Cultural Geography by Bikash Das


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Cultural Geography by Bikash Das

  1. 1. RECENT TRENDS IN CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY Bikash Das 4th Semester Dept of Geography & Disaster Management Tripura University
  2. 2. WHAT IS CULTURE? “Culture is The Sum of All Learned Behaviour of People Reflected in The Way of Life.” Culture is a Latin word derived from Cultura mean cultivation. This word first used by Roman orator Cicero. Culture is integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief and behavior that is both is a result of and integral to the human capacity of learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generation. Culture thus consists of language, ideas, beliefs, customs, taboos, codes, institutions, tools, techniques, works of arts, rituals, ceremonies and symbols. It has plays a crucial role in human evolution.
  3. 3. CULTURE CONSISTS OF: Language, Ideas & Beliefs, Codes, Institutions, Tools & Techniques, Works of Arts, Norms & Values
  4. 4. CULTURE CONSISTS OF: Religion, Customs, Rituals & Ceremonies, Symbols. Norms & Values Taboos,
  5. 5. ARE YOU A TABOO? Do you eat pork/beef?  Have you ever kissed in public?  Should you have more than one wife or husband?  Do you eat with your left hand?  Do you eat fertilized duck eggs?  Do you wear shoes in the house?  Have you ever talked back to an adult? 
  6. 6. NOTES ON CULTURAL    Learned. The process of learning one‘s culture is called ―enculturation.‖ Culture is not merely passively absorbed, but rather taught and learned by agentive individuals with differing levels of power. Shared. Members of a particular society have their culture in common. Patterned. People in a given society live and think in distinctive and describable ways.     Mutually constructed. By means of constant and ongoing social interaction, individuals create, recreate, and change the nature of a particular culture. Symbolic. Those within a particular culture possess a shared understanding of meaning. Arbitrary. Culture is not based on natural laws but rather is created by human beings. Internalized. Culture is habitual, taken for granted, and perceived as natural.
  7. 7. CULTURE AND GEOGRAPHY Cultural geography is the study of cultural products and norms and their variations across and relations to spaces and places. It focuses on describing and analyzing the ways language, religion, economy, government and other cultural phenomena vary or remain constant, from one place to another and on explaining how humans function spatially. Cultural geography is the study of product and norms and there variation across and relation to spaces and places. Cultural geography is define as the study of the patterns and interactions of human culture both material and non-material, its evolution, culture oriented space, organization etc.
  8. 8. CULTURES AND ENVIRONMENT  Environmental Determinism - human events can be entirely explained by the effects of the environment  Cultural Ecology :is two-way relationship. Cultural Ecology is the study of the cause-andeffect interplay between cultures and the physical environment  Challenge-Response Theory (Toynbee) : a difficult environment causes people to build a civilization. People need the challenge of a difficult environment. Weather of the middle latitudes led to more determined and driven work ethics
  9. 9. CULTURES AND ENVIRONMENT  Possibilism : Physical environment influences, but does not control, human events, choices and constraints are based on cultural, economic, political and technological factors  ―There is no necessities…………...”  “Nature does not drive a man………………..”
  10. 10. EVOLUTION OF CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY Though the first traces of the study of different nations and cultures on Earth can be dated back to ancient geographers such as Ptolemy or Strabo, cultural geography as academic study firstly emerged as an alternative to the environmental determinist theories of the early Twentieth century, which had believed that people and societies are controlled by the environment in which they develop. Rather than studying pre-determined regions based upon environmental classifications, cultural geography became interested in cultural landscapes.
  11. 11. CULTURAL LANDSCAPE The Father of Cultural Geography Carl Ortwin Sauer (December 24, 1889 – July 18, 1975)
  12. 12. CULTURAL LANDSCAPE The concept was led by Carl O. Sauer. Sauer defined the landscape as the defining unit of geographic study. He saw that cultures and societies both developed out of their landscape, but also shaped them too. This interaction between the 'natural' landscape and humans creates the 'cultural landscape.
  13. 13. CREATING CULTURAL LANDSCAPES The Earth’s Surface As Modified By Human Action
  14. 14. Recent Trend in Cultural Geography
  15. 15. MODERN CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY  Many Ideas was brought from RATZAL‘S Anthropogeographie. This branch of geography has influenced two group of Geographers a) French Regional Geography School b) Cultural Landscape School (Berkley School of California, USA) The major tradition of Cultural Geography in the 20th Century has been Americans, the courses in cultural geography common in USA and Canada. Relatively rare in European Geographical Teaching outside Germany. Cultural Geography in Europe was developed in English Speaking world by Carl O. Sauer. In India it is relatively New Branch. A.B. Mukerji Student of Sauer was the Pioneer. Sauer's work was highly Qualitative and descriptive and was surpassed in the 1930s by the Regional Geography of Richard Hartshorne, followed by the Quantitative Revolution. Cultural geography was generally sidelined, though writers such as David Lowenthal continued to work on the concept of landscape.
