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Electronics ..


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Electronics ..

  1. 1. Fundamentals of Electronics
  2. 2. Electronic Circuit Is composed of different components that are classified as Passive and Active Components.
  3. 3. Are components that do not generate voltage butcontrols the current in a circuit.e.g. Resistors, Capacitors, Inductors etc.
  4. 4. Active Components Are components that can be generate amplify and even controls the current in a circuit e.g. Diode, Transistor, Integrated Circuits (IC)
  5. 5. A. Resistor FamilyResistor - An electrical component that is used to oppose the flow of current
  6. 6. (5 types of Resistor)
  7. 7. 1. Fixed resistor - To limit the current.
  8. 8. 2. Tapped resistor (fixed) -A wire-wound fixed resistor having one or more additional terminals along its length.
  9. 9. 3. Variable resistor (potentiometer) -is used in circuits to vary the magnitude of resistance passing through the resistor.
  10. 10. 4. Trimmer resistor (variable)-is a miniature variable resistor (rheostat) used mainly inplace of a fixed resistor permit convenient adjustment ofresistance in a circuit.
  11. 11. 5. Light dependent resistor (LDR)- A resistor is not depended on light to function asimplied. however there are devices that do changeresistance as exposed to external photons source.
  12. 12. B. Capacitor FamilyCapacitor– An Electrical device consist of two platesseparated by an insulators called “Dielectric”and has the capability to charge and dischargevoltage.
  13. 13. ( 6 types of Capacitor)
  14. 14. 1. Fixed Capacitor- is constructed in such manner that it possesses afixed value of capacitance which cannot be adjusted.
  15. 15. 2. Polarized Capacitor (Electrolytic or Tantalum)-have large leakage current if the voltage is inverted.- This are most like a battery.
  16. 16. 3. Non-polarized Capacitor(AC Capacitor) - are needed at AC applications in series or in parallel with the signal (or power).
  17. 17. 4. Varactor or Capacitive diode - are commonly found in communication equipment where electronic tuning is a necessity. They are an important component of radio frequency or RF applications.
  18. 18. 5. Trimmer Capacitor (variable) - having variable capacitance; used for making fine adjustments.
  19. 19. 6. Tuning Capacitor (variable)- in a radio is involved in determining the frequency of anoscillator somewhere in the radio. As that capacitance isvaried, the frequency of the oscillator changes.
  20. 20. C. Coil Family Coil -is an inductor. - Are used in electronic circuits to introduce inductance.Inductor -an electrical device formed by an insulated wire, wound in a coil around a core having the capability to store energy in its electromagnetic field. - Inductors are frequently found in tuning and filter circuits.
  21. 21. D. Semi-Conductor FamilyDiode - an Electronic device that permits current to pass or to flow in only one direction.
  22. 22. Transistor -a semi conductor device use for amplification and switching application in electronic circuits.Thyristor – a class of four layer semi-conductor device used to control AC voltage application
  23. 23. 14 Types of semi- conductor Family
  24. 24. 1. Crystal Diode-Is a wafer of nature quarts on ohm piece electricmaterial having a definite thickness that makes itvibrate at a predetermined frequency whenconnected in a circuits.
  25. 25. 2. Rectifier diode - A device which performs the opposite function (converting DC to AC) is known as an inverter.
  26. 26. 3. Zener diode - is a special kind of diode which allows current to flow in theforward direction in the same manner as an ideal diode, but will alsopermit it to flow in the reverse direction when the voltage is above acertain value known as the breakdown voltage, "zener knee voltage"or "zener voltage".
  27. 27. 4. FET diodeis a specific type of metal oxide semiconductor field-effecttransistor ,designed to handle significant power levels.Compared to the other power semiconductor devices, its mainadvantages are high commutation speed and good efficiencyat low voltages. It shares with the IGBT an isolated gate thatmakes it easy to drive.
  28. 28. 5. Tunnel diode or (ezaki diode) Esaki diode is a type of semiconductor diode which is capable of very fast operation, well into the microwave frequency region, by using the quantum mechanical effect called tunneling.
  29. 29. 6. Diac -diode for alternating current, is a diode that conducts current only after its breakover voltage has been reached momentarily.
  30. 30. 7. Photo diode- is a type of photo detector capable of convertinglight into either current or voltage, depending uponthe mode of operation. The common, traditionalsolar cell used to generate electric solar power is alarge area photodiode.
  31. 31. 8. Light emitting diode (LED) - is a semi conductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for other lighting.
  32. 32. 9. Silicon Sensitive diode (SCR)- is a four-layer solid state current. The name "siliconcontrolled rectifier" or SCR is General Electrics tradename for a type of thyristor. This device is generallyused in switching applications.
  33. 33. 10. Triac- triode for alternating current), an electronicscomponent
  34. 34. 11. Quadrac - are a special type of thyristor which combines a "diac" and a "triac" in a single package. The diac is the triggering device for the triac.
  35. 35. 12. Photo transistorLike diodes, all transistors are light-sensitive. Phototransistorsare designed specifically to take advantage of this fact.
  36. 36. 13. NPN and PNP Transistor
  37. 37. 14. P-Channel (j-fet transistor)and N- Channel (j-fet transistor)
  38. 38. E. Other Componentsare components that are Commonly use in creating a device.
  39. 39. 1. Loudspeaker-An electric device used to convert electrical signal to sounds
  40. 40. 3. Battery- An energy source that uses a chemical reaction toconvert chemical energy to electrical energy. It iscomposed of zinc, magnesium and a metalconnector and lead out 4. Ground Common reference point of circuits
  41. 41. 5. Antenna- Intercepts and collects the radio signal that comes from the transmitters of radio or T.V stations. 6. Fuse -a protective device that blows open when there is excessive current flow in the circuits.
  42. 42. Switch- - A mechanical device that is used to turn On and OFF a circuits. momentarily control the power in the circuit.7. Push-button Switch 8. Push button Switch(Normally open) (Normally close)
  43. 43. Color Coding Resistor Tolerance- allowable resistance more or less then the actual resistanceMultiplier- Used to multiply the significant digits to find the actual value of the resistor 1st and 2nd significant digit- read identified as is Power Rating of resistor
  44. 44. Carbon composition Carbon film Metal film
  45. 45. High- power wire wound ceramic
  46. 46. Color coding of carbon composition resistor The Standard EIA Color Code Table per EIA-RS-279 is as followsColor 1st band 2nd band 3rd band 4th band Temperature (Multiplier) (tolerance) (Coefficient)Black 0 0 x1Brown 1 1 X10 ±1% 100ppm Red 2 2 X100 ±2% 50ppmOrange 3 3 X1000 15ppmYellow 4 4 X10000 25ppmGreen 5 5 X100000 ± 0.5% Blue 6 6 X1000000 ±0.25%Violet 7 7 X10000000 ±0.1% Grey 8 8 X1000000000 ±0.05%White 9 9 x10000000000 ±5% Gold X0.1 ±10%Silver X0.01 ±20%None
  47. 47. Brown-red-brown-silver 1 2 0 10%Value reading = 120 ohmsRated value= 120 10% 10% of 120= 12Lowest allowed value= ?? 120-12=108Highest allowed value=?? 120+12=132