.25” x 3” $289.00 2 $578.00 Total Estimated Cost of Recovery Section Components $1496.15 Table 4 – Recovery Systems Budget (Cont’d)
  33. 33. 24 c. Motor Four motors were considered for this project. Each use a solid ammonium perchlorate composite propellant that has been approved by NAR and TRA. The main characteristics considered for motor selection are diameter, length, thrust to weight ratio, total impulse, average thrust, maximum thrust, burn time, launch mass, empty mass and projected apogee height. The burn profile of each motor selection will also be taken into account. Each motor has a diameter of 2.125 inches (54mm). The following table lists the four motor selections and their main characteristics. All data from the table was calculated or obtained by using the Open Rocket simulation software. The motors were compared as shown in Table 5. Table 5 – Motor Trade and Selection Length Thrust to Weight Total Impulse Average Thrust Maximum Thrust Burn Time Launch Mass Empty Mass Apogee Price Cesaroni K1440 22.52” (57.2cm) 15.9 : 1 532.4lbfs (2368Ns) 324.6lbf (1444N) 487.4lbf (2168N) 1.64s 66.8oz 25.8oz 5515ft $157.94 Cesaroni K815 25.55” (64.9cm) 8.82 : 1 518.0lbfs (2304Ns) 185.7lbf (826N) 269.8lbf (1200N) 2.79s 77.5oz 29.1oz 5243ft $170.71 AeroTech K700 22.36” (56.8cm) 7.49 : 1 513.5lbfs (2284Ns) 154.9lbf (689N) 231.3lbf (1029N) 3.3s 71.8oz 26.2oz 5288ft $152.99 Cesaroni K820 22.52” (57.2cm) 9.16 : 1 535.9lbfs (2384Ns) 188.2lbf (837N) 386.7lbf (1720N) 2.84s 69.9oz 26.5oz 5552ft $148.36
  34. 34. 25 Cesaroni K1440 The Cesaroni K1440 has a total impulse of 2368 Newton-seconds, which does not exceed the total impulse maximum of 5120 Newton-seconds. The motor’s corresponding thrust curve as calculated by the open rocket software is represented in Figure 13. As shown in the thrust curve, the motor has a regressive motor burn. Thus, as the motor burns thrust decreases. As shown in the above table and marked in Figure 13, average thrust for this motor is 324.6lbf = 1444N. In the following calculation, the mass of the rocket at launch is used because it represents the maximum mass that the motor would have to be able to lift during the flight. In order that the motor be able to lift the rocket, it must produce enough thrust to overcome the force of gravity, or enough mechanical energy to achieve a thrust to weight ratio of at least 1.0. In general for a high-powered rocket, the thrust to weight ratio is given by . With this motor, the launch mass of the rocket is 326oz = 9.24kg. Noting that the acceleration of gravity is approximately 9.8m/s², for this motor the thrust to weight ratio is given by = 15.9 : 1, which exceeds the suggested ratio of 5 : 1. Figure 13 – Cesaroni K1440 Thrust Curve
  35. 35. 26 Cesaroni K815 The Cesaroni K815 has a total impulse is 2304 Newton-seconds, which does not exceed the total impulse maximum of 5120 Newton-seconds. The motor’s corresponding thrust curve as calculated by the open rocket software is represented in Figure 14. As shown in the thrust curve, the motor quickly reaches the maximum thrust, steeply drops, and then starts a progressive motor burn followed by a regressive motor burn. As shown in Table 5 and marked in Figure 14, average thrust for this motor is 185.7lbf = 826N. With this motor, the launch mass of the rocket is 337oz = 9.55kg. Noting that the acceleration of gravity is approximately 9.8m/s², for this motor the thrust to weight ratio is given by = 8.82 : 1, which exceeds the suggested ratio of 5 : 1. One downside to the Cesaroni K815 is the length of 25.55 inches. The current design allows for only two feet in the motor mount section of the rocket. If this were to be the final motor selection the motor mount section of the rocket would have to be extended. Figure 14 – Cesaroni K815 Thrust Curve Aero-Tech K700 The Aero-Tech K700 has a total impulse of 2284 Newton-seconds, which does not exceed the total impulse maximum of 5120 Newton-seconds. The motor’s
  36. 36. 27 corresponding thrust curve as calculated by the open rocket software is represented in Figure 15. As shown in the thrust curve, the motor has a regressive motor burn. Thus, as the motor burns thrust decreases. As shown in the above table and marked in Figure 15, average thrust for this motor is 154.9lbf = 689N. With this motor, the launch mass of the rocket is 331oz = 9.38kg. Noting that the acceleration of gravity is approximately 9.8m/s², for this motor the thrust to weight ratio is given by T/W = 689N/9.38kg*9.8m/s² = 7.49 : 1, which exceeds the suggested ratio of 5 : 1. One downside to the Aero-Tech K700 is that many high powered rocket enthusiasts have discouraged the use of Aero-Tech motors due to their high level of variability in comparison to Cesaroni motors. Figure 15 – Aero-Tech K700 Thrust Curve Cesaroni K820 The Cesaroni K820 has a total impulse of 2384 Newton-seconds, which does not exceed the total impulse maximum of 5120 Newton-seconds. The motor’s corresponding thrust curve as calculated by the open rocket software is represented in Figure 16. As shown in the thrust curve, the motor has a somewhat neutral but overall regressive motor burn. Thus, as the motor burns thrust decreases slowly. As shown in Table 5 and marked in Figure 16, average thrust for this motor is 188.2lbf = 837N. With
  37. 37. 28 this motor, the launch mass of the rocket is 329oz = 9.32kg. Noting that the acceleration of gravity is approximately 9.8m/s², for this motor the thrust to weight ratio is given by = 9.16 : 1, which exceeds the suggested ratio of 5 : 1. Figure 16 – Cesaroni K820 Thrust Curve After evaluating the four motors, the Cesaroni K1440 is the proposed selection. This selection is based upon the apogee height achieved. Considering total mass will most likely increase and not decrease, the calculated apogee of 5515 feet will inevitably decrease. The motor also has a high thrust to weight ratio, allowing it to easily depart from the launch rail. d. Payload Description The payload section of the flight vehicle will be enclosed in the acrylic payload housing structure. The payload housing structure is designed to remain attached to the upper body tube throughout the flight. The payload is proposed to consist of a fiberglass cap at the upper portion of payload housing structure, a threaded lower portion of the payload housing structure, and a payload framework on which the payload circuits are mounted. The payload framework is composed of two aluminum rails attached to a threaded cap. Modular circuit boards, with a width of no more than 3.5 inches and stacked in a vertically orientation, will be mounted to the aluminum rails. The threaded cap will be screwed into the threaded lower end of the acrylic payload housing structure.
