Humanity is facing a great challenge of satisfying Energy Demands and growth for every able personIn 40 years energy consumption will doubleOil cost will increase, raises even more energy security and energy independence issues
Konarka’s 250,000 sq. ft. manufacturing facility in New Bedford, MA, b•Low light sensitivity•Thin, lightweight & flexible•Easyinstallation•Organic•Roll to roll printed. Material thickness: 0.5mm+/-0.05mmFlexibilityRoll It. Wrap It. Hang It.AdaptabilityHarness energy even in low light — both indoors and out — at up to 70° off axis.ApplicabilityApplicable to a wide variety of uses. May be combined to provide greater power.VersatilityApply it to accessories, structures, cars, awnings, tents, and more.
Include only the best lab cell not the averageIDoes not include cost
Include only the best lab cell not the averageIDoes not include cost
Photovoltaic technologies is easily scalable to be a Trillions of dollars industry if it can compete with coal in rural electrification. Many PV companies including polymers PV companies like KonarkanadSolarmer claims that to be possible in the next 10 years. Rural electrfication was voted by the aaas to be the most important technoligcal innovation in the past centry , more crucial thean pc , Internet , IC …
They promised paradigm shift , they promised lower costs , they promised lower efficiencyAny way now they are focusing on niche marketsIn theory Roll to Roll can manufacture in a day what a typical Si Solar manufacture in one year at mouch cheaper cost.
You need thirdgeneration materialsRR Process cheap and fast prod. Of modulus. Cheap as paper and plastic. .1% ($50B exist only because of subsdies ! Can current the fin crisis affect that ?) to 1% in 2020. (extrapolate current trend 33% !!)
tirely due to small reflection losses, grid shading losses, and other losses at the 5 to 10% level that any practical system will have to some extent. Shipped PV modules now have efficiencies of 15 to 20% in many cases. At such an efficiency, if the cost of a module is ~$300/m2 (2), and if we take into account the accompanying fixed costs in the so-called “balance of systems” (such as the inverter, grid connection, etc., which add a factor of ~2 to the total installed system cost), then the sale price of grid-connected PV elec- tricity must be $0.25 to $0.30 per kilowatt-hour (kWh) to recover the initial capital investment and cost of money over the lifetime of the PV installation (2, 4). Currently, however, utility- scale electrical power generation costs are much less, with current and new installations costing ~$0.03 to $0.05 per kWh (1). Hence, for solar electricity to be cost-competitive with fossil- based electricity at utility scale, improvements in efficiency are helpful, but manufacturing costs must be substantially reduced.In current manufacturing schemes for Si- based solar cells, the cost of the processed and purified Si is only about 10% of the final cost of the PV module. Some of the Si is lost in cutting up boules into wafers, and other costs are incurred in polishing the wafers, making the diffused junction in the Si into a photovoltaic device, fabricating the conducting transparent glass, masking and making the electrical con- tacts, sealing the cells, connecting the cells together reliably into a module, and sealing the module for shipment. Hence, in such systems, the energy conversion efficiency is at a premium so as to better amortize these other fixed costs involved with making the final PV module
Need good bussiness models
Energy pv splash
The Energy Challenge and Introduction to Solar Cells Splash program for High School Students, MIT 2011Burhan Saifaddin
Outline• The importance of Energy• The energy Challenge• Introduction to Solar Cells• Organic Photovoltaic Research
What is Energy !!• Brain storm the importance of energy and its uses: Examples on the impact of energy : – Transportation – Housing – Industry • Materials • Manufacturing – Information Technology – Food – People and every living being The Sun is the main source of energy at our planet.
What is Energy !!• Discovery of Energy.• Matter is Energy. Everything is Energy. – The Big bang started the universe. – Biological Life is based on the consumption of energy. – Fire discovery ended Stone Age More recently : – Steam Engine started the industrial revolution – Electricity started communication, tranportation and information revolution – Nuclear energy started the nuclear age.
