It is always underestimatedYou know about global warming, energy security, Our energy reserves has not changed since 20 years. A lot of rapid investment in nuclear energy Current oil consumption is equivalent to 3.2 million barrel a day in electricity, water, transportation and industry. Demands have increased by 27% over the last three years.2010 consumption 2 Million b/day2028 Projected consumption 8 Million b/day 2032 Electricity demands will trouble ; additional 80 GW Very challenging politically to decrease consumption rate.
Squeeze light into places less than 100th of a wavelength
Other Potential low cost, Abundant, easy to process PV Materials that possibly can be integrated into batteries The maximum theoretical efficiency of different PV technologies, based on the Shockley-Queisser limit are shown in this figure. While CdTe and CIGS are amongst the semiconductors with the highest efficiencies, FeS2 and CZTS also have high efficiencies, and contain more abundant and economic elements.
New plasmonic solar-cell designs. a, Plasmonic tandem solar-cell geometry. Semiconductors with different bandgaps are stacked on top of each other, separated by a metal contact layer with a plasmonic nanostructure that couples different spectral bands of the solar spectrum into the corresponding semiconductor layer. b, Plasmonic quantum-dot solar cell designed for enhanced photoabsorption in ultrathin quantum-dot layers mediated by coupling to SPP modes propagating in the plane of the interface between Ag and the quantum-dot layer. Semiconductor quantum dots are embedded in a metal/insulator/metal SPP waveguide. c, Optical antenna array made from an axial heterostructure of metal and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). Light is concentrated in the nanoscale gap between the two antenna arms, and photocurrent is generated in the P3HT semiconductor83. d, Array of coaxial holes in a metal film that support localized Fabry–Perot plasmon modes. The coaxial holes are filled with an inexpensive semiconductor with low minority carrier lifetime, and carriers are collected by the metal on the inner and outer sides of the coaxial structure. Field enhancements up to a factor of about 50 are possible and may serve to enhance nonlinear photovoltaic conversion effects8
PV PlasmonicsBurhan Saifaddin
Outline• Motivation for Plamonics PV – 1$/cost – -problems with current PV technology • Efficiency should be more than 20% • Solar module more to the 0.50• Advantages of Plasmonics PV – Enable use of new materials as thinfilms. – Raise efficiency• Examples on Plasmonics Architectures
Energy Challenge Oil Consumption and Production - 8% energy consumption 16 15 ? ? 14 Million Barrel per Day 12 12 10 10 8 8 Consumption 8 6 Production 3.2 3.6 4 Capacity 2 0 2010 2015 2028Current oil consumption is equivalent to 3.2 Strait of Hormuzmillion barrel a day inelectricity, water, transportation and industry.Demands have increased by 27% over the lastthree years. 2032 Electricity demands willtrouble ; additional 80 GW Very challengingpolitically to decrease consumption rate. Data is based on a speech by Hashim Yamani, president of King Burhan Saifaddin Presentation | ENSC S-175 | August 8, 2011 Page 3 Abdullah City for Atomic and Renewable Energy, at GCF 2011.
What are Plasmons ?• Surface Plasmons: surface waves that propagate along the surface of a conductor.• Used to concentrate and channel light using subwaveleght microstructures.• Other applications: wavelength optics, microscopy, data storage, light generation, and biophontoics.Theory of Diffraction by Small Holes, Bethe, Phys. Rev. 1944.Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole array, Ebbesen, Nature 1998.