  38. 38. 29 The intent of this is to provide a modular design for the payload framework and provide a pressure seal from the drogue parachute compartment. This modular design allows easy access to the each circuit board and its corresponding components. Figure 17 represents the conceptual layout of the payload. 3.5 in 34.5 in Figure 17 – Payload Layout: Front view (left), rear view (right)
  39. 39. 30 The payload will be equipped with the appropriate electronic hardware for meeting the SMD payload requirements (requirement 3.1.3). The main flight computer will be an Arduino Mega 2560-R3. We will also use 2 Arduino Pro Mini 328s to control specific processes of video and image capture. The payload circuitry will be divided into sections as shown in Figure 18. This allows an organized layout of components based upon the required power supply and microcontroller for that section. We will have redundant sensors for measuring temperature, pressure, relative humidity, solar irradiance, and ultraviolet radiation. The microcontrollers and sensors will be calibrated to sample at no less than 0.2 Hz during descent, followed by 0.017 Hz after landing (requirements 3.1.3.2 and 3.1.3.3). Two cameras, each controlled by a dedicated Arduino Pro Mini, will be mounted to face 180 degrees away from each other to better capture the surrounding environment. The cameras will take a minimum of 5 pictures of proper orientation (requirement 3.1.3.6); two during descent and three post landing (requirement 3.1.3.5). We will have a total of five 9 volt batteries in the payload section. This is to ensure adequate capacity for operating all sensors and components, and furthermore allows independent voltage leveling of each battery to the corresponding payload section. Each section of the electronics layout will have a dedicated 9-volt power supply from an Ultralife U9VLBP battery. This voltage will be leveled by an appropriate buck converter to either 3.3V or 5V, depending on the sensors of that section. The payload will have a GPS tracking unit that will be controlled by the Arduino Mega (requirement 3.1.3.9). Each camera will have its data stored on a dedicated microSD card under the control of an Arduino Pro Mini. All other sensor data will be stored onboard to a microSD card, under control of the Arduino Mega (requirement 3.1.3.7). A Sparkfun LCD will be used to display relevant data that can be viewed through the transparent acrylic body tube. All data stored onboard will also be transmitted to the team ground station (requirement 3.1.3.7). This will be achieved by an XBee Pro 900MHz Radio Transmitter located in the Figure 18 – CAD Rendering of Payload Layout
  40. 40. 31 payload section under control of the Arduino Mega. Signal will be received by a high gain, directional patch antenna located at the ground station, and will be displayed in real-time through MATLAB on the ground station computer. The orientation of the ground station antenna will be controlled by an automated tracking system. The GPS will relay the coordinates of the rocket vehicle to the ground station computer, where a program will predict rocket trajectory. This information will be used to actuate the directional antenna, in both azimuth and elevation, to achieve tracking; minimizing loss in reception during flight and descent. Table 6 shows dimensions and costs of electronic components being considered for use in the payload. Table 6 – Electronics Trade and Selection Rating Breakout Board Distributor Part Number Interface Dimensions (L x W x H) Mass Input Voltage Current Draw Cost Flight Computer 1. Sparkfun Arduino 2560-R3 N/A 2.125 x 4.3125” 2.3oz (65g) 7 – 12V 20 - 200mA $58.95 2. Sparkfun Arduino Pro Mini 328 N/A 0.7 x 1.3” .07oz (2g) 5 – 12V 150mA $18.95 Altimeter 1. DSS Circuits BMP180 I2 C 0.625 x 0.5” .04oz (1.1g) 1.8 - 3.6V 3 – 32μA $15.00 2. Sparkfun BMP085 I2 C 0.65 x 0.65” .04oz (1.1g) 1.8 - 3.6V 3 – 12μA $19.95 3. Pololu MPL115A1 SPI 0.5 x 0.75” .04oz (1.1g) 2.4 – 5.5V 10μA $24.95 Hygrometer 1. Sparkfun HIH4030 Analog 0.75 x 0.30” .04oz (1.1g) 4 – 5.8V 200μA $16.95 2. Adafruit SHT11 Serial 0.43 x 0.49” .004oz (0.1g) 2.4 – 5.5V 10μA $35.00 Table 6 – Electronics Trade and Selection (Cont’d)
  41. 41. 32 3. Robotshop RB-Dfr-68 I2 C 0.67 x 1.26” .18oz (5g) 2.4 – 5.5V 10μA $24.00 Thermometer 1. DSS Circuits BMP180 I2 C 0.625 x 0.5” 0.04oz (1.1g) 1.8 - 3.6V 3 – 32μA $15.00 2. Sparkfun BMP085 I2 C 0.65 x 0.65” 0.04oz (1.1g) 1.8 - 3.6V 3 – 12μA $19.95 3. Adafruit SHT11 Serial 0.43 x 0.49” 0.004o z (0.1g) 2.4 – 5.5V 10μA $35.00 Pressure Sensor 1. DSS Circuits BMP180 I2 C 0.625 x 0.5” 0.04oz (1.1g) 1.8 - 3.6V 3 – 32μA $15.00 2. Sparkfun BMP085 I2 C 0.65 x 0.65” 0.04oz (1.1g) 1.8 - 3.6V 3 – 12μA $19.95 3. Pololu MPL115A1 SPI 0.5 x 0.75” .05oz (1.4g) 2.4 – 5.5V 10μA $24.95 UV Sensor 1. sglux TOCON_A BC3 Analog 0.4 x 0.4 x 0.3” 0.02oz (0.5g) 2.5 – 15V 0.8mA $148.0 0 2. Apogee SU-100 Analog 0.925 x 0.925 x 1.08” 2.65oz (75g) 0V 0A $159.0 0 3. Solar Light Inc. PMA1107 Analog 1.6 x 1.6 x 1.8” 7.05oz (200g) 0V 0A $525.0 0 Pyranometer 1. Adafruit TSL2561 I2 C 0.75 x 0.75” 0.053o z(1.5g) 2.7 – 3.6V 0.5mA $12.50 2. Apogee SP-110 Analog 0.925 x 0.925 x 1.11” 2.47oz (70g) 0V 0A $169.0 0 3. Sparkfun TEMT6000 Analog 0.39 x 0.39” 0.04oz (1g) 5V 20mA $8.99 Table 6 – Electronics Trade and Selection (Cont’d)