  16. 16. THEMES IN CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY 1. Cultural Ecology 2. Culture Realm 3. Landscape Studies 4. Cultural Interaction 5. Cultural Diffusion
  17. 17. CULTURAL ECOLOGY Ecology is two-way relationship between Organism and Environment. Cultural Ecology is the study of the causeand-effect interplay between cultures and the physical environment. To what extent does the environment affect culture? Environment Culture To what extent does culture rework the environment? Culture Environment
  18. 18. CULTURE REGIONS/ REALMS Cultural Regions is a distinct, culturally discrete spatial unit; where certain cultural norms prevail. Types of Cultural Regions:  Formal Region  A area inhabited by peoples who have one or more cultural trait in common. Ex: Bengali spoken Region.  Cultural region also depend on multiple related traits. Ex: An Eskimo culture region might depend on language, religion, type of economy, type of social organization and typical form of Dwellings.  Functional Region  Denotes an area that has been organized to function politically, socially or economically. Ex: Newly formed Telengana State. TTAADC, Tripura.  Formal cultural region is abstract rather than concrete but functional cultural region is not culturally Homogeneous.
  19. 19. Traditional Rural Formal Culture Regions of North America
  20. 20. FORCES THAT STABILIZE CULTURE REALMS Despite diffusion, cultures remain fixed  Historical Geography  Studies the past and how geographic distributions have changed  How people have interacted with their environment, and created the cultural landscape.  Historical Consciousness (self reflection on history)  Fixed Assets (Infrastructure)  Values - Preserve key aspects of culture  Passed down from generation to generation 
  21. 21. Aerial view of Denver. Can you see any boundary zones?
  22. 22. CULTURE COMPLEXES  A culture complex is a closely related set of culture traits  Some links are historical  Germanic language  Protestant religion  Romance language  Catholic religion  Some links are causal  urban culture  tolerance of lifestyle diversity
  23. 23. CULTURES CHANGE IN TWO WAYS: Evolutionism Diffusionism  Cultures  Cultures change internally  Technology plays an important role change externally by borrowing of cultural elements from one society by members of another  Cultural Diffusion – process of spreading  Assimilation – process of adopting
  24. 24. CULTURE HEARTH  The source areas from which radiated ideas, innovations, and ideologies that change the world beyond.  Example of cultural Hearth & Diffusion  Doraemon  Noodles
  25. 25. Cultural Interaction  Cultural Interaction is when two or more cultures of different origin interact with one another. Cultural Interaction enhances development when interaction is in a positive way.
  26. 26. CULTURAL DIFFUSION The process of spread of cultural attributes from Cultural Hearth to new places. In today’s world there are different cultures which are coming in contact with each other either in one way or the other. Cultural diffusion involves the spreading out of a culture among a greater population. It can also include the distribution, intentional or not, of cultural traits or cultural behaviour from a particular locale to other places. One of the important goal of Modern Cultural Geography is to analyse the diffusion pattern. When, from Where, Why, and How one Culture traits is diffusing from its hearth over new spaces.
  27. 27. TRADE & CULTURAL DIFFUSION Diminishes isolation  Triggers change - Important force of diffusion  Trade, economy, and culture intertwined  Part of Economic Geography    Study of how various people make a living, how economies develop, and trade Export surplus, Import Luxuries
  28. 28. WAR AND CULTURE  Introduce New Culture  New Social Formation  New Cultural Rituals  Diffusion  Assimilation  Destruction of Old Culture  Technological Advancement  Change in Cultural Landscape  New Ideology, Norms, Values
  29. 29. FOLK CULTURE      Cultures that preserve traditions – often bound by distinctive, religion, nationality, or language Rural, cohesive, conservative, largely self-sufficient group, homogeneous in custom Strong family or clan structure and highly developed rituals Tradition is paramount — change comes infrequently and slowly Urban folk cultures  Immigrant groups – preserving native culture
  30. 30. POPULAR CULTURE    Culture of people who embrace innovation and conform to changing norms Rapid diffusion Mass culture Food, clothing, items that are mass produced  ―Mass taste‖ = some loss of individuality and cultural identity      Marketing of popular culture Often highly individualistic and groups are constantly changing Money based economy prevails Replacing folk culture in industrialized countries and many developing nations
  31. 31. ACCULTURATION Exchange of cultural features that results when groups come into continuous firsthand contact  Immigrants adapt to cultural change resulting from contact with the dominant group by using one of four strategies:  Assimilation (adopting)  Integration (multicultural)  Segregation (separate)  Cultural Leveling 
  32. 32. CULTURAL DIVIDE  A cultural divide is "a boundary in society that separates communities whose social economic structures, opportunities for success, conventions, styles, and norms are so different that they have substantially different psychologies".  A cultural divide is the virtual barrier caused by cultural differences, that hinder interactions, and harmonious exchange between people of different cultures.  For example, avoiding eye contact with a superior shows deference and respect in East Asian cultures, but can be interpreted as suspicious behavior in Western cultures.
