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CHAPTER 2
AIDS TO NAVIGATION
Cedar Bayou Channel Daybeacon Z
Barbours Cut
           Houston Channel Light O1




                     County Wharf Light 3
                                                             Galveston Bay
                       County Wharf Light 2




               Morgans Point
                                      Barbour Cut Crossing Range Front Light



 In piloting, a ship’s position is
 determined by bearings taken
 on objects whose locations are
 shown on a chart.
LIGHT SHIPS

          LIGHTHOUSE




              AIDS TO NAVIGATION


 RADIO
BEACONS                              BUOYS
                                                 2
                                             DAYBEACONS


                    FOG
                  SIGNALS
Light
   Characteristics:
• Color
• Pattern of flashes
• Visibility or timing
  interval (period)
The timing interval of a light is
considered the most valuable
for identification purposes.
Symbols
describing
lights are printed
on navigation
charts.
Light characteristics have three
principal patterns of light flashes:


                   • Fixed


                   • Flashing


                   • Occulting
Fixed lights burn constantly.
Flashing lights show a single flash at
regular intervals.



     Example ON – 5 seconds
             OFF – 15 seconds
Occulting Lights



    The duration of light being greater
    than the duration of darkness
Group Occulting Lights




Always have two or more off
periods at regular intervals
Light characteristics
variations include:




     Equal interval — Duration of light
     equals that of darkness
Morse Code - Light
flashes represent
a Morse code
character (usually
the letter A)
Alternating - Rhythmic
lights show different
colors during each
sequence
Visibility of a Light
 The distance, in
 nautical miles, a
 mariner can see
 the light at night
Visibility Factors
• Intensity
• Weather
• Height of light
  and observer
Charted Range

The distance a light
will shine in clear
weather, about the
distance a mariner
in a small boat can
usually expect to
see the light, is
printed on nautical
charts beside the
light symbol.
Many lighthouses and light towers
are found along the coastlines of
the United States.
Primary Light

A powerful light of a lighthouse
which may be of assistance to
navigators, or where very dangerous
water requires a warning beacon
of long-range visibility
Primary Light
Purpose of lighthouses:
Increase height of a light above sea
level
Lighthouses and light towers may
contain fog-signaling and radio-beacon
equipment.
A light tower
is located
where
conditions
make it
impossible
to build a
permanent
structure on
land.
N

                   355°



True sector
bearings
clockwise around
the light — ―Red
sector indicates
Danger Sector‖
                   175°
N

                     355°



True sector
bearings
clockwise around
the light — ―Green
sector indicates
Turning Point or
the best water       175°

across a shoal‖
Navigational Buoys
Buoy

A distinctively shaped and marked
float, sometimes carrying a signal
or signals, anchored to mark a
channel, anchorage, navigational
hazard, etc., or to provide a mooring
place away from the shore
Buoys

They may be of various sizes and
shapes, but it is mainly coloring that
indicates their purpose.
Buoy symbols are printed on charts,
so buoys can be used for determining
positions in piloting.



       9
                      ―9‖
                      GI G4 sec
                      Ra Ref

                 (Chart Symbol)
Can Buoy


      RB
      C‖N‖
      Ra Ref

  CHART SYMBOL
Types of Buoys used in the U.S.




                    1. Spar
                    2. Can
                    3. Nun
                    4. Bell
                    5. Whistle, or horn
                    6. Gong
                    7. Lighted
                    8. Combination
Spar Buoy
Upright wooden
poles, or tubes
of steel, which
are often used
to mark
obstructions
Can Buoy

Cylindrical in
shape like an
oil drum; if
unlighted,
green left-hand
channel buoys
must be can
buoys.
Nun Buoy


Conical in shape,
if unlighted,
red right-hand
channel buoys
must be nun
buoys.
Bell Buoy

They have a framework
that supports a bell.
The motion of the sea
sounds older bell
buoys. Newer types are
operated automatically
by compressed gas or
electricity.
Whistle or Horn Buoy