  42. 42. 33 Wireless Transmitter / Receiver 1. Digi XBee-PRO XSC S3B Serial 0.31oz (8.7g) 2.4 – 3.6V 215mA $42.00 XBee Circuit Board Spacing Adapter 1. Parallax 32403 N/A 1.16 x 1.0 x 0.58” - 0V 0A $2.99 2. Sparkfun 08276 N/A 1 x 1” - 0V 0A $2.95 GPS 1. Locosys LS20031 Serial 1.18 x 1.18” 0.49oz (14g) 3 – 4.2V 29mA $60.00 Camera 1. Adafruit VC0706 Serial 1.26 x 1.26” 1.76oz (50g) 5V 75mA $42.00 2. Sparkfun SEN- 10061 Serial 1.26 x 1.26” 1.76oz (50g) 5V 80- 100mA $49.95 3. Adafruit 613 Serial 2 x 2 x 2.5” 5.29oz (150g) 5V 75mA $59.95 16GB SDHC Micro-SD Card 1. Wal-Mart 3FMUSD1 6FB-R N/A 2.2 x 0.3 x 3.4” 0.11oz (3g) N/A N/A $9.99 Micro-SD Adapter 1. Adafruit 254 SPI 1.25 x 1 x 0.15” 0.12oz (3.43g) 3 – 5V 150mA $15.00 2. Parallax 32312 SPI 1.11 x 1 x 0.47” 0.11oz (3g) 3.3V 0.5 mA $14.99 3. Sparkfun 00544 SPI 0.94 x 0.94” 0.09oz (2.5g) 5V 0.5mA $9.95 LCD 1. Sparkfun 10168 SPI 1.75 x 1.75” 2.47oz (70g) 3.3 – 6V 240 - 320μA $9.95 Table 6 – Electronics Trade and Selection (Cont’d)
  43. 43. 34 2. Sparkfun 11062 SPI 1.5 x 2.5” 2.47oz (70g) 3.3 – 6V 108 – 324mA $34.95 Voltage Leveler 1. Self Manufacture Buck Converter N/A - - N/A - - Power Supply 1. Ultralife U9VLBP N/A 1.81x1.04x0. 69” 1.28oz (36.4g) 5.4 – 9.9V Max 120 mA $6.65 Table 6 – Electronics Trade and Selection (Cont’d)
  44. 44. 35 Figure 19 shows a conceptual wiring layout for the microcontroller and electronic components. This does not reflect the final wiring schematic, but displays the general scheme for electrical connections. Figure 19 – Conceptual Wiring Diagram
  45. 45. 36 Figure 20 illustrates the software logic proposed for the payload section. Until the project begins, the software will not be finalized. Figure 20 – Payload Software Flow Chart
  46. 46. 37 e. Requirements Vehicle Requirements This section discusses the vehicle, recovery system, payload, and general requirements as given in the 2012-2013 NASA SLP Manual. The motor selection will be based on the appropriate thrust need to lift the mass of the rocket vehicle to 1 mile AGL. All motors being considered adhere to the requirements of APCP fuel source and NAR and TRA regulations. Of the motors considered, the largest total impulse is 2384 Newton-seconds. Our proposed choice of motor is a Cesaroni K1440. The impulse of the motor will not allow the rocket vehicle to reach a supersonic velocity. The rocket motor to be used will be a standard, commercially available motor that can be ignited by a standard 12 volt DC firing system. No other circuitry or equipment will be required to initiate launch (Vehicle Requirements 1.1, 1.3, 1.9 – 1.12). The Perfect-flight altimeter will be used. This device reports altitude as a series of beeps as required. The payload section will have 2 BMP180 pressure/temperature sensors that will be used to calculate altitude and 2 redundant sensors in case of device failure. Additional altimeters will be used in conjunction with black powder ejection charges to allow separation of various sections at prescribed altitudes. The altimeter to be used for official scoring will be pre-determined and implemented into the rocket design accordingly. The perfect flight altimeter is capable of producing these beeps to indicate the maximum altitude achieved during flight. Our design incorporates no other audible electronics other than the altimeter required for official scoring. The official, marked altimeter shall be incorporated into the rocket vehicle such that it will suffer no damage or loss of functionality throughout the flight. A team member will be delegated to ensure that the NASA official will receive a report of the achieved altitude from the flight. The aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle, along with the selection of the motor, will be made such that the rocket will not achieve an altitude greater than 5,600 feet AGL (Vehicle Requirements 1.2). The proposed recovery system will allow the entirety of the rocket vehicle to safely drift back to ground level such that the vehicle will experience no structural damage. The vehicle is proposed to have 4 sections, all tethered together during the entire flight such that they are attached after any separation events (Vehicle Requirements 1.4, 1.5). A pre-flight configuration procedure will be developed and implemented that is achievable in the specified 2 hour time frame. A power budget will be used to justify