  34. 34. Culture of the Entire Globe Affected Once More When…… Industrial Revolution Agricultural Revolution Increased Food Production Formation of Market Increased wealth Creation of stock markets Multiplied energy for production New cities, factories, and town sprang up New technologies (railroads, steam engine, and manufacturing) Large-scale Farming (plantations) World Politics Colonialism European Culture dominated traditional cultures World Wars Communism USA at Political Centre Increase demand for foreign trade Electronics Revolution Concept of Global Village World at a single click
  36. 36. GLOBALIZATION  The increasing interconnectedness of different parts of the world through common processes of ECONOMIC, POLITICAL, AND CULTURAL CHANGE. Cultural globalization is happening fastest.
  38. 38. CULTURAL IMPERIALISM European ways are superior  Christianity a major catalyst (conversion)  Economic & military superiority  Methods       Force Training/schooling Reference Group Behavior (desire to belong) Rewarding Degrading
  39. 39. WESTERNIZATION TODAY  Diffusion continues  Wealthy buy Western products  Young adopt western styles  Media & TV increase rate of diffusion  U.S. Influence Very strong  9/11 Ripple Effect  Negative views of American policies   Tourism    Non-Western Professionals (Europe & U.S.) Transforming traditional cultures/folk cultures CULTURAL LEVELLING ―Drugs‖  ―Peace-Keeping‖  Spread of U.S. Culture  Economic Power 
  40. 40. DO YOU KNOW THE ORIGIN OF THESE BRANDS?? Me Also Don’t Know.........
  41. 41. CINEMA         Change in Thinking Cultural Mixing Dimension of Relationship Western Influence Food Habit, Dressing Music Social Values & Moral Changes
  42. 42. GLOBALISATION-CULTURE-TERRORISM Some groups of Orthodox Mohammedan peoples of Middle-East countries are spreading terrorism worldwide which is called ‗Jehadh’ by them. It is nothing but a struggle in their own way to preserve their cultural heritage and restrict diffusion of western culture among them. the
  43. 43. WHY CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY???  Individuals and communities have their have their own values, meanings, customs and knowledge system that affirms identity and diversity and play a key role in sustainable livelihoods. However, such features have been frequently ignored in developmental planning.  Geographers apply the cultural ideas and try to explain all sorts of man-made spatial system.  Cultural Geography demonstrates the significance of understanding the interface between Culture, Community, Livelihood, Sustainability , Planning and Development.
  44. 44. WHY CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY??? Darwin........... Survival for the FITTEST...... I think the Greatest innovation among the theories of Social Science......... In a New Environment.... Animals survives through Physical Adaptation..... We with our CULTURE........
  45. 45. REFERENCES 1. Ahamed, A. (1999); Social Geography; Rawat Publications; Jaipur. 2. Bhattacharyya, D.C. (2010); Sociology; Vijoya Publishing House; Kolkata. 3. Hamnett, C. (1996):Social Geography: A Reader, Arnold, London 4. Husain, M. (1994); Human Geography; Rawat Publications; Jaipur. 5. Norton, W. (2000) : Cultural Geography, Oxford University Press, New York 6. Peet, R.(2004): Modern Geographical Thought, Blackwell Publishers, Massachusett, USA 7. Robbins, R.H. (2001): Cultural Anthropology, Thomson & Wardsworth, Belmont, USA 8. Sen, J. (2011); A Text Book of Social and Cultural Geography; Kalyani Publishers; New Delhi. 9. Vincent, J. & Del, C.J.(2009): Social Geography: A Critical Introduction, Willey Blackwell, West Sussex, UK  www.jstor.org_stable_pdfplus_10.2307_20002771  www.jstor.org_stable_pdfplus_10.2307_20002425 