Similar in shape to a bell buoy, but they carry
a whistle sounded by the sea’s motion or
horns that are sounded at regular intervals by
mechanical or electrical means.
Gong Buoy
Similar in shape to a bell buoy, they have a
series of hammered gongs, each with a
different tone, moved by the motion of the
sea.
Lighted Buoy
Lighted buoys
carry batteries or
gas tanks and
have a framework
that supports a
light.
Combination Buoy
Combination buoys
have a light and sound
signal combined, such
as a lighted bell, gong,
or whistle buoy.
Red buoys on right when returning
will keep you safe.
Preferred Channel Markers




  Preferred     Preferred
 channel to    channel to
  starboard        port
Safe-Water Buoys
Mark the middle of a channel
Other
            Buoys


ANCHORAGE              QUARANTINE
   AREA                ANCHORAGE



            DREDGING

FISHTRAP                 SPEED
  AREA                    LIMIT
Controlled    Danger        Boats     Information
  Area                     Keep Out




        Do Not Pass
                        Anchor    Diver
          Between
                         Buoy     Below
       Shore and Buoy

                Other Buoys
Solid Green and Solid Red Buoys




          Usually found in pairs
        Pass between these buoys
Port Side   Returning     Starboard Side
Preferred Channel
Secondary Channel
Intracoastal Waterway



  U.S. Lateral System (Region B) Port Side
  U.S. Lateral System (Region B) Starboard
Preferred Channel
Secondary Channel
Intracoastal Waterway


 For ships returning to port, buoys on the right
 are red with even numbers.
 Just Remember — RED – RIGHT - RETURNING!
Lights On Buoys




Red lights only on red channel buoys
 Green lights only on green channel
 buoys
White Light Buoys
White lights are used on preferred-
channel (junction) or safe-water
(mid-channel) buoys.
Characteristics of lighted buoys:
1. A fixed light may be on either a
green or red channel buoy.
Characteristics of lighted buoys:
1. A fixed light may be on either a
green or red channel buoy.

2. A regular interval light flashing at
not more than thirty flashes per minute
may be on either a green or red buoy.
Characteristics of lighted buoys:
1. A fixed light may be on either a
green or red channel buoy.

2. A regular interval light flashing at
not more than thirty flashes per minute
may be on either a green or red buoy.

3. A light flashing at no fewer than
sixty flashes per minute may be on
either a green or red buoy at a turning
point or junction where special caution
is required.
Characteristics of lighted buoys:
4. An interrupted quick-flashing light
(repeated series of quick flashes,
separated by four-second dark
intervals) may be on a red and green
horizontally banded preferred-channel
buoy.
Characteristics of lighted buoys:
4. An interrupted quick-flashing light
(repeated series of quick flashes,
separated by four-second dark
intervals) may be on a red and green
horizontally banded preferred-channel
buoy.

5. A Morse code ―A‖ flashing light
(short and a long flash, recurring at
the rate of about eight per minute)
may be on a red and white vertically
striped safe-water buoy.
Daybeacons
Daybeacons

Unlighted navigational beacons
used as a daymark
Daymark

A navigational aid distinctively
marked for visibility by day
Daybeacon Range




Two daybeacons, located some distance
apart on a specific true bearing
Intracoastal Waterway

A channel in which a light-draft vessel can
navigate along the U.S. East Coast from
Chesapeake Bay almost to the Mexican
border without going into the ocean
Intracoastal Waterway
 PORT SIDE          STARBOARD SIDE




Lighted    Can      Lighted    Nun
 Buoy                Buoy

          Daymark             Daymark
Chart No. 1
contains nautical
chart symbols,
abbreviations,
and terms.
AIDS TO NAVIGATION
      The END
Q.1. What are the characteristics of
     navigational aid lights?
Q.1. What are the characteristics of
     navigational aid lights?