  47. 47. 38 required system runtime of all critical on-board components to maintain at least one hour of functionality while on the launch pad (Vehicle Requirements 1.6, 1.7). Rail buttons to be mounted on the vehicle body will be compatible with the 1010 rail. The ballast system to control altitude will not consist of any more than 10% of the total mass of the unballasted rocket vehicle (Vehicle Requirements 1.8, 1.14). A full-scale demonstration flight with full-scale motor (Cesaroni K1440) and payload onboard will be performed and reviewed to ensure functionality and integrity of all systems. In the event that the payload is not included, mass simulators will be utilized aboard the rocket. If we use mass simulators, their position in the vehicle will accurately reflect the mass location of the full scale system. Our demonstration flight will include the complete ballast system to be used in the official flight. Our mentor, Pat Gordzelik (TRA Vice President), will be present at the full-scale demonstration launch and certifying our flight form. After successfully completing the full-scale demonstration flight, the launch vehicle or any of its components shall not be modified without the concurrence of the NASA Range Safety Officer (RSO); however, a successful full scale demonstration will warrant no needed changes to our rocket design (Vehicle Requirements 1.15). Our projected budget will allow the total cost of the rocket and payload to be approximately $3,200, less than the $5,000 limit (Vehicle Requirements 1.16). The breakdown of each subsystem cost is shown in Table 7. Table 7 – Technical Design Cost Summary Subsystem Cost Payload $877.16 Recovery System $1,496.15 Motor $297.87 Vehicle Housing $400.06 Pursuant to the listed prohibitions, the design of vehicle will have no forward canards, one rearward firing motor, and will not expel titanium sponges. Furthermore, our design includes only one solid-propellant motor (Vehicle Requirements 1.17).
  48. 48. 39 Recovery System Requirements A dual-stage deployment recovery system will be employed. The upper section consists of the nosecone, main parachute, main deployment altimeter housing, and payload sections tethered together. The booster section contains the drogue parachute, drogue deployment altimeter housing, and motor sections tethered together. The proposed total weight of the upper section is = 4.60 kilograms, while that of the booster section is = 4.64 kilograms. By the maximum final descent rate of = 3.91 meters per second, the maximum terminal kinetic energy of the upper section is then = 35.16 Joules = 25.93 feet pound force, while that of the booster section is 35.47 Joules = 26.16 feet pound force, each less than the required maximum 75 feet pound force terminal kinetic energy. Calculating descent time after each event to be t = d/v where d = distance travelled in feet and v = maximum descent velocity upon each event, the first part of descent takes no less than 65.06 seconds while the second half of the descent takes no less than 38.97 seconds. In a constant 15 mile per hour wind, the concept of relative velocity enables the calculation of a landing radius of 1,430.46 feet for the first half of the descent with an additional 857.44 feet for the second half. The maximum landing radius is thus found to be (1,430.46 + 857.44) feet = 2,287.9 feet from the launch pad which is within the required 2,500 feet maximum landing radius (Recovery Systems Requirements 2.1 – 2.3). The main Featherweight Raven3 and the backup PerfectFlite StratoLogger altimeters as well as the BeeLine GPS will be programmed independently of the payload and monitored remotely using the manufacturer software. Each deployment will be controlled by two altimeters, the main a Featherweight Raven3 and the backup a PerfectFlite StratoLogger. They will be equipped with an externally accessible magnetic arming switch capable of being locked in the “on” position for launch. The magnetic arming switches will not generate magnetic waves because current is not run through the magnets when locked. The arming switches dedicated to the dual altimeters controlling main parachute deployment will be located at 5 feet above the base of the launch vehicle, while those dedicated to the dual altimeters controlling drogue parachute deployment will be located at 2 feet above the base of the launch vehicle. The altimeters shall have their own dedicated power supplies; the chosen altimeters are each capable of running independently for weeks on a standard 9V battery. Each altimeter will be programmed to light a one-foot-long low-current Daveyfire N28BR electric match to ignite two separate black powder charges, one main and one backup, to ensure separation and ejection (Recovery Systems Requirements 2.4 – 2.9, 2.12.1, 2.12.3, 2.13).
