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Edpc605 chapter 1 2


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Edpc605 chapter 1 2

  1. 1. Lesson Design  Universal Design for Learning (UDL); Understanding by Design (UbD); Differentiated Instruction (DI); Learning Styles
  2. 2. Universal Design for Learning
  3. 3. Universal Design for Learning…  UDL is a learning theory that has been developed by Rose and Meyer, that strives to ensure that the learning environment, including curriculum, assessment and teaching and learning tools promote learning and remove barriers to learning.
  4. 4. UDL The Three Types of Learning Dr Benjamin Bloom, 1956 identified three domains of educational activities or learning: Cognitive: mental skills (Knowledge) Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (Attitude or self) Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (Skills) Domains can be thought of as categories. Trainers often refer to these three categories as KSA (Knowledge, Skills, and Attitude). This taxonomy of learning behaviors can be thought of as “the goals of the learning process.” That is, after a learning episode, the learner should have acquired new skills, knowledge, and/or attitudes.
  5. 5. Bloom’s Taxonomy
  6. 6. Principles of UDL  Multiple means of representation to give learners various ways of acquiring information and knowledge,  Multiple means of expression to provide learners alternatives for demonstrating what they know, and  Multiple means of engagement to tap into learners' interests, challenge them appropriately, and motivate them to learn
  7. 7. CAST & UDL
  8. 8. Differentiated Instruction…  DI looks at the how and where we teach our students, focusing on the best practices for each learner. In addition to content expectations is the difficulty of meeting the diverse needs of today’s classroom  Languages, culture, gender, economic disparity, motivation, disability, personal interests and learning styles as well as home environments are just some of the many variables that students bring to school with them.  These variables can render ineffective even the best curriculum if the diverse needs of the class are not met.  Suggested Readings- Carole Tomlinson
  9. 9. Understanding By Design Universal Design for Learning Plan to remove all Barriers of learning for all students Plan with the Goal in mind Differentiate d Instruction Plan with the Student in mind
  10. 10. Universal Design for Learning  Tomlinson & McTighe (2007) both use the metaphor of a sailboat  This metaphor could be extended.  UbD is the final destination for this sailboat.  DI allows each of the sailors to demonstrate their competence.  "UDL" ensures that the boat itself is capable of the trip and free of obstacles that might interfere with the achievement of the goal.
  11. 11. Traditional design is like setting out on a trip and not knowing where you are going and not knowing how you will know when you get there Textbook Teacher’s favorite topic/book Time-honored activities
  12. 12. Backward Design “To begin with the end in mind means to start with a clear understanding of your destination. It means you know where you’re going…so the steps you take are always in the right direction.”
  13. 13. What is backward design? It is thinking about Determining/prioritizing desired results and Assessment before deciding how you teach BEFORE Planning instruction How will the student prove he/she understands..?
  14. 14. It seems backward because rather than creating assessments near the end of a unit of study (or relying on textbook tests) we determine assessment evidence as we begin to plan a unit
  15. 15.  Determine and prioritize desired results  We must be “quite clear about which specific understandings we are after and what such understandings look like in practice”. – pg. 15  Create the assessment before planning instruction!
  16. 16. Curriculum Planning Key Concept: The textbook or novel is not the course of study The textbook or novel is only a resource that supports the desired results They are tools – not the syllabus Coverage is like marching through the textbook –”it’s a negative term”.
  17. 17. Challenges…  We teach so that others may understand.  Our challenges: Finding time to ‘teach all standards’ and maintain the rigor (teaching for understanding - not just ‘to cover’) Making lessons meaningful Engaging students in the learning process
  18. 18. Three Stages of UbD Stage 1: Identify the Desired Results  Unpack the learning, prioritize learning goals, determine expectations …. Clarify Learning Outcomes – what must the student know/understand/be able to do at the end of the unit/lesson? What content is worthy of understanding? Here we make choices. It is here we need to ask ourselves, "What are the enduring understandings that the students must obtain?” Here we examine our content standards, examine our goals and review the curriculum.
