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Open Source Software
 What’s this all about?
       Brad Montgomery
       @bkmontgomery
IANAL
I am not a lawyer
Do you write code?
Do you help create
    software?
Do you use software?
What is Software?
         in no particular order

       Mobile Software
      Desktop Software
      Operating Systems
     Embedded Systems
  SaaS/Web-based Software
Software Libraries/Components
What is Open Source?
...a development method for
software that harnesses the
power of distributed peer review
and transparency of process.

                      - The OSI
...a development method for
software that harnesses the
power of distributed peer review
and transparency of process.

                      - The OSI
...a development method for
software that harnesses the
power of distributed peer review
and transparency of process.

                      - The OSI
“Open Source” is a
    process.
“Open Source Software” is
created through this process.
How about an
 example?
Building in Public
Building in Public


            Actual Code
             is Public
Building in Public
        Contributors are public
Building in Public



                Edits are
                 Public!
Open Source
These people
work together, but
they are not
employed by the
same
organization.
...people work together, but they are
     not employed by the same
            organization.
Open Source is a
Framework for Collaboration
Software is
Intellectual Property
Software is
Intellectual Property
Someone owns it.
Software is
automatically copyrighted
Software is
owned by the original author
Software is
owned by the original authors
Software is
owned by the original
 author’s employer
Software is
owned by the original
 authors’ employers
:-(
Software ownership is
      Complex.
Software is
not (usually) sold.
Software is
 licensed.
Don’t get sued.
How does Open Source
 foster Cooperation?
Types of Licenses
1. Academic
2. Permissive
3. Reciprocal
4. Partially Closable
Academic
To paraphrase:


“You can do whatever
 you want with this code”

     Examples: BSD, MIT
Permissive
• Grant substantial Permissions

• May contain Patent or Trademark provisions

• Provide additional protection to authors


          Example: Apache 2.0
Reciprocal
                   “Share-Alike”
• Permission to modify & distribute must be granted

• Specifies Restrictions on Distribution/Use

  • Source code must be included

  • Modifications must be released under the same license


              Example: GNU GPL
Partially Closable
• Require some sharing

• Allow some proprietary use

• Often a software library or component


        Examples: LGPL, MPL
Why “give away” your
       code?
“Given enough eyeballs,
  all bugs are shallow”
             Eric S. Raymond
OR...

 “Why not let people at
NASA, Google, and Twitter
  help you build stuff?”
Smart people working on a
   solution to the same
problem == Better Software
How can this help me?
 Start using open source software!
Caution!
“Read the Label” when using
  Open Source Software!
Developers: Save time
   Don’t reinvent the wheel.
Managers:Save money
 Encourage research & evaluation.
    Lean on proven solutions.
Students:Learn from Pros
  Get some real-world experience!
Contributing?
Make sure you’re allowed!
Developers:
  Read your employers’ PIA.
They may own your code/ideas.
Developers:
Get permission. In writing.
Questions?
    Feedback:
brad@workforpie.com
Thanks!

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Open Source: What’s this all about?

Editor's Notes

  1. \n
  2. \n
  3. \n
  4. \n
  5. \n
  6. \n
  7. \n
  8. The OSI: Open Source Initiative (a non-profit 501c3); Advocates/educators of open source and the body that approves licenses.\n\nhttp://www.opensource.org/about\n
  9. \n
  10. \n
  11. \n
  12. \n
  13. \n
  14. \n
  15. \n
  16. \n
  17. \n
  18. \n
  19. \n
  20. Collaborators can be individuals, employees of organizations, live in other countries, have be held to different contract/copyright laws.\n\nNo (well, sort of) contract negotiation among companies.\n\n
  21. \n
  22. Who owns it? The original author, an employer, public domain?\n
  23. at least in the US; All rights reserved! You cannot copy/modify/or even use it without permission.\n
  24. \n
  25. \n
  26. \n
  27. \n
  28. \n
  29. \n
  30. When you buy software, you do not become the owner. The same is true if you acquire freely available software.\n
  31. You have given explicit permission to (and probably *how*) use the software.\n
  32. \n
  33. Amidst this complexity, how do people (working for different companies; maybe even competitors) avoid getting sued?\n\nTech companies LOVE litigation! (Read any recent news about Google, Apple, Oracle, or Microsoft)\n
  34. \n
  35. \n
  36. These are very simple; easy to use; \n
  37. Essentially make it harder to sue the original authors; provisions may revoke rights in the case of a lawsuit;\n\nMay also require that all contributing authors verify that they have permission to contribute! (e.g. requiring employers to “sign off” on contributions).\n
  38. Often described as Viral. If you incorporate this code into your own project, your entire project MUST adhere to the terms.\n
  39. Part of the code can be “closed” (used in proprietary development; not shared). Part *must* be shared.\n\ne.g. A Library can be incorporated into a closed-source product, but changes to the library must be published.\n
  40. \n
  41. ESR: An early open source advocate\nhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eric_S._Raymond\n\nThe Cathedral and the Bazaar\nhttp://www.catb.org/~esr/writings/cathedral-bazaar/cathedral-bazaar/\n
  42. There are a lot of smart people that need to solve the same problems. You get a better solution when you work together.\n
  43. In *my* opinion, stable, useful, working software (or components) is the greatest benefit of open source collaboration.\n
  44. Try out “packaged” desktop software; Use open source tools/libraries if you’re a developer; Release your own software!\n
  45. \n
  46. There are thousands of software components/libraries for hundreds of languages that solve generic problems & are available under various licenses. \n
  47. \n
  48. \n
  49. \n
  50. PIA: Proprietary Information agreement. Many employees sign over rights to all IP upon employment... even for things created “off the clock”. \n
  51. HOWEVER, this can often be overcome if you get permission (in writing from someone authorized to grant it!) for a project or OSS contribution BEFORE doing any work.\n
  52. \n
  53. \n