  49. 49. 40 Removable threaded nylon shear pins will be inserted through holes drilled on either side of the couplings between the nosecone shoulder and main parachute compartment and between the payload and drogue parachute compartments (Recovery Systems Requirements 2.10). A 1.25-inch BeeLine GPS will be mounted inside of each the nosecone and upper internal outer motor compartment with a corresponding ground receiver located on the launch site. The upper section contains tethered together the nosecone, main parachute, main parachute altimeter housing, and payload sections, while the bottom component contains tethered together the drogue parachute, drogue parachute altimeter housing, and motor sections. In order to locate each of the two tethered vehicle sections, a 1.25-inch BeeLine GPS will be mounted inside of each the nosecone and under the bulkhead of the drogue compartment. The mounting precautions taken along with the eight-hour battery life of the included Lithium-Poly battery, the non- volatile flight-data memory storage (three hours at 1-Hz), and the user-programmable transmission rates and output power will together ensure that the devices remain fully functional during flight. The BeeLine GPS contains a fully integrated RF transmitter, GPS and RF antennas, GPS Module, and battery all in one package, so while beeping can be programmed to occur in conjunction with transmission, it does not replace the transmitting tracking device (Recovery Systems Requirement 2.11). Each set of altimeters are to be housed in a sealed 4.5-inch compartment below each parachute compartment in the vehicle body. The transmitting tracking devices are to be located in the nosecone and motor housings. There are several compartments between the altimeters and the transmitting tracking devices in one case and at least a bulkhead in between in the other case. There is also a full parachute compartment and a bulkhead in between the main parachute altimeters and the payload, so no other transmitting electronics on board should be able to interfere with any of the four altimeters (Recovery Systems Requirement 2.12). Pursuant to the listed prohibitions, our design will not include flashbulbs or a rear ejection parachute design (Recovery Systems Requirement 2.14). Payload Requirements Option 3.1.3 (The Science Mission Directorate) shall be chosen for our payload design. We hope to gain sponsorship for this selection. To ensure the SMD requirement of data acquisition is met the team has done a trade and selection for pressure, temperature, relative humidity, solar irradiance and ultraviolet radiation sensors. We have yet to
  50. 50. 41 finalize our choice of sensor models. The proposed flight computer, Arduino Mega 2560-R3, is capable of operating at one iteration every 5 seconds or faster. After it has detected a successful landing it will reduce the clock cycles to once every minute. After 10 minutes on the ground it shall stop collecting data. The onboard camera shall take pictures at two predetermined heights during the descent phase of the rocket. After landing, pictures will be taken in 3 minute intervals until the payload has terminated processing data. Methods of controlling camera orientation will be investigated. All images will be stored to an onboard micro-SD memory device, while all telemetry shall be transmitted via XBee radios to our ground station. A Locosys LS20031 GPS unit will be used to track the location of our payload. During the flight, the payload will not separate from the upper section of the rocket. The rocket is being designed with the intention of being launched more than once; our payload will be recovered and reused without any modifications (Payload Requirements 3.1.3, 3.5). Upon retrieving the flight and sensor data from the onboard SD card it will be analyzed following the scientific method (Payload Requirements 3.2). Our proposed rocket will not include any UAV components and will not require any jettison events (Payload Requirements 3.3, 3.4). General Requirements The Team Safety Officer has prepared and will enforce the use of the launch and safety checklist as presented in the safety section. It will be included in the PDR, CDR, FRR, and launch day operations. No part of the project has been done by anyone other than the team members of the Tarleton Aeronautical Team. Our project plan is included within our proposal and will be overseen by our project manager Dustin. All current members are at least 18 years of age and US citizens. These members are identified in the school information section of our proposal (General Requirements 4.1 – 4.3, 4.5, 4.6). Our TRA mentor, Pat Gordzelik, is level 3 certified with NAR and TRA. He is currently the vice president of the TRA. His TRA membership number is 5746. The Team Safety Officer will ensure that the team abides by the rules and guidance of Mr. Gordzelik. Our faculty mentors are Dr. Bryant Wyatt and Dr. Bowen Brawner. Dr. Brawner is level 1 certified with NAR (General Requirements 4.4, 4.5, 4.7). The Team Educational Outreach Coordinator is in charge of the educational engagement portion of the project. He has planned multiple events to involve at least
