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Charlotte Danielson
A Framework for Teaching
Domain 3: Instruction
Framework Focus
Domain 1
Planningand Preparation
Whatateacher knowsanddoes in
preparation for engaging students in
learnin...
“Domain 3 is the heart of
A Framework for
Teaching.”
Domain 3: Instruction
• Domain 3 “describes… the critical interactive
work that teachers do to bring complex
content to li...
Domain 3: Instruction – 5 Components
• 3a: Communicating with Students
• 3b: Using Questioning and Discussion
Techniques
•...
3a: Communicating with Students
• Teachers communicate with students to convey that
teaching and learning are purposeful a...
LO: Available for all to see
• A learning objective is an outcome statement
that captures specifically what knowledge,
ski...
Language appropriate for text
7 Keys to Effective Feedback
http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/sept12/vol70/num01/Seven-Keys-to-Effe...
Goodbye to “Good Job”!
http://www.ascd.org/ascd-express/vol6/610-wilson.aspx
Descriptive Feedback
http://www.edugains.ca/resourcesAER/VideoLibrary/Feedback/ViewingGuideFeedbackAfLVideoSeries.pdf
PLUS/DELTA Approach
http://www.celt.iastate.edu/teaching/plus_delta.html
Making Feedback Work
http://www.veanea.org/home/1185.htm
Motivating through Feedback
http://www.ascd.org/ascd-express/vol5/504-heaney.aspx
3b: Using Questioning and Discussion
Techniques
• “High quality questions… promote thinking by
students, encourage them to...
3b: Using Questioning and Discussion
Techniques
• Administrators are looking for –
• Quality of Questions/Prompts
• Discus...
Convergent Questions
• The descriptor convergent refers to the limits placed on the
response to a given question.
• A conv...
Divergent Questions
• A divergent question on the other hand, is open-
ended by nature.
• To respond to a divergent questi...
Divergent vs. Convergent Questions
• Frame questions in a way to… “Invite students to formulate
hypothesis, make connectio...
APPARTS - An acronym of prompts
for the analysis of primary sources
• AUTHOR Who created the source? What do you know abou...
TACOS – Elementary/Middle
• Time: When was this document created? I always remind
them that they are not looking for the s...
A Questioning Toolkit
http://questioning.org/Q7/toolkit.html
The Question Spinner
6 Hat Questioning Technique
http://www.learnerslink.com/questioning_card.htm
Bernie Dodge’s WebQuest
http://webquest.sdsu.edu/higherquest/intro.html
3c: Engaging Students in Learning
• For an activity to be engaging…the student
must have “intellectual involvement with th...
3c: Engaging Students in Learning
• “Student Engagement consists of several distinct,
though related, elements…”
• Activit...
Conjugations
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Ex3k3yKjYk
3d: Using Assessment in Instruction
• “Assessment …no longer signals the end of
instruction; it is now recognized to be an...
3d: Using Assessment in Instruction
• Monitoring of student learning “must be
woven seamlessly into the lesson using a
var...
The Exit Slip
http://www.edutopia.org/blog/formative-assessment-exit-slip-rebecca-alber
Will Richardson’s Blog
http://www.edutopia.org/blog/rethinking-assessment-will-richardson
Use the Standards!
• CCSS Expository Writing Standards can be
found on EngageNY
http://www.engageny.org
Let the Data be Your Guide
http://letthedatabeyourguide.wikispaces.com/
3e: Demonstrating Flexibility and
Responsiveness
• Danielson writes, “Teachers can demonstrate
flexibility and responsiven...
Flexible Grouping
http://daretodifferentiate.wikispaces.com/Flexible+Grouping
Differentiation
http://daretodifferentiate.wikispaces.com/Background+information+on+differentiation
Differentiation
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=akvDT9KFZPw
Reflective Practice
https://hcpssnewteacher.wikispaces.hcpss.org/Reflective+Practice
Our own Reflection on Danielson
Danielson domain3
Danielson domain3
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Danielson domain3

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Danielson domain3

  1. 1. Charlotte Danielson A Framework for Teaching Domain 3: Instruction
  2. 2. Framework Focus Domain 1 Planningand Preparation Whatateacher knowsanddoes in preparation for engaging students in learning. Domain 2 The Classroom Environment Whatateacher doestoestablishand maintainaculture forlearning that supportscognitive engagement. Domain 4 ProfessionalResponsibilities Professional responsibilities andbehavior in andoutoftheclassroom. Domain 3 Instruction Whatateacher doestocognitively engage studentsinthecontent. ✓ • The Framework for Teaching Charlotte Danielson
  3. 3. “Domain 3 is the heart of A Framework for Teaching.”