A.1. Color, pattern of flashes, and
     timing interval (period)
Q.2. Which identifying factor of a
     navigation light is most
     important?
Q.2. Which identifying factor of a
     navigation light is most
     important?


A.2. Timing interval
Q.3. What are the three general
     patterns of lights?
Q.3. What are the three general
     patterns of lights?


A.3. Fixed, flashing, and occulting
Q.4. Name the standard colors of
     lights used on aids to
     navigation.
Q.4. Name the standard colors of
     lights used on aids to
     navigation.


A.4. Red, green, and white
Q.5. What is meant by the timing
     interval of lights?
Q.5. What is meant by the timing
     interval of lights?


A.5. The time and spacing of the on-
     off cycle
Q.6. What factors determine the
     range of visibility of a light at
     night?
Q.6. What factors determine the
     range of visibility of a light at
     night?


A.6. Brilliance, height of the light,
     height of the observer's eye,
     and weather conditions
Q.7. What is the function of a
     lighthouse?
Q.7. What is the function of a
     lighthouse?


A.7. To project its light where it can
     be seen at great distances as an
     aid to navigation and as a
     warning of dangerous waters.
Q.8. What is the main purpose of a
     lighthouse?
Q.8. What is the main purpose of a
     lighthouse?


A.8. To increase the height of a light
     above sea level
Q.9. What are the two primary
     purposes of buoys and what do
     they represent?
Q.9. What are the two primary
     purposes of buoys and what do
     they represent?


A.9. To serve as warning signs and
     guideposts:
     a. Can buoys for left-hand side
        of channel (green)
     b. Nun buoys for right-hand
        side of channel (red)
Q.9. What are the two primary
     purposes of buoys and what do
     they represent?


A.9. To serve as warning signs and
     guideposts:
     c. Spar buoys for mid-channel
        or obstructions
Q.10. A ship entering Norfolk harbor
      will find what color buoy to
      starboard?
Q.10. A ship entering Norfolk harbor
      will find what color buoy to
      starboard?


A.10. Red
Q.11. What system of buoyage is
      used in the United States?
Q.11. What system of buoyage is
      used in the United States?


A.11. IALA System B
Q.12. What are the various types and
      shapes of buoys?
Q.12. What are the various types and
      shapes of buoys?


A.12. Spar, can, nun, bell, whistle,
      gong, lighted, and combination
Q.13. What does a red and green
      horizontally banded buoy
      indicate?
Q.13. What does a red and green
      horizontally banded buoy
      indicate?


A.13. Obstruction or junction
Q.14. What do vertically red and
      white striped buoys indicate?
Q.14. What do vertically red and
      white striped buoys indicate?


A.14. Middle of the channel
Q.15. A ship leaving Boston harbor
      will find what color buoy to
      port?
Q.15. A ship leaving Boston harbor
      will find what color buoy to
      port?


A.15. Red
Q.16. How are buoys numbered in
      the United States?
Q.16. How are buoys numbered in
      the United States?


A.16. Coming from seaward, green
      buoys have odd numbers
      starting with ―1‖; red buoys
      have even numbers.
Q.17. What is the difference between
      an occulting light and a
      flashing light?
Q.17. What is the difference between
      an occulting light and a
      flashing light?


A.17. Occulting is on for longer
      periods than it is dark, while
      flashing is on for shorter
      periods than it is dark
Q.18. Briefly explain why the captain
      of a ship should not rely totally
      on the buoys marking a
      channel.
Q.18. Briefly explain why the captain
      of a ship should not rely totally
      on the buoys marking a
      channel.


A.18. The buoy can slip its moorings
      or be defective in some way
Q.19. What is a daybeacon?
Q.19. What is a daybeacon?


A.19. An unlighted aid to navigation
      made of almost any kind of
      material and colored to be
      easily spotted on the
      landscape
Q.20. Two daybeacons on a true
      bearing are called what?
Q.20. Two daybeacons on a true
      bearing are called what?


A.20. A range
Q.21. What does the phrase "on the
      range" mean?
Q.21. What does the phrase "on the
      range" mean?


A.21. The two daybeacons are
      exactly in line as seen by a
      ship’s pilot or conning officer
Q.22. How can you distinguish
      between a channel buoy and a
      buoy on the Intracoastal
      Waterway?
Q.22. How can you distinguish
      between a channel buoy and a
      buoy on the Intracoastal
      Waterway?


A.22. Buoys on the Intracoastal
      Waterway have yellow bands
      painted on them
Q.23. What is the name of the chart
      that shows all the nautical
      symbols, abbreviations, and
      terms?
Q.23. What is the name of the chart
      that shows all the nautical
      symbols, abbreviations, and
      terms?


A.23. Chart No. 1
What types of buoys if
  Unlighted, are red channel buoys?


A. Nun

B. Priest

C. Can

D. Bottle
What types of buoys are always
  unlighted red channel buoys?


A. Nun

B. Priest

C. Can

D. Bottle
What types of buoys are unlighted
 green channel buoys?


A. Nun

B. Can

C. Priest

D. Bottle
What types of buoys are unlighted
 green channel buoys?


A. Nun

B. Can

C. Priest

D. Bottle
AIDS TO NAVIGATION
      The END
Characteristics of Lights
      FIXED

      FIXED AND FLASHING

      FIXED AND GROUP FLASHING

      FLASHING

      COMPOSITE GROUP FLASHING

      QUICK FLASHING

      OCCULTING
Various Light Lists
                         DISTANCE OF VISIBILITY




LUMINOUS RANGE DIAGRAM




                          LIGHT LIST
Nun Buoy



               RB
6              N‖6‖
               Ra Ref

      CHART SYMBOL
Intracoastal Waterway

A mostly inland water route, partly
natural and partly artificial,
extending 1550 mi. (2500 km) along
the Atlantic coast from Boston to
Florida Bay (Atlantic Intracoastal
Waterway) and 1116 mi. (1800 km)
along the Gulf coast from Carrabelle,
Florida, to Brownsville, Texas