  51. 51. 42 100 middle-school students and educators. The Team Web Designer will be in charge of developing and maintaining the team Web site where all required deliverables will be posted (General Requirements 4.8, 4.9). f. Challenges and Solutions Reaching an Apogee of One Mile Several energy management ideas have been researched. The proposed design approximates the total mass and uses the Open Rocket simulation software to calculate apogee. If the apogee height is above one mile, a ballast mass of less than ten percent of the total mass would be added to the nosecone. Camera Orientation To force the camera to stay oriented such that the pictures display the sky at the top and the ground at the bottom, a multi-servo mechanism controlled by a gyroscope and a microprocessor has been considered. Maintaining Telemetry Through past experience with wireless transmission at high acceleration, the team realizes that maintaining telemetry throughout the flight will be a challenge. One consideration to solve this challenge is an automated tracking system based on GPS, acceleration, and altitude data transmitted from the payload. Protecting Sensors from Atmospheric Damage The initial rocket design allowed the pyranometer, UV sensor, and camera to be exposed to the outer atmosphere. To protect these sensors and to simplify the design the proposed solution is the use of a clear acrylic payload structure. Through testing the team will calculate the effects of clear acrylic on the accuracy of these sensors and the clarity of the camera pictures. Structural Integrity of Acrylic One perceived challenge is the strength of acrylic. The strength of acrylic will be measured through testing. If the measured strength does not meet the standards of a high powered rocket, supplementary payload designs will be implemented
  52. 52. 43 Educational Engagement Outreach Goals The education outreach goal is to promote student interest and attitudes toward studies in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The target population is area middle school science and mathematics students. Many of the classrooms in the region serve high numbers of Hispanic and low socio-economic students, who have historically been underrepresented in the STEM fields. The Department of Labor report The STEM Workforce Challenge (2007) emphasized that the low engagement of students from these demographics, who comprise a growing proportion of the college population, is a major concern to U.S. competitiveness and growth. The project design is made up of four interrelated initiatives that are increasing in scope and size. The first three specifically target students in grades 6th through 8th (middle school) while the fourth initiative reaches out to the community at large. The initiatives specific to middle school students include single class lessons, large group activities, and field trips to the University. The fourth initiative is our community outreach event. The team will construct and use math and science lesson plans encouraging students to pursue STEM fields. All lessons and activities will use best practices, complying with state and national standards for STEM education for the appropriate grade levels (http://www.education.ne.gov/science/Documents/National_Science_Standardspdf.pdf, http://www.education.com/reference/article/Ref_National_Grade_8_Math/). Research has shown that using hands-on activities and investigations leads to greater student engagement and deeper understanding of STEM concepts. Lou F., a biology major pursing teacher certification, is the lead on all educational initiatives. Implementation of the first three initiatives will require two to four team members to visit local school STEM classrooms. Lessons will focus on the three laws of Newtonian motion, incorporating interactive activities to help the students learn the material. Students will also be given worksheets involving measurements of an actual rocket to assist with visual learning. Rockets from the Advanced Rocketry Workshop in Huntsville, Alabama will be used for demonstrations. The use of real rockets will help maintain student attention and assist the students in the learning process. Students will compare the motor tube size to the airframe and measure the size of the fins. They will also learn how to calculate the thrust-to-weight ratio of a rocket and the proper ratio that should be used when launching a rocket. In addition the team plans to survey established and effective
  53. 53. 44 lessons that are available through the Web and other resources. Other STEM topics within the school curriculum pertaining to rocketry may also be discussed. The middle school campus visits will include bottle rocket launches. These presentations will allow students to launch their own two liter water rockets into the air. Stations will be set up with a mount such that every student will get a chance to launch his or her own water rocket. The community outreach portion, Tarleton Rocket Day, is designed as a follow-up event to the educational initiatives. Tarleton Rocket Day will bring out the larger community and the families of these middle school students to experience the science of rocketry in a fun, engaging environment. The event should improve parental understanding of science and change their attitudes about STEM careers. This will increase the likelihood that they will encourage their child’s future pursuits in STEM fields. Tarleton Rocket Day is tentatively scheduled to take place on the Tarleton State University campus on March 23, 2013. Tarleton University President Dr. Dottavio has already expressed his support of this event. Families from nearby surrounding towns will be invited to come enjoy a day with our rocket team and learn about the principles of rocketry. While the first three of our four educational initiatives are aimed at middle school students, there will be no age limit for Tarleton Rocket Day. Different stations set up all over campus will include water rocket stations for younger students and a higher powered rocket station for high school students. There will also be poster stations all over campus to teach students about specific rockets and how they work, including how to successfully launch a rocket. Students will get to hear about some of the failures from our past rocket launches and how to prevent them. There will also be a station to show students how to specifically calculate the displacement of a rocket. This aids in finding a landed rocket in case sight of it is lost during descent. Students will also learn about the NASA Student Launch Initiative (SLI), a project which would prepare them for university student competitions such as the NASA University Student Launch Initiative (USLI). This will further stimulate the amount of students heading towards STEM fields. Since students will need to be monitored to ensure safe launches, many of the team members will be present for these activities. A dedicated team member will show the students how to properly place their rockets on the mount. Each mount will then be inspected by a team member prior to launch. Under the supervision of a designated