Do we consume Energy more than we drink water *?!• How are we spending energy ?• World wide : ~0.5 Zetta-Joules (10^21) – What does one Joule means ?! • ~ 2.9 MJ to boil 1 kg of water from zero degrees.• In the US 100 Quadrillions(10^15) BTU – 5% consumes 22% of global energy use. In lay terms – this is 1.5 Gallon /person/day. – Average US is 7.5 Gallon/person/day. – How much water do you drink a day ? But more than 1.6B people have Zero electricity * Ignore other industrial, agricultural etc… uses of water
100 MW Solar Cells Power PlanetAdopted from Prof Tonio Buonassisi
The Energy Challenge1- Meet Huge Energy Demands Sustainably:• 2010, 6.8 Billion People 12TW – 2kW/person over the year. – 1.5 Gasoline Gallon/day.• Increasing population. By 2050, 10-12 Billion People 20-24TW (conservative estimate).• Raising standards of Living for over than 2 Billions people.• Nations wants energy security and green energy. 10
The Energy Challenge2- Risks of Global Warming. Is it real ?3-National Security.
Why meet the Energy Challenge• Meet Global Energy Demands in a sustainable way.• Big economic growth: Energy is a Trillions of Dollars Industry. – 30% growth in photovoltaic market in the past 6 years.• Enable cheap and distributed power sources.• Empower people around the world. – 25 % of humanity have no electricity. 12
Motivation for Cheap Solar Cells• Meet Global Energy Demands in a sustainable way.• Big economic growth. – 30% growth in photovoltaic market in the past 6 years.• Enable cheap and distributed power sources.• Empower people around the world. – 25 % of humanity have no electricity. Why Polymers or Organic Materials ? 26
Additionally Huge Economic Advantages.• Big economic growth. – Potentially trillions of dollars market size. – 30% growth in photovoltaic market in the past 10 years. – DOE expect grid parity for PV tech. in 2020.• Empower people around the world. – 25 % of humanity have no electricity. africa-charity-project.org 27
Basic Overview of the Organic PV TechnologyBHJ Cells manufacturers Claims: Roll to Roll processing. Cheap abundant Materials. Light weight. Flexible. Larger acceptance angle.• Setbacks – Low life time (2-5 years) – and low efficiency (4-5%).• Key patents : Konarka (2001) and Solarmer (2006). www.osa-opn.org 28
PV Researchers and entrepreneurs dream• Covers large area of land with PV cells. – 1 % of US land to satisfy US electricity needs. – Spain size to satisfy 20TW increase in demand. – Small contribution to global warming , comparable to US black highways. – Reasonable fraction Targets by 2030 and by 2050.• However to be competitive in the grid parity market – 5c/KWh at around 1$/W for the whole system. – Improve lifetime in outdoor conditions. 29
Components of BHJ PV• Active materials cost is a small fraction of the total cost.• Similar cost structure to Thin Films.. 30Kalowekmao et al., 2007
PV Electricity Markets Thin Films are leading the way now Exs. First Solar• Market Size double every 3y. Currently ~$40 Billion.• Competitors will reach Grid parity at some locations (8-10 c/kwh) before by 2015. 31
Solar systems cost• Balance of System (>50%) – 1- Light weight plastic substrate. – Glass substrate • Cost is Different in developing nations• Balance of Materials – In crystalline silicon materials cost is 10% , 2-3 C/KWh(1). (1) Nathan S. Lewis. SCIENCE 9 FEB 2007 VOL 315. 32
Niche Markets:What would be the consumer reaction?• Opportunities is determined by – $/kWh, life time, efficiency. Premium to 100$• Light Weight and low light suitability. • Portable Electronics: Mobiles , laptops, ipods • Watches.• Flexibility lead to – Clothing. – Fabrics. – Tents• Transparency lead to – Tinted Glass. – Building integrated materials. – Automobiles. 33