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Aids to Navigation

  • 1. CHAPTER 2 AIDS TO NAVIGATION
  • 2. Cedar Bayou Channel Daybeacon Z Barbours Cut Houston Channel Light O1 County Wharf Light 3 Galveston Bay County Wharf Light 2 Morgans Point Barbour Cut Crossing Range Front Light In piloting, a ship’s position is determined by bearings taken on objects whose locations are shown on a chart.
  • 3. LIGHT SHIPS LIGHTHOUSE AIDS TO NAVIGATION RADIO BEACONS BUOYS 2 DAYBEACONS FOG SIGNALS
  • 4. Light Characteristics: • Color • Pattern of flashes • Visibility or timing interval (period)
  • 5. The timing interval of a light is considered the most valuable for identification purposes.
  • 7. Light characteristics have three principal patterns of light flashes: • Fixed • Flashing • Occulting
  • 8. Fixed lights burn constantly.
  • 9. Flashing lights show a single flash at regular intervals. Example ON – 5 seconds OFF – 15 seconds
  • 10. Occulting Lights The duration of light being greater than the duration of darkness
  • 11. Group Occulting Lights Always have two or more off periods at regular intervals
  • 12. Light characteristics variations include: Equal interval — Duration of light equals that of darkness
  • 13. Morse Code - Light flashes represent a Morse code character (usually the letter A)
  • 14. Alternating - Rhythmic lights show different colors during each sequence
  • 15. Visibility of a Light The distance, in nautical miles, a mariner can see the light at night
  • 16. Visibility Factors • Intensity • Weather • Height of light and observer
  • 17. Charted Range The distance a light will shine in clear weather, about the distance a mariner in a small boat can usually expect to see the light, is printed on nautical charts beside the light symbol.
  • 18. Many lighthouses and light towers are found along the coastlines of the United States.
  • 19. Primary Light A powerful light of a lighthouse which may be of assistance to navigators, or where very dangerous water requires a warning beacon of long-range visibility
  • 21. Purpose of lighthouses: Increase height of a light above sea level
  • 22. Lighthouses and light towers may contain fog-signaling and radio-beacon equipment.
  • 23. A light tower is located where conditions make it impossible to build a permanent structure on land.
  • 24. N 355° True sector bearings clockwise around the light — ―Red sector indicates Danger Sector‖ 175°
  • 25. N 355° True sector bearings clockwise around the light — ―Green sector indicates Turning Point or the best water 175° across a shoal‖
  • 27. Buoy A distinctively shaped and marked float, sometimes carrying a signal or signals, anchored to mark a channel, anchorage, navigational hazard, etc., or to provide a mooring place away from the shore
  • 28. Buoys They may be of various sizes and shapes, but it is mainly coloring that indicates their purpose.
  • 29. Buoy symbols are printed on charts, so buoys can be used for determining positions in piloting. 9 ―9‖ GI G4 sec Ra Ref (Chart Symbol)
  • 30. Can Buoy RB C‖N‖ Ra Ref CHART SYMBOL
  • 31. Types of Buoys used in the U.S. 1. Spar 2. Can 3. Nun 4. Bell 5. Whistle, or horn 6. Gong 7. Lighted 8. Combination
  • 32. Spar Buoy Upright wooden poles, or tubes of steel, which are often used to mark obstructions
  • 33. Can Buoy Cylindrical in shape like an oil drum; if unlighted, green left-hand channel buoys must be can buoys.
  • 34. Nun Buoy Conical in shape, if unlighted, red right-hand channel buoys must be nun buoys.
  • 35. Bell Buoy They have a framework that supports a bell. The motion of the sea sounds older bell buoys. Newer types are operated automatically by compressed gas or electricity.
  • 36. Whistle or Horn Buoy Similar in shape to a bell buoy, but they carry a whistle sounded by the sea’s motion or horns that are sounded at regular intervals by mechanical or electrical means.
  • 37. Gong Buoy Similar in shape to a bell buoy, they have a series of hammered gongs, each with a different tone, moved by the motion of the sea.
  • 38. Lighted Buoy Lighted buoys carry batteries or gas tanks and have a framework that supports a light.
  • 39. Combination Buoy Combination buoys have a light and sound signal combined, such as a lighted bell, gong, or whistle buoy.
  • 40. Red buoys on right when returning will keep you safe.
  • 41. Preferred Channel Markers Preferred Preferred channel to channel to starboard port