  54. 54. 45 team member each student will have the design freedom to paint his or her own rocket and choose a basic fin shape. Area schools that have already committed to participation in our educational initiatives are listed below. Those in the first table are expected to be reached by the first two initiatives, while those in the second table will likely participate in the second two initiatives. We expect to reach approximately 2,500 area middle school students. Comprehensive feedback will be gathered through evaluation surveys given to participants at each event. All surveys will be compiled and reviewed by the team. An action plan will be implemented to ameliorate any problems. Table 8 – Lessons and Group Activities Middle School Location Expected Number of Students Reached Cross Plains Cross Plains, TX 76443 46 Hamilton Junior High Hamilton, TX 76531 38 Henderson Junior High Stephenville, TX 76401 63 Glen Rose Junior High Glen Rose, TX 76403 27 Table 9 – Field Trips and Rocket Day Middle School Location Expected Number of Students Reached St. Stephen’s Episcopal School Austin, TX 78746 205 Harmony Science Academy San Antonio, TX 78245 192 Harmony Science Academy Waco, TX 76710 120 Greenhill School Addison, TX 75001 266 Harmony Science Academy Fort Worth, TX 76133 143 Carrollton Christian Academy Carrollton, TX 75010 105 Santo Forte Junior High School Azle, TX 76020 418 Westview Middle School Austin, TX 78727 859 Briscoe Junior High School Richmond, TX 77406 1146 Harmony School of Ingenuity Houston, TX 77025 103
  55. 55. 46 Table 10 – Educational Engagement Budget Material Quantity Company Price 5” corner irons 20 Stanley $ 91.80 ¾” wood screws 200 Bolt Depot $ 12.56 5” mounting plate 1 none Created 6” spikes 10 Jamar $ 5.00 10” spikes 50 pound bag Daybag Outlet $ 64.00 5x¼” carriage bolts 10 Drillspot $ 5.80 ¼” nuts 200 Wholesale Bolts $ 2.78 3” eyebolt 50 Grainger $ 25.05 ¾” washers 20 Grainger $ 5.47 ¼” nuts (for eyebolt) 200 Wholesale Bolts $ 2.78 ¼” washers (for eyebolt) 50 Amazon $ 5.20 #3 rubber stopper – 1 hole 1 WidgetCo $ 0.59 snap-in tubeless tire valve 50 Grainger $ 67.28 12”x18”x¾” wood board 1 none Created 2 liter plastic bottle 1 Wal-Mart $ 2.67 electric drill & bits 1 none Have Screwdriver 1 none Have pliers or open-end wrench 1 none Have Vice 1 Wal-Mart $ 19.00 12’ of ¼” cord 1 none Have Pencil 1 none Have Total per unit $ 309.98 Total for 10 mounts $ 3,099.80 *Used for bottle rocket launch pad for students in 2 liter water rocket launching activity.
  56. 56. 47 Figure 21 – Traveling Estimate Table 11 – Educational Engagement Travel Budget Miles Gas (gallons) Cost 282 18.8 $62.04 *Estimate for gasoline priced on 8/1/12 subject to change, fuel based on 15 passenger van: estimated 15 miles per gallon highway. Figure 21 shows distance of travel to different schools for educational engagement. Mileage is calculated from round-trips. Table 12 gives a projected budget for the planned Tarleton Rocket Day. Table 12 – Tarleton Rocket Day Budget Material Quantity Company Price Poster 10 Office Depot $ 147.90 1/2A6-2 Motor 10 Estes $ 110.10 Blue Streak Rocket 10 Apogee $ 105.10 Total $ 363.10 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Cross Plains Glen Rose Hamilton Stephenville M i l e s Town Traveling Traveling
  57. 57. 48 Project Plan 1. Timeline The Tarleton Aeronautical Team understands that a project of this magnitude requires a lot of time and dedication. We have organized the following schedule to meet the requirements of the project, as shown below in Table 13. Gantt Charts detailing the project timeline follow. Table 13 - Tentative Meeting Schedule Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday 8:00am Sub- Team Meetings and Flight Testing Sub- Team Meetings and Flight Testing 9:00am 10:00am 11:00am 12:00pm Team Meeting Team Meeting1:00pm Sub- Team Meetings and Flight Testing 2:00pm 3:00pm 4:00pm Sub-Team Meetings5:00pm Team Meeting6:00pm 7:00pm 8:00pm
  58. 58. 49 Figure 22 – USLI Dates
  59. 59. 50 Figure 23 – Team Dates
  60. 60. 51 2. Budget Plan A summary of the costs for various aspects of the project has been assembled into chart format for efficiency and ease of use. Table 14 refers to pertinent information about the rocket motor, motor casing, as well as motor retainer. Table 14 – Propulsion Budget Manufacturer Item Distributor Price Cesaroni K1440 Apogee $157.94 Aeropack 54mm Motor Retainer Apogee $34.00 Cesaroni 54mm 6-Grain Case Apogee $105.93 Total Cost of Propulsion System $297.87 Table 15 is a list of all currently proposed payload components and their prices as well as other pertinent data. Table 15 – Payload Electronic Components Budget Purpose Component Price Quantity Total Flight Computer Arduino 2560-R3 $58.95 1 $58.95 Arduino Pro Mini $18.95 2 $37.90 Pressure, Temperature BMP180 $15.00 4 $60.00 Humidity HIH4030 $16.95 2 $33.90 Ultraviolent Radiation TOCON_ABC3 $148.00 2 $296.00 Solar Irradiance TSL2561 $12.50 2 $25.00 Wireless Transmitter XBee-PRO XSC S3B $42.00 1 $42.00 XBee Adapter Parallax 32403 $2.99 1 $2.99 GPS LS20031 $60.00 1 $60.00 Camera VC0706 $42.00 2 $84.00 On Board Storage 16GB Micro-SD $9.99 3 $29.97
  61. 61. 52 Table 15 – Payload Electronics Components Budget (Cont’d) Micro-SD Adapter Adafruit 254 $15.00 3 $45.00 LCD Sparkfun 11062 $34.95 1 $34.95 Power Supply U9VLBP $6.65 10 $66.50 Total Price Spent on the Payload Electronic Components $877.16 Approximate cost for proposed ground station design amounts to $2500. The following budgets have been estimated from the trade selection contained in each of the above sections and rounded for clarity. The launch day rocket and payload budget is $3,415 (Figure 24). In accordance with competition guidelines, this amount does not exceed $5,000. This portion of the budget includes the cost of materials for the recovery system, payload, vehicle, and motor to be used on launch day. For research and development (R&D) the proposed budget is $13,800 (Figure 25). This includes an estimated SMD Payload (R&D) cost of $5,000. The total budget (Figure 26) includes educational outreach ($3,500) and team travel to competition ($9,200), giving a total project budget of $29,915. Figure 24 – Launch Day Rocket and Payload $1,500.00 44% $980.00 29% $600.00 17% $335.00 10% Launch Day Rocket and Payload Recovery Payload Vehicle Motor
