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Civil Society in Taiwan


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Civil Society in Taiwan

  1. 1. Taiwan’s Civil Society GPAD2370: Taiwan Studies Dr. Wai-Kwok Benson Wong Government & International Studies Dept. Hong Kong Baptist University March 31, 2011
  2. 2. Civil Society (Janoski, 1998) 2GPAD2370
  3. 3. Civil society in Chiang’s era (1950s-mid-1970s) KMT Private 3GPAD2370
  4. 4. Civil society in the late Chiang’s era (Mid- 1970s-1988) KMT Private 4GPAD2370
  5. 5. Civil society in the post-Chiang’s era (1988-) KMT Private 5GPAD2370
  6. 6. Civil Society: Historical review 1. KMT rule (1949-88)  Martial law: no political parties, no freedom of speech, assembly, association & communication  (Except such foreign associations as Red Cross, World Vision, the Christian Children’s Fund, etc & transplanted social clubs, e.g., Rotary and Lions Club) 6GPAD2370
  7. 7. Civil Society: Historical review  Penetration of party network in different aspects of society & @ local level: the military, the bureaucracy, young people, farmers & workers, coalition with local factions, corporatist model in dealing with trade unions, trade associations & farmers’ associations  Cultural hegemony: suppressed the indigenous culture & advocated the Chinese culture 7GPAD2370
  8. 8. E.g., Farmers’ Association 8GPAD2370
  9. 9. CS & Social Mov’t  Background: diplomatic setbacks & economic recession  challenged the KMT’s authority 1975: China Tide (夏潮) Political opposition movement (e.g., Kaohsiung Incident, 1979) Chiang CK’s attitude (cf. Chiang KS’s repressive approach) Emergence of social movements/protests in the early 1980s: consumers, farmers, & laborers, etc. came out with the (ref.: Lung Yingtai 龍應台: The Collection of the Wild Fire 野火集) GPAD2370 9
  10. 10. 1980-86: Fermentation [1] Indirect approach medical doctors, journalists, college professors & lawyers Foundation & magazines E.g., Consumers’ Foundation 消費者基金會 (1980), Awakening Magazine 婦女新知 (1982), New Environment Magazine 新環境 (1986) When criticizing the gov’t, they anticipated cooperation with the more liberal segments of the KMT officialdom GPAD2370 10
  11. 11. 1980-86: Fermentation [2] Direct approach Intellectuals, journalists & lawyers 1984: Taiwan Assn. for Legal Assistance to Workers 台灣勞工法律支援會, Taiwan Assn. for Human Rights 台灣人權促進會, Taiwan Assn. for Promoting Aborigines’ Rights 台灣原住民權利促進 會 Grass-roots people: self-relief activism  1986-87: Anti-DuPont campaign GPAD2370 11
  12. 12. Lukang demonstrations鹿港反杜邦運動 POLS1140 | T3 12
  13. 13. Declaration 我們再不願成為污染的受害者之後,才貧 病交加地四處陳情,我們再不願坐視貽害 子孫的跨國工業侵入我們的土地。我們要 站起來說,我們有權決定自己生存的空間 及足下的土地。我們要求:鹿港鎮全民投 票決定要不要杜邦 (Deciding to closure of Du Pont Chemical plant by exercising referendum in Lukang town) 彰化縣公害防治協會籌備委員會 POLS1140 | T3 13
  14. 14. Popular Upsurge (1987-92)  Background: 1987: Lifting of martial law  Political liberalization  February 28 Peace Day Promotion Assn. 二二八和平日 促進會, Assn. for Reforming University Law 大學法改 革促進會, Taiwan Women’s Rescue Assn. 台灣婦女救 援協會, Taiwan Teachers’ Human Rights Assn. 台灣教 師人權促進會, the Hakka Magazine 客家風雲, Farmers’ Rights Promotion Assn. 農民權益促進會, Taiwan Environmental Protection Union 台灣環境保 護聯盟, & Humanistic Education Promotion Society 人 本教育協會 GPAD2370 14
  15. 15. Socio-political transformation (1993-99)  1994: legislating environment impact assessment  1995: Teachers’ Assn教師會, Assn for Taiwan Journalists 台灣新聞記者協會,  1996: revision of the legal regulation on marriage & legislation on sexual offenses (1997) & domestic violence (1998) extension of Labor Standard Law  1997: Judicial Reform Foundation 民間司法改革基 金會  1999: Taiwan Health Care Reform Foundation 台灣 醫療改革基金會, Taiwan Media Watch 台灣媒體觀 察教育基金會 GPAD2370 15
  16. 16. Influence of Taiwan’s CS 16GPAD2370
  17. 17. 17GPAD2370
  18. 18. 18GPAD2370
  19. 19. 19GPAD2370
  20. 20. Effectiveness of CS on polity & society [1] 1. Empowering the citizens & the socially marginalized people 2. Informing and educating the public on social issues 3. Protecting & promoting human rights 4. Building social capital 5. Ensuring the accountability of state 6. Influencing social policy (e.g., education) GPAD2370 20
  21. 21. Effectiveness of CS on polity & society [2] Relationship with the political parties, notably DPP (serve as political resources during elections?) Values: mutual respect, pluralism (in face of ethnical/national identity),… populist-democratic culture? GPAD2370 21
  22. 22. Reference Ho, Ming-sho (2010). “Understanding The Trajectory of Social Movements in Taiwan (1980-2010)”, Journal of Current Chinese Affairs. 3, 3-22. GPAD2370 22