Ассоциация Европейских Приграничных Регионов (АЕПР)Európai Határ Menti Régiók Szövetsége (EHMRS) 1Associació de les Regions Frontereres Europees (ARFE)
Black Sea Economic Forum Yalta (Crimea) 4-5 October 2012 CBC on Tourism: A sustainable approach to developmentThe Association of European Border Regions (AEBR – AGEG – ARFE)
CBC is a story ofMulti-Level Governance and assymetries • 50+ years of “formal” CBC; centuries of “informal” and “abnormal” CBC • Laboratories for European Integration • Central Europe (Rhine basin), Northern Europe, Mediterranean regions, Eastern Europe and far beyond (Caucasus), … • Global CBC for Global Challenges: Latin America and Africa
European experience shows:• Supranational integration processes does not guarantee cohesion in very diverse territories. Their own dynamics strengthen more developed areas (territorial dumping).• There is a need of a “positive discrimination”: territorial cooperation programmes and projects (Interreg) to enhance economic, social and territorial cohesion.
Diversity from being an obstacle to create opportunitiesVarious:• Cultures and social systems• Administrative structures and powers• Fiscal and social legislations• Many other political activities … meet at the borders• Citizens have grown up in very different environments• They will not sacrifice aspects of everyday lives for the European ideal• No State will alter its tried and trusted structures
Objective: Critical Mass• CB regions cover half of their potential areas of influence• CBC makes easier to achieve a critical mass: synergies, efficiency, joint planning and managing• Creation of CB influence areas• Creation of alliances for joint sustainable benefits
Socio-economic added value• Mobilisation of endogenous potential• Participation of economic and social actors• Opening up of labour market• Additional development• Lasting improvements in Spatial Development• Improvement of transport infrastructure
Socio-cultural added value• Dissemination of knowledge• Overview of CB region in maps, publications, teaching material, …• Circle of committed experts• Equal opportunities and extensive knowledge of the languages
Specific added value to implement EU 2020• Additionallity• Synergy• Joint Research and Innovation• Networking• Benchmarking• Spin-off effects• CB resource management
Evidences of CBC specific added value to implement European strategies (I) Creation of CB infrastructures (also maritime) as physical precondition for CBC to create growth and employment:• Spain/France,• Sweden/Finland/Norway,• Alpine area,• external borders of the EU,• etc.
Evidences of CBC specific added value to implement European strategies (II) Further promotion of growth and economic development in addition to national development• CB area Ireland / Northern Ireland;• Germany / Belgium / Netherlands (new jobs);• Spanish / Portuguese (risk capital fund);• Bulgaria and Romania (CB business card).
Evidences of CBC specific added value to implement European strategies (III) New CB business relationships between producers and suppliers• Network of the Chambers of Commerce in Northern Greece / Bulgaria;• Czech Republic / Germany (Saxony);• German / Danish border;• French / German border along the Upper Rhine;• Hungarian / Austrian border.
Evidences of CBC specific added value to implement European strategies (IV) New cooperation and sales opportunities for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) Operational within a radius of 200 km, extending to the neighbouring border region:• Northern Greece: entrepreneurship centre for the Balkan and the Black Sea states;• Finnish / Norwegian / Swedish border: the Arctic Investors Network;• Spanish / Portuguese border: forum of entrepreneurs.
Evidences of CBC specific added value to implement European strategies (V) Establishment and improvement of CB public transport links (buses, railways) for the benefit of citizens, commuters and tourists• Austrian / German border close to Salzburg• Triangle Germany (Bavaria/Saxony) / Czech Republic: CB public transport system including throughout tariffs;• Swedish/Danish border: common public transport across the Oresund Bridge
Evidences of CBC specific added value to implement European strategies (VI) CB tourism concepts and projects :• Lake of Constance (Bodensee)• Germany (Bavaria) / Austria• Poland/Lithuania: joint touristic Service Centre• Galicia / Norte: touristic map for Spanish/Portuguese area• Tatra (Poland/Slovakia) (Carpathians)• Joint touristic marketing and promotion in Ireland/Northern Ireland and the Pyrenees (FR/ES)• Joint touristic strategies for Kent (GB) and North-Pas-de- Callais (FR)
Evidences of CBC specific added value to implement European strategies (VII) Greater catchments area for business activities and services …as research facilities and universities, waste disposal, recycling and infrastructure facilities They would not reach a critical mass, or not even be available at all in border regions, if there were no CBC• Joint Research Institute for New Rehabilitation Techniques• Centre for Microscope and Spectroscope Analyses (both in EUREGIO, DE / NL border)• Cooperation network of universities in Oresund, (DK / DE) and in the CB region South Tyrol / Tyrol (IT / AU)
Evidences of CBC specific added value to implement European strategies (VIII) Additional synergies and spin-off effects Cooperation of universities, colleges of further education and other educational institutions• Cooperation of universities Strasbourg, Basel, Freiburg in the Upper Rhine region• In Lorraine/Saarland• In Friuli-Venezia Giulia with their neighbours in Slovenia and Austria)
Evidences of CBC specific added value to implement European strategies (IX) Sustainable CB management of the environment and environmental protection• Extremadura / Castilla y León /Portugal• The Pyrenees• Germany (Bavaria) /Austria• Austria / Czech Republic• Poland / Ukraine / Belarus• Baltic States / Russia / Belarus
Evidences of CBC specific added value to implement European strategies (X) CBC as model for "new governance“• Everyday and everywhere in Europe• Through Euroregions and similar structures• They practice subsidiarity, partnership, networking, benchmarking, neighbourhood, etc.• … in spite of different languages, structures, competencies and laws on both sides of the border
Conclusions IAfter 2013 :• New opportunities for genuine CBC. 5th cohesion Report recommends to continue (and increase) Territorial Cooperation, in particular CBC.• Treaty of Lisbon also recommends a special attention to CB regions.• The European Parliament has recommended that TC receives 7% of Cohesion Fund (Sánchez Schmid’s report, Pieper’s report) (but latest news: € 5,5 B cut on Cohesion Policy, strong reaction)• Extension of CBC outside the EU borders: - European Eastern Partnership, ENP, and far beyond (Caucasus) - Processes in the Mediterranean basin, the Americas, Africa and Asia
Conclusions II• New challenges for CB structures : - promoting “hot” issues (R&D, reconversion, labour market, CB healthcare, …). - Old wine in new bottles? The risk of “dying of fashion”: euroregions, EGTCs, macroregions (Black cat, white cat, …) - The EU legal instrument EGTC has to be improved by learning from lessons up to now• And also for Networks! (AEBR, MOT, NEEBOR, Baltic, Black Sea, Mediterranean, …) (Benedetti: old answers for new questions?)• More exigences for local and regional levels: pre-condition for successful CBC (and more social participation). Political will and participation .• The States involved should also promote CBC (with their own budgets) in new functional spaces .
Association of European Border RegionsEnscheder Strasse, 362D-48599 Gronau (Germany)Phone: +49-2562-70219 – Fax: +49-2562-70259 THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR ATTENTION Photo: Kazimierz Branny, Czech-Polish border, 8th July 2006 email@example.com