  19. 19. How to use Backward Design – Stage 1  Use national, state or industry content standards as a starting point.  “Unpack” the nouns and verbs in the standards to point to the “big ideas”.  Use the template as a tool for developing a coherent, purposeful and efficient design for learning.
  20. 20. The Content  Content standards have been designed to define the knowledge, concepts, and skills that students should acquire at each grade level. These are our goals. The performance indicators (bulleted lists) represent possible assessment evidence.
  21. 21. Content Standards  Big Ideas are found in the nouns and adjectives of the standard.  Stated or implied real-world performances are found in the verbs.
  22. 22. Understanding…  The underlying assumption is that understandings are constructed in the minds of the learner. Understanding is the ability to transfer learning to new, different and unique experiences.” -Wiggins
  23. 23. Understandings  Frame the desired understanding as a full-sentence generalization in response to the phrase, “Students will understand that…”.  Beware of stating an understanding as a truism or a vague generality. (ex: Triangles have 3 sides – The U.S. is a complex country)  Check to see that your understandings don’t end with an adjective. (ex: Fractions are important)  Avoid the phrase, “Students will understand how to…”
  24. 24. “Let the main ideas which are introduced into a child’s education be few and important, and let them be thrown into every combination possible.”  -Alfred Whitehead, English mathematician and philosopher, 1929 – Inert Knowledge- is information a person can express but not use.
  25. 25. A Big Idea … (bottom line)  Provides a ‘lens for prioritizing’  Serves as an organizer for facts, skills and actions … focusing on big ideas, helps students see purpose and relevance of pieces  Support Transference … create coherence  Manifest itself in many ways and in many content areas  Requires Uncovering - its meaning is abstract, so it must be discovered, constructed or inferred by learners
  26. 26. Big ideas Concepts Examples adaptation, perspective Themes good triumphs over evil, coming of age Paradoxes freedom must have limits, leave home to find oneself Theory manifest destiny, evolution Underlying assumptions markets are rational, text have meaning Understanding/Principle correlation does not ensure cause, form follows function
  27. 27. To what extent does the idea, topic, or process represent a “big idea” having enduring value beyond the classroom? Enduring understandings go beyond discrete facts or skills to focus on larger concepts, principles, or processes. As such, they are applicable to new situations within or beyond the subject. For example, we study the enactment of the Magna Carta as a specific historical event because of its significance to a larger idea. That idea is the rule of law, whereby written laws specify the limits of a government's power and the rights of individuals—concepts such as due process. This big idea transcends its roots in 13th century England to become a cornerstone of modern democratic societies . Does a student need to know this in adult life?
  28. 28. Essential Questions “To question means to lay open, to place in the open. Only a person who has questions can have real understanding.” Hans-Georg Gadamer, 1994 German Philosopher
  29. 29. Essential Questions  Have no simple ‘right answer; they are meant to be argued and discussed (discovered, uncovered)  Designed to provoke and sustain inquiry  Often address the foundational or historical issues of a subject  Lead to more questions  Naturally come back again when learning  Encourage ongoing re-thinking of big ideas, assumptions, prior learning (transference…)  Could be overarching or topical
  30. 30. Essential Question Examples  What is foreshadowing? OR  How does foreshadowing help you understand a story?  What is a linear equation? OR  How do you use linear equations to solve real world problems?
  31. 31. Essential Questions
  32. 32. Identify desired results Determine acceptable evidence Culminating Project or Performance task Plan learning experiences & instruction
  33. 33. Stage 2: Determine Acceptable Evidence  Stage 1: Identify the Desired Results  Stage 2: Determine Acceptable Evidence  What evidence could be used to document and validate the learning that has been achieved?  Evidence is gathered throughout the learning timeincludes formative and summative assessments.
  34. 34. Stage 2 – Assessment Evidence  Performance Task or Culminating Activity  Provides evidence that students are able to use their knowledge in context.  This is the time to create the task.
  35. 35. Is it authentic?  It’s authentic if The task is set in a scenario that replicates or simulates “real-world” situations.
  36. 36. The Swimming School Tune: “On Top of Old Smoky” Last year I decided To be fit and trim So I took a class called, “Let’s Learn How to Swim” The classroom was tidy, the textbook was cool It had colored pictures of folks in a pool. Written by Jean Spanko
  37. 37. I read every chapter, I read every line I did all the worksheets- success would be mine. The teacher said, “First thing, We’ll learn not to drown. I’d suggest you take notes now, ‘Cause this is profound. The test will be Friday, it’s fill-in-the-blank I grade on the bell curve To see where you rank.” Swimming School, pg. 2 Written by Jean Spanko
  38. 38. Well, wonder of wonders, I got the best score So now I was ready to swim shore to shore. I rushed to the pool Which was right down the block I jumped in the water and sank like a rock. The lifeguard who saved me Was not too impressed When I showed my grade card That proved I was best. Swimming School, pg. 3 Written by Jean Spanko
  39. 39. He said, “Swimming’s a pattern of kicking and strokes But you have no program, your class was a hoax.” So now I’m enrolled in “Let’s Learn How to Knit,” I’m making a muu-muu~ Forget being fit! Swimming School, pg. 4 Written by Jean Spanko
  40. 40. It’s authentic if: It requires judgment and innovation Has to use skills wisely/effectively to address challenges or solve problems. The realistic challenges require the learner to figure out the nature of the problem Not reciting, restating, regurgitating How would an adult truly use this in real life?
  41. 41. Performance Tasks and Projects As complex challenges that mirror the issues and problems faced by adults, they are authentic. Ranging in length from short-term tasks to long-term, multi-staged projects, they require a production or performance. They differ from prompts because they •Feature a setting that is real or simulated: one that involves the kind of constraints, background noise, incentives, and opportunities an adult would find in a similar situation. •Typically require the student to address an identified audience. •Are based on a specific purpose that relates to the audience. •Allow the student greater opportunity to personalize the task. •Are not secure. Task, criteria, and standards are known in advance and guide the student's work.
  42. 42. Criteria for evaluation Culminating Activity/Project Rubric
  43. 43. Rubrics are given to the student when the task is assignedDanielson ranks “highly proficient” teachers as those who have the students create the rubrics! Determine the criteria by:  Establish the BEST, the EXEMPLARY  Define the lowest level of performance  Identify what is between the top & bottom  Be sure that the collected assessment evidence fits with and confirms the desired results outlined in the first step!
  44. 44. Rubistar….
  45. 45. Why Assess?  Assessments are not just to provide a ‘grade’  Purpose of assessment:  Determine if learner ‘got it’……Gather evidence which demonstrates learning outcomes were achieved  Help teachers determine extent of student understanding  Guide next steps of instructions  Provide appropriate scaffolding/differentiated instruction for students throughout the learning experience  Provide feedback to stakeholders (students/parents)
  46. 46. Depth of Knowledge Adapted from the model used by Norman Webb, University of Wisconsin, to align standards with assessments. Focuses on content standard in order to successfully complete an assessment item/task.
  47. 47.  Stage 1: Identify the Desired Results  Stage 2: Determine Acceptable Evidence Stage 3: Plan learning experiences and instruction  What specific content and skills must be ‘taught’ to achieve desired results?  What is the best way to ‘teach’ the content and skills? (order and delivery)  What resources will we need?  How much time might be required for learning? "Reduce your plan to writing... The moment you complete this, you will have definitely given concrete form to the intangible desire." - Napoleon Hill
  48. 48. Lasting thought …. “For any subject taught in primary school, we might ask [is it] worth an adult’s knowing, and whether having known it as a child makes a person a better adult. A negative or ambiguous answer means the material is cluttering up the curriculum.”  Jerome Bruner (Cognitive Psychologist), 1960