  4. 4. Domain 3: Instruction • Domain 3 “describes… the critical interactive work that teachers do to bring complex content to life for their students.” • At its heart, Domain 3 “is engaging students in learning; all the other aspects of the framework serve the purpose of engagement, because it is engagement that ensures learning.”
  5. 5. Domain 3: Instruction – 5 Components • 3a: Communicating with Students • 3b: Using Questioning and Discussion Techniques • 3c: Engaging Students in Learning • 3d: Using Assessment in Instruction • 3f: Demonstrating Flexibility and Responsiveness
  6. 6. 3a: Communicating with Students • Teachers communicate with students to convey that teaching and learning are purposeful activities, and they make that purpose clear to students. • Teachers must provide “clear directions and explanations” so that students know what is expected of them. • Teachers must be understood – whether through verbal instruction or through written instruction. • Teachers present concepts and information with accuracy, clarity, and imagination – using vivid, rich and error-free language.
  7. 7. LO: Available for all to see • A learning objective is an outcome statement that captures specifically what knowledge, skills, attitudes learners should be able to exhibit following instruction. • Essential Question: Available for all to see • Task Directions clearly posted
  8. 8. Language appropriate for text
  9. 9. 7 Keys to Effective Feedback http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/sept12/vol70/num01/Seven-Keys-to-Effective-Feedback.aspx
  10. 10. Goodbye to “Good Job”! http://www.ascd.org/ascd-express/vol6/610-wilson.aspx
  11. 11. Descriptive Feedback http://www.edugains.ca/resourcesAER/VideoLibrary/Feedback/ViewingGuideFeedbackAfLVideoSeries.pdf
  12. 12. PLUS/DELTA Approach http://www.celt.iastate.edu/teaching/plus_delta.html
  13. 13. Making Feedback Work http://www.veanea.org/home/1185.htm
  14. 14. Motivating through Feedback http://www.ascd.org/ascd-express/vol5/504-heaney.aspx
  15. 15. 3b: Using Questioning and Discussion Techniques • “High quality questions… promote thinking by students, encourage them to make connections among previously believed, unrelated concepts or events and to arrive at new understandings of complex material.” • Allow students adequate time to think, and ask probing questions to explore an answer further, “Could you give me an example of that?” • Highly Effective teachers ask questions that they themselves may not know the answer to
  16. 16. 3b: Using Questioning and Discussion Techniques • Administrators are looking for – • Quality of Questions/Prompts • Discussion Techniques • High levels of Student Participation • Discussion with the teacher stepping out of the central, mediating role.
  17. 17. Convergent Questions • The descriptor convergent refers to the limits placed on the response to a given question. • A convergent question by its nature has a more narrowly defined correct answer – the answer is generally short, requires little reflection and requires that the responded recall from memory a bit of factual information. • Convergent questions may also be referred to as “closed-ended” questions, meaning that the instructor is looking for an anticipated response that requires little original thought on the student’s part. • Convergent questions will not require students to put original thought to the development of an answer. In other words, the answer will have been provided within the context of the lecture or readings assigned by the instructor
  18. 18. Divergent Questions • A divergent question on the other hand, is open- ended by nature. • To respond to a divergent question, a student must be able to recall some information from memory, but must apply that knowledge and other knowledge to explain, extrapolate or further analyze a topic, situation or problem. • Divergent questions are broader in nature, can have multiple answers, and require then a higher level of thinking on behalf of the student.
  19. 19. Divergent vs. Convergent Questions • Frame questions in a way to… “Invite students to formulate hypothesis, make connections, or challenge previously held views.” – (Defend, Judge, Predict, If…then, Can you create?, What is your opinion? • Convergent: What other animals can you think of that use color as camouflage? This question checks a student’s ability to identify what role camouflage and animal coloration play in nature and suggest other examples. (The responses are fairly easily anticipated and require that students recall other examples of animals they have seen or studied). • Divergent: Suppose the lion had been born with a much darker colored coat, what do you predict would happen to that lion in the wild? This question allows the student to consider a scenario, use knowledge regarding camouflage, coat coloration and the environment the animal lives in to create an original answer that is logical and correct.