Overview of Current Photovoltaics (PV)Minimum installed system cost for:Rooftops 6-8 $/Wp,Utility cost 5 $/Wp, DOE goal to reach total of 1$/Wp (without batteries) In 2012 Chinese Silicon based Module dominate the market Prices for module are expected to reach 0.7 $/Wp for module. Is this is the real cost ?! First solar 0.60-.55 by 2014 Stock price in 20083 Stock price ~39$ DOE, 2011 GreenTechMedia 5
What can Plasmonics do to PV ? Decrease in materials cost by 10% can ,possibly, can reduce Solar Module by 0.1$/Wp 5 c/kWh 1 $/Wp~ 50B dollars industry based on generous Government subsides and ‘’biased’ regulations Burhan Saifaddin Presentation | ENSC S-175 | August 8, 2011 www.mckinsey.com/clientservice/ccsi/pdf/economics_of_solar.pdf Page 6
Other new plasmonic solar-cell designs In arecent exampleof nanoscaleplasmonicsolar-cell engineering, e previous section has focused on the use of plasmonic scattering an organic photovoltaic light absorber was integrated in the gap and coupling concepts to improve the e ciency of single-junction between the arms of plasmonic antennas arranged in arrays (seeExamples on plasmonic solar-cell planar thin- lm solar cells, but many other cell designs can bene t from the increased light con nement and scattering from metal nanostructures. First of all, plasmonic ‘tandem’ geometries may be made, in which semiconductors with di erent bandgaps are Fig. 6c)83. Other examples of nanoscale antennas are coaxial holes fabricated in a metal lm, which show localized plasmonic modes owing to Fabry–Perot resonances (see Fig. 6d)84–86. S nanostructures, with eld enhancements up to a factor of about uch stacked on top of each other, separated by a metal contact layer with 50, could be used in entirely new solar-cell designs, in which an designs a plasmonic nanostructure that couples di erent spectral bands in the solar spectrum into the corresponding semiconductor layer (see Fig. 6a)79. Coupling sunlight into S PPs could also solve the problem of light absorption in quantum-dot solar cells (see Fig. 6b). inexpensive semi conductor with low minority carrier lifetime is embedded inside the plasmonic cavity. S imilarly, quantum-dot solar cells based on multiple-exciton generation87, or cells with solar upconverters or downconverters based on multiphoton absorption Although such cells o er potentially large bene ts because of the e ects, could bene t from such plasmonic eld concentration. In exibility in engineering the semiconductor bandgap by particle general, eld concentration in plasmonic nanostructures is likely size, e ective light absorption requires thick quantum-dot layers, to be useful in any type of solar cell where light concentration is a b p 3.0 eV Incident SPP Top contact n light p 2.0 eV Quantum-dot n SPP guiding layer active layer p 1 eV .0 n c Metal d Metal Semiconductor P3HT Figure 6 | New plasmonic solar-cell designs. a, Plasmonic tandem solar -cell geometry. Semiconductors with di erent bandgaps are stacked on top Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices. of each other, separated by a metal contact layer with a plasmonic nanostructur e that couples di erent spectral bands of the solar spectrum int o the corresponding semiconductor layer. b, Plasmonic quantum-dot solar cell designed for enhanced photoabsorption in ultrathin quantum-dot layers mediated Atwater, Polman, Nat. Mat 2010. by coupling t o SPP modes propagating in the plane of the int erface between Ag and the quantum-dot layer. Semiconductor quantum dots are embedded in a metal/ insulator/ metal SPP waveguide. c, Optical ant enna array made from an axial het erostructure of metal and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). Light is concentrated in the nanoscale gap between the two antenna arms, and phot ocurrent is generated in the P3HT semiconductor83. d, Array of coaxial holes
Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells• Using Finite difference time domain (FDTD): – Designed an array of Ag-particles in combination with an ITO layer that is equivalent to a standard ITO antireflection coating. – Estimated that 95% of the light is transmitted at angles beyond the critical angle for total internal reflection (14 degrees for a-Si:H/air). In another study (Spinelli et al): vary Refractive index vs and scattering peaks. And dound strong Fano resonance effects that reduce the light incoupling for short wavelengths. P Spinelli et al 2012 J. Opt. 14 Fig. 1. Plasmonic light trapping solar cell design. (a) Schematic cross section of the patterned
Future work• Dynamics and coupling between plasmons and excitons.• Applications of Finite difference time domain (FDTD).
Light trapping in thin Si solar cells using coupled plasmonic antenna• Scattering and coupled spectra depend on particle, shape and dielectric• Systematically