Cultural framing & social movement


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Cultural framing & social movement

  1. 1. Topic 7Framing processes and SocialMovementsPOLS1140(Mar 21)
  2. 2. E.g. 1POLS1140 - T7 2“I’m anti-nuclear (coz)I’m a human being”– Chi-Ling Lin, aTaiwanese artist
  3. 3. E.g. 2POLS1140 - T7 3
  4. 4. E.g. 3aPOLS1140 - T7 4Long-termeducationaldevelopment foryou, for us & forthe futureOppose the building ofthe luxurious houses &support the education forthe betterment of thecommunityQ: Relevant to theparties within thisUniversity, as well asthe community???
  5. 5. E.g. 3bPOLS1140 - T7 5What is rezoning LWL Site?Relating to us based on seeing thebanner? Associating with what?What do you feel? Will youjoining it after seeing the banner?
  6. 6. E.g. 4: Anti-National EducationMovementPOLS1140 - T7 6
  7. 7. E.g. 5: Promoting National EducationPOLS1140 - T7 7
  8. 8. Nature• “Politics of signification” (Hall, 1982)– Production of mobilizing and counter-mobilizingideas and meanings (from the powerful & thepowerless)– Signifying agents actively engage in the production& maintenance of meaning for constituents,antagonists and bystanders or observersPOLS1140 - T7 8
  9. 9. Nature• Meaning construction: “an active, processualphenomenon that implies agency & contention atthe level of reality construction” (p.614)– Active: something is being done– Processual: dynamic and evolving process– Agency: work of social movementorganizations/movement activists– Contentious: generating interpretive frames differingfrom, and even challenging, the existing ones– Resultant products: collective action frames (CAF)POLS1140 - T7 9
  10. 10. Framing democracy…POLS1140 - T7 10
  11. 11. Framing democracy…• Voting: institutional?• Majority/consensus?• Sacrifice: being imprisoned, no freedom...?• Action: democracy is not granted?• Contentious: push for changes?• Suicide: stimulate the public’sawareness/emotion?POLS1140 - T7 11
  12. 12. Characteristic features of CAF1. Enable individuals to locate, perceive,identify and label occurrences & eventswithin their life span and the world at large(Goffman, 1974, p.21)  meaningful organize experiences & guide action2. Outcome of negotiating shared meaning(Gamson, 1992, p.111)POLS1140 - T7 12
  13. 13. Characteristic features of CAF3. Core framing tasks: Action-oriented function– Shared understanding of some problematiccondition, issue or situation they define as inneed of change,– make attributions regarding who or what is toblame,– articulate an alternative set of arrangements, &– urge others to act in concert to affect changePOLS1140 - T7 13
  14. 14. Characteristic features of CAFa) “injustice frames”– Identify the “victims” of the given injustice– Amplify their victimization– Define the actions of an authority as unjust– Advocate some form of political &/ economicchanges– Collective noncompliance, protest, and/orrebellionPOLS1140 - T7 14
  15. 15. Characteristic features of CAFb) “boundary framing” and “adversarial framing”:Delineate the boundaries between “good” and “evil”c) “counterframing”: refutations of a logic or efficacy ofsolutions advocated by opponents as well as arationale for its own remedies– E.g., In the democracy movement of China, (1989, ref.Topic 4): Students anticipated the state counterframings ofstudent movement as “counterrevolutionary”, “turmoil”,“upheaval”. To deflect such counterframings, studentsfashioned and articulated reformist prognoses & employeda tactical repertoire (community devotion & self-sacrifice)POLS1140 - T7 15
  16. 16. Characteristic features of CAFd) “Motivational framing”:– rationale for engaging in ameliorative collectiveaction– constructing appropriate vocabularies of motive:Severity, urgency, efficacy, and proprietyPOLS1140 - T7 16
  17. 17. Characteristic features of CAF4. Dynamic and ongoing process: continuouslybeing constituted, contested, reproduced,transformed and/or replaced during thecourse of social movement activityPOLS1140 - T7 17
  18. 18. Variable features of CAF1. Problem identification & direction/locus ofattribution– Accumulation of knowledge about movement framingdynamics– E.g., HK Property hegemony = Alice Poon’s Land &Ruling Class in HK + government-business collusion +extensive real-estate market + “Li Ka-shing’s force, …2. Flexible & rigidity, inclusivity & exclusivity– In terms of the number of themes or ideas theyincorporate and articulatePOLS1140 - T7 18
  19. 19. HK property hegemonyPOLS1140 - T7 19
  20. 20. Variable features of CAF3. Variation in interpretive scope & influence– more common movement-specific collectiveaction frames: Limited to the interests of aparticular group or to a set of related problems,or– Broad in terms of scope: “Master frames”– E.g., HK: “anti-small circle Chief Executiveelection frames” / “June 4th Massacre frames” /“July 1st Rally frames”… < “democracy frames”POLS1140 - T7 20
  21. 21. HK democratic mov’t > June 4 / July 1 /Anti-small circle CE election…POLS1140 - T7 21
  22. 22. Variable features of CAF4. Resonance– Issue of the effectiveness or mobilizing potency ofproffered framing, thereby attending to thequestion of why some framings seem to beeffective or “resonate” while other do not (Snow& Benford 1988)POLS1140 - T7 22
  23. 23. Variable features of CAF– 3 factors affecting the credibility of framinga) Frame consistency:• -ve. e.g., nonviolent direct action VS physical violenceb) Empirical credibility: apparent fit between theframings and events• The undemocratic CE election = scandals of Tang &Leungc) Credibility of the frame articulators orclaimsmakers• Speakers: more credible  more persuasive• Status & knowledge about the issue in questionPOLS1140 - T7 23
  24. 24. Variable features of CAF• Salience to targets of mobilizationa) centrality: how essential the beliefs, values andideas associated with movement frames are tolives of the targets of mobilizationb) Experimental commensurability:• Are movement framings congruent or resonant withthe personal, everyday experiences of the targets ofmobilization? Or are the framings too abstract anddistant from the lives & experiences of the targets?c) Narrative fidelity (cultural resonance): “myths”,“domain assumption”, “inherent ideology”POLS1140 - T7 24
  25. 25. HK property hegemonyPOLS1140 - T7 25
  26. 26. HK property hegemony• King’s Cube (YouTube) @ - T7 26
  27. 27. Framing consequences & implications1. Political opportunity:– can constrain or facilitate collective action framingprocesses, depending on how PO is framed• Inclusion (welcome more people with shared vision) VS exclusion(eliminate those who have differences)– an opportunity to affect social change exists, and thepeople are “potential agents of their own history”POLS1140 - T7 27
  28. 28. Framing consequences & implications2. Individual and collective identity– Esp. for identity-based movements– Identity constructions are an inherent feature of theframing process– Connection between identity & movement participation:enlargement of personal identity for participation andoffering fulfillment and realization of the self (i.e.empowerment)– Correspondence between personal & collective identities3. Specific-movement outcomes– Depend on movement goal and desired outcomes’attachmentPOLS1140 - T7 28