  20. 20. APPARTS - An acronym of prompts for the analysis of primary sources • AUTHOR Who created the source? What do you know about the author? What is the author’s point of view? • PLACE AND TIME Where and when was the source produced? How might this affect the meaning of the source? • PRIOR KNOWLEDGE Beyond information about the author and the context of its creation, what do you know that would help you further understand the primary source? For example, do you recognize any symbols and recall what they represent? • AUDIENCE For whom was the source created and how might this affect the reliability of the source? • REASON Why was this source created at the time it was produced? • THE MAIN IDEA What point is the source trying to convey? • SIGNIFICANCE Why is this source important? What inferences can you draw from this document? Ask yourself, “So what?” in relation to the question asked.
  21. 21. TACOS – Elementary/Middle • Time: When was this document created? I always remind them that they are not looking for the setting of the cartoon, rather when do they think the author created it? What clues in the picture can help you figure it out? • Action: What is going on in the picture? What are people doing/saying? • Caption: Write down all the words or text that you see in the picture (captions, thought bubbles, labels, etc.) • Objects: List everything that is visible in the picture. Watch out – the kids can get very specific on this one! • Summary/So what?: What does this have to do with real life? What does this mean? Why is this important?
  22. 22. A Questioning Toolkit http://questioning.org/Q7/toolkit.html
  23. 23. The Question Spinner
  24. 24. 6 Hat Questioning Technique http://www.learnerslink.com/questioning_card.htm
  25. 25. Bernie Dodge’s WebQuest http://webquest.sdsu.edu/higherquest/intro.html
  26. 26. 3c: Engaging Students in Learning • For an activity to be engaging…the student must have “intellectual involvement with the content or active • Danielson writes, “If one component of the framework can claim to be the most important, it is student engagement.”
  27. 27. 3c: Engaging Students in Learning • “Student Engagement consists of several distinct, though related, elements…” • Activities and Assignments – are challenging, directions are clear • Grouping of Students – “the type of instructional group should reflect what a teacher is trying to accomplish and should serve that purpose.” • Instructional Methods and Resources – “can be any item that help students engage with content.” • Structure and Pacing – “Structure has been created by the teacher’s design.” “Pacing is appropriate to the students and to the content…and suitable for closure.”
  28. 28. Conjugations http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Ex3k3yKjYk
  29. 29. 3d: Using Assessment in Instruction • “Assessment …no longer signals the end of instruction; it is now recognized to be an integral part of instruction.” • Assessment of learning vs. assessment for learning • At “highly proficient” students have had a hand in the development of the assessment
  30. 30. 3d: Using Assessment in Instruction • Monitoring of student learning “must be woven seamlessly into the lesson using a variety of techniques.” • Student monitoring of their own learning, and then taking appropriate action is the culmination of student responsibility for their own learning.
  31. 31. The Exit Slip http://www.edutopia.org/blog/formative-assessment-exit-slip-rebecca-alber
  32. 32. Will Richardson’s Blog http://www.edutopia.org/blog/rethinking-assessment-will-richardson
  33. 33. Use the Standards! • CCSS Expository Writing Standards can be found on EngageNY http://www.engageny.org
  34. 34. Let the Data be Your Guide http://letthedatabeyourguide.wikispaces.com/
  35. 35. 3e: Demonstrating Flexibility and Responsiveness • Danielson writes, “Teachers can demonstrate flexibility and responsiveness in 3 types of situations.” • “One is an instructional activity that is not working.”(p.88 – for Richard) • “The second… is a spontaneous event that provides an opportunity for valuable learning.” – a “teachable moment” • The third – “when a student experiences difficulty in learning…the teacher persists in the search for alternative approaches.”
  36. 36. Flexible Grouping http://daretodifferentiate.wikispaces.com/Flexible+Grouping
  37. 37. Differentiation http://daretodifferentiate.wikispaces.com/Background+information+on+differentiation
  38. 38. Differentiation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=akvDT9KFZPw
  39. 39. Reflective Practice https://hcpssnewteacher.wikispaces.hcpss.org/Reflective+Practice
  40. 40. Our own Reflection on Danielson

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