  62. 62. 53 Figure 25 - Research and Development Figure 26 - Total Project Budget $5,000.00 36% $4,000.00 29% $3,000.00 22% $1,800.00 13% Research and Development Payload Motor Recovery Vehicle $13,800.00 46% $9,200.00 31% $3,500.00 12% $3,415.00 11% Total Project Budget Research and Development Travel Education Launch Day Rocket and Payload
  63. 63. 54 3. Funding – Tarleton State University (TSU) and others  TSU President’s Circle, the Provost’s Office, the Dean of the College of Science and the Tarleton Foundation: $11,500 (Received 8/29/2012)  NASA SMD Payload: $2780 (Pending Approval)  DUNS: 801781865 Cage Code: 5RTD4  TSU REAL Grants: $1500- $3000 Committed.  TSU Student Research Grant: $8000-$12000 Committed.  Local Businesses: $250 Received 7/8/2012.  Texas Space Grant Consortium: Proposal Submitted to director on 8/27/2012; Awaiting Response  SpaceX: We are in correspondence with the educational outreach officer at Space X in McGregor, Texas 4. Community Support Plan  Parallelus Incorporated Local electronic company that will review the circuitry and programming aspects of our design reviews.  Community Volunteer Engineering Review Board A panel of expert engineers from local industry will review and critique our design and documentation.  Marsha Decker – Technical Editor English Adjunct Instructor who will review the grammatical aspects and format of our design reviews.  Various Small Businesses Due to the team’s effort, local businesses have expressed interest in supporting the Tarleton Aeronautical Team. 5. Challenges and Solutions  Time Management The project requires a time intensive schedule to complete tasks. We will organize our time thoroughly. Time also must be delegated appropriately to ensure completion of the project.  Budget Management All cost will be carefully documented and maintained such that we can monitor budget standing throughout the course of the project.  Documentation Management
  64. 64. 55 On top of community supported reviews we have scheduled team reviews of all documentation prior to specified deadlines. We will utilize DropBox, an online storage means, so that all members have access to documents. Each team member is responsible for the upkeep of documentation to their specified sub-system. 6. Project Sustainability Plan By sponsoring a rocket day, the rocket team plans to begin an annual event that will make a lasting impact on Tarleton’s campus. This should draw interest and sustainability to the project. We also plan to present at student research symposiums on campus as well as at affiliated universities. Our success at the CanSat competition last semester has already sparked interest in the program. Interest in aeronautics at Tarleton has grown incredibly since the team’s inception. Deliverables as stated in the SOW 1. A reusable rocket and science or engineering payload ready for the official launch. 2. A scale model of the rocket design with a payload prototype. This model should be flown prior to the CDR. A report of the data from the flight and the model should be brought to the CDR. 3. Reports, PowerPoint presentations, and Milestone Review Flysheets due according to the provided timeline, and shall be posted on the team Web site by the due date. (Dates are tentative at this point. Final dates will be announced at the time of award.) 4. The team(s) shall have a Web presence no later than the date specified. The Web site shall be maintained/updated throughout the period of performance. 5. Electronic copies of the Educational Engagement form(s) and comprehensive feedback pertaining to the implemented educational engagement activities shall be submitted prior to the FRR. The team shall participate in a PDR, CDR, FRR, LRR, and PLAR. (Dates are tentative and subject to change.) The PDR, CDR, FRR, and LRR will be presented to NASA at a time and/or location to be determined by NASA MSFC Academic Affairs Office.
  65. 65. 56 Appendix A – Resumes Dustin Neighbors (806) 319-3723 1073 West Long Street dustin.neighbors@go.tarleton.edu Stephenville, TX 76401 OBJECTIVE: Obtain a lead position on the Tarleton Aeronautical Team for which I may use my knowledge, skills, and experience in Engineering and Physics in order to help solve group problems. PROFESSIONAL QUALIFICATIONS  Superior management skills, thriving in a professional environment.  Outstanding conflict resolution skills, dealing with a broad range of personality types and situations.  Strong computer skills, experience with various software packages.  Excellent problem solver and team player with natural leadership abilities EDUCATION Bachelor of Science in Engineering Physics—Expected Dec. 2015 Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX Minor in Mathematics GPA—3.25 institutional, 3.25 cumulative EDUCATIONAL PROJECTS Project manager / Lead Engineer International CanSat Competition, Aug 2011 – July 2012 WORK EXPERIENCE Harvest Foreman Neighbors Harvesting Inc. May 2007 – May 2010 Duties include but not limited to daily operations management, transportation logistics management, as well as personnel management. Maintenance Engineer Susan Scheafer CPA Cross Plains, TX July 2010 – present Duties include building and grounds assessment, performing general maintenance, as well as managing exterior remodel. PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATIONS Sigma Alpha Phi (The National Society of Leadership and Success)

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