  • 42. Safe-Water Buoys Mark the middle of a channel
  • 43. Other Buoys ANCHORAGE QUARANTINE AREA ANCHORAGE DREDGING FISHTRAP SPEED AREA LIMIT
  • 44. Controlled Danger Boats Information Area Keep Out Do Not Pass Anchor Diver Between Buoy Below Shore and Buoy Other Buoys
  • 45. Solid Green and Solid Red Buoys Usually found in pairs Pass between these buoys Port Side Returning Starboard Side
  • 46. Preferred Channel Secondary Channel Intracoastal Waterway U.S. Lateral System (Region B) Port Side U.S. Lateral System (Region B) Starboard
  • 47. Preferred Channel Secondary Channel Intracoastal Waterway For ships returning to port, buoys on the right are red with even numbers. Just Remember — RED – RIGHT - RETURNING!
  • 48. Lights On Buoys Red lights only on red channel buoys Green lights only on green channel buoys
  • 49. White Light Buoys White lights are used on preferred- channel (junction) or safe-water (mid-channel) buoys.
  • 50. Characteristics of lighted buoys: 1. A fixed light may be on either a green or red channel buoy.
  • 51. Characteristics of lighted buoys: 1. A fixed light may be on either a green or red channel buoy. 2. A regular interval light flashing at not more than thirty flashes per minute may be on either a green or red buoy.
  • 52. Characteristics of lighted buoys: 1. A fixed light may be on either a green or red channel buoy. 2. A regular interval light flashing at not more than thirty flashes per minute may be on either a green or red buoy. 3. A light flashing at no fewer than sixty flashes per minute may be on either a green or red buoy at a turning point or junction where special caution is required.
  • 53. Characteristics of lighted buoys: 4. An interrupted quick-flashing light (repeated series of quick flashes, separated by four-second dark intervals) may be on a red and green horizontally banded preferred-channel buoy.
  • 54. Characteristics of lighted buoys: 4. An interrupted quick-flashing light (repeated series of quick flashes, separated by four-second dark intervals) may be on a red and green horizontally banded preferred-channel buoy. 5. A Morse code ―A‖ flashing light (short and a long flash, recurring at the rate of about eight per minute) may be on a red and white vertically striped safe-water buoy.
  • 57. Daymark A navigational aid distinctively marked for visibility by day
  • 58. Daybeacon Range Two daybeacons, located some distance apart on a specific true bearing
  • 59. Intracoastal Waterway A channel in which a light-draft vessel can navigate along the U.S. East Coast from Chesapeake Bay almost to the Mexican border without going into the ocean
  • 60. Intracoastal Waterway PORT SIDE STARBOARD SIDE Lighted Can Lighted Nun Buoy Buoy Daymark Daymark
  • 61. Chart No. 1 contains nautical chart symbols, abbreviations, and terms.
  • 63. Q.1. What are the characteristics of navigational aid lights?
  • 64. Q.1. What are the characteristics of navigational aid lights? A.1. Color, pattern of flashes, and timing interval (period)
  • 65. Q.2. Which identifying factor of a navigation light is most important?
  • 66. Q.2. Which identifying factor of a navigation light is most important? A.2. Timing interval
  • 67. Q.3. What are the three general patterns of lights?
  • 68. Q.3. What are the three general patterns of lights? A.3. Fixed, flashing, and occulting
  • 69. Q.4. Name the standard colors of lights used on aids to navigation.
  • 70. Q.4. Name the standard colors of lights used on aids to navigation. A.4. Red, green, and white
  • 71. Q.5. What is meant by the timing interval of lights?
  • 72. Q.5. What is meant by the timing interval of lights? A.5. The time and spacing of the on- off cycle
  • 73. Q.6. What factors determine the range of visibility of a light at night?
  • 74. Q.6. What factors determine the range of visibility of a light at night? A.6. Brilliance, height of the light, height of the observer's eye, and weather conditions
  • 75. Q.7. What is the function of a lighthouse?
  • 76. Q.7. What is the function of a lighthouse? A.7. To project its light where it can be seen at great distances as an aid to navigation and as a warning of dangerous waters.
  • 77. Q.8. What is the main purpose of a lighthouse?
  • 78. Q.8. What is the main purpose of a lighthouse? A.8. To increase the height of a light above sea level
