A WebQuestFor Grades 6 & 7 Due Date - May 4, 2012
Introduction• Bienvenidos! Welcome!• Cinco de Mayo, or the Fifth of May, commemorates the 1862 victory by Mexican forces over French soldiers. The battle known as La Batalla de Puebla or "The Battle of Puebla" took place on May 5th.• It is a day marked by many Mexicans and those with Mexican ties as an important cultural event.• Lets explore the roots of Hispanic culture by learning more about this day in the history of Mexico.
• Cinco de Mayo—or “Fifth of May”—is a Mexican holiday that commemorates the victory of the Mexican army over an invading French army at the Battle of Puebla in 1862.• It is not, as many people mistakenly believe, Mexico’s Independence Day (that date is Sept. 16).• Although the Mexican army was eventually defeated, the Batalla de Puebla became a symbol of Mexican unity and patriotism. With this victory, Mexico demonstrated to the world that it was willing to defend itself against foreign intervention.
Undated celebration photo Mexico, the 5th of May in the Plaza de Armas
Background Information• The Battle of Puebla occurred during a tumultuous period in Mexico’s history. Mexico had gained independence from Spain in 1821, but a series of political takeovers and wars—including the Mexican- American War of 1846–1848 and the Mexican Civil War of 1858—had left Mexico bankrupt. Mexico was unable to make payments on the large debts to England, Spain, and France it had accumