What is Digital/Internet Literacy?
Internet literacy includes the skills it takes to
read, disseminate, and evaluate online
sources. It is among the critical skills we
need as we explore the internet world.
Apply R.E.A.L. Techniques to evaluate a
URL - Universal/Uniform Resource
• URL's typically have the following format -
Devices on the Internet are uniquely identified
with an Internet Protocol (IP) Number.
IP Numbers (IP version 4) are a set of 4
numbers, each one ranging from 0-255. (for
IP numbers are difficult for people to
remember, so many organizations will register a
domain names which can be mapped to
specific IP Numbers.
Today's Domain Name System includes several
globally shared domain names (i.e.
.com, .net, .org) as well as many country-
specific codes (i.e. .jp, .de, .us, .uk)
Which website might contain
information that would influence
What does “bias” mean?
• According to the American Heritage
• Bias - “a preference or an inclination,
especially one that inhibits impartial
• Look at the list below and keep it in mind when you are
doing your research.
• An Author’s Purpose:
• The next time you look at a website, think of the
author’s purpose and think of P. I. E. S. This will help
you to evaluate the information and make a better
decision about its trustworthiness and validity.
• Which website might you use when writing a
research paper on President Barack Obama?
How do you find out the owner of a
• Enter the URL of the website you would like
• Who do you think owns the domain name for
The Wayback Machine
• Look back at the history
of a website. See how it
has been changed, what
has been added and
what has been deleted.
• Check out –
What is Netiquette?
• (short for "network etiquette" or "Internet
etiquette") refers to socially acceptable
conduct in an online or digital
situation, ranging from Usenet and mailing
lists to blogs and forums.
• Text messaging, or texting, is the exchange of brief written
text messages between two or more mobile phones or
fixed or portable devices over a phone network. While the
original term was derived from referring to messages sent
using the Short Message Service (SMS) originated from
Radio Telegraphy, it has since been extended to include
messages containing image, video, and sound content
(known as MMS messages).
• The sender of a text message is known as a texter, while
the service itself has different colloquialisms depending on
the region: it may simply be referred to as a text in North
America, Australia, the Philippines and the United
Kingdom, an SMS in most of mainland Europe, and a TMS
or SMS in the Middle East and Asia.
Top 10 Texting Guidelines
• Common courtesy still rules. Contrary to popular belief, composing an SMS while you're in a face-to-face
conversation with someone is just about as rude as taking a voice call.
• Remember that SMS is informal. SMS shouldn't be used for formal invitations or to dump your girlfriend or
boyfriend. The casualness of SMS diminishes the strength and meaning of the message.
• Don't get upset if you don't get a reply. Before you text someone and get frustrated at the lack of a response, be
sure that they're familiar with how to use the service, and that their carrier will accept messages from yours.
• Be aware of your tone. It is extremely difficult to discern tone in text messages, just as in e-mail. What seems to
you to be a completely innocuous message may be grossly misinterpreted by the recipient, causing certain
discomfort if not irreparable harm.
• Don't SMS while you're driving. Talking on the phone is bad enough. You won't know what hit you - or what you
hit - if you are pounding out a message on your keyboard.
• Leave the slang to your friends. Don't expect your stodgy superiors at work to be hip to the lingo of the SMS
• Remember that SMS can be traced. Don't think your messages are Anonymous.
• Be conscientious of others' schedules. Don't assume that because you are awake, working, not busy, or sober that
the person you're texting is as well. Many a pleasant slumber have been interrupted by recurring "beep-
beep...beep-beeps" of messages.
• If it's immediate, make a voice call. If you can't get through and your text message is ignored, there's probably a
good reason. There are still some times when people don't even have a thumb free to respond.
• Remember that your phone does have an off button. There are very, very few things in the world that absolutely
• In photojournalism the rules are clear. To alter
the content of a photograph "in any way that
deceives the public" is wrong, says the digital
manipulation code of ethics of the National Press
• Ideally, a photograph is the
untouched, unmanipulated transcript of what
• Larry Gross, co-editor of "Image Ethics in the
Digital Age" lists cropping and the angle of the
photograph as two other common means to alter
• The Project: Students must select an online
image to edit and employ techniques taught
during the Fotoflexer Media Literacy
lesson. Fotoflexer is a free online image editor
which allows you to perform basic editing options
as well as some advanced features. You can
create an account to save a project you are
currently working on to login later to complete.
Dove - Evolution
• SPATER: A method for analyzing visual media
• (cartoons, photographs, drawings, advertisements, video, other visuals)
• 1. S – Subject: Analyze the subject of the image. Explore the possibility of a larger, implied subject beyond just the
immediate, obvious subject itself. Discuss the context / occasion of the image.
• 2. P – Purpose: Define the implied and /or explicit purpose of this image. Remember that purpose must go beyond
informing and must be connected to a specific action. Examine any political implications of the image. Could the
image be considered propaganda? Analyze how the image furthers an agenda.
• 3. A – Audience: Identify the forum (magazine, newspaper, website) for which the image was created. Analyze how
the original placement of the image is connected to audience. Determine whether the audience has changed and
/ or expanded over time. Describe the characteristics of the primary and secondary audience.
• 4. T – Tone: Analyze the tone that the creator (photographer / artist / cartoonist) of the image has toward his / her
subject. Explain how the tone is communicated to the audience.
• 5. E – Effect: Analyze the intended effect the image has on the audience. Explore the possible unintended effects
of the image.
• 6. R - Rhetorical Devices / Strategies: Analyze the rhetorical devices (strategies) and appeals (ethos, logos, pathos)
implied or made explicit in the image. Explain how those appeals function.
Frank Baker’s Visual Literacy
Close Reading of Text