  • 79. Q.9. What are the two primary purposes of buoys and what do they represent?
  • 80. Q.9. What are the two primary purposes of buoys and what do they represent? A.9. To serve as warning signs and guideposts: a. Can buoys for left-hand side of channel (green) b. Nun buoys for right-hand side of channel (red)
  • 81. Q.9. What are the two primary purposes of buoys and what do they represent? A.9. To serve as warning signs and guideposts: c. Spar buoys for mid-channel or obstructions
  • 82. Q.10. A ship entering Norfolk harbor will find what color buoy to starboard?
  • 83. Q.10. A ship entering Norfolk harbor will find what color buoy to starboard? A.10. Red
  • 84. Q.11. What system of buoyage is used in the United States?
  • 85. Q.11. What system of buoyage is used in the United States? A.11. IALA System B
  • 86. Q.12. What are the various types and shapes of buoys?
  • 87. Q.12. What are the various types and shapes of buoys? A.12. Spar, can, nun, bell, whistle, gong, lighted, and combination
  • 88. Q.13. What does a red and green horizontally banded buoy indicate?
  • 89. Q.13. What does a red and green horizontally banded buoy indicate? A.13. Obstruction or junction
  • 90. Q.14. What do vertically red and white striped buoys indicate?
  • 91. Q.14. What do vertically red and white striped buoys indicate? A.14. Middle of the channel
  • 92. Q.15. A ship leaving Boston harbor will find what color buoy to port?
  • 93. Q.15. A ship leaving Boston harbor will find what color buoy to port? A.15. Red
  • 94. Q.16. How are buoys numbered in the United States?
  • 95. Q.16. How are buoys numbered in the United States? A.16. Coming from seaward, green buoys have odd numbers starting with ―1‖; red buoys have even numbers.
  • 96. Q.17. What is the difference between an occulting light and a flashing light?
  • 97. Q.17. What is the difference between an occulting light and a flashing light? A.17. Occulting is on for longer periods than it is dark, while flashing is on for shorter periods than it is dark
  • 98. Q.18. Briefly explain why the captain of a ship should not rely totally on the buoys marking a channel.
  • 99. Q.18. Briefly explain why the captain of a ship should not rely totally on the buoys marking a channel. A.18. The buoy can slip its moorings or be defective in some way
  • 100. Q.19. What is a daybeacon?
  • 101. Q.19. What is a daybeacon? A.19. An unlighted aid to navigation made of almost any kind of material and colored to be easily spotted on the landscape
  • 102. Q.20. Two daybeacons on a true bearing are called what?
  • 103. Q.20. Two daybeacons on a true bearing are called what? A.20. A range
  • 104. Q.21. What does the phrase "on the range" mean?
  • 105. Q.21. What does the phrase "on the range" mean? A.21. The two daybeacons are exactly in line as seen by a ship’s pilot or conning officer
  • 106. Q.22. How can you distinguish between a channel buoy and a buoy on the Intracoastal Waterway?
  • 107. Q.22. How can you distinguish between a channel buoy and a buoy on the Intracoastal Waterway? A.22. Buoys on the Intracoastal Waterway have yellow bands painted on them
  • 108. Q.23. What is the name of the chart that shows all the nautical symbols, abbreviations, and terms?
  • 109. Q.23. What is the name of the chart that shows all the nautical symbols, abbreviations, and terms? A.23. Chart No. 1
  • 110. What types of buoys if Unlighted, are red channel buoys? A. Nun B. Priest C. Can D. Bottle
  • 111. What types of buoys are always unlighted red channel buoys? A. Nun B. Priest C. Can D. Bottle
  • 112. What types of buoys are unlighted green channel buoys? A. Nun B. Can C. Priest D. Bottle
  • 113. What types of buoys are unlighted green channel buoys? A. Nun B. Can C. Priest D. Bottle
  • 114. AIDS TO NAVIGATION The END
  • 115. Characteristics of Lights FIXED FIXED AND FLASHING FIXED AND GROUP FLASHING FLASHING COMPOSITE GROUP FLASHING QUICK FLASHING OCCULTING
  • 116. Various Light Lists DISTANCE OF VISIBILITY LUMINOUS RANGE DIAGRAM LIGHT LIST
  • 117. Nun Buoy RB 6 N‖6‖ Ra Ref CHART SYMBOL
  • 118. Intracoastal Waterway A mostly inland water route, partly natural and partly artificial, extending 1550 mi. (2500 km) along the Atlantic coast from Boston to Florida Bay (Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway) and 1116 mi. (1800 km) along the Gulf coast from Carrabelle, Florida, to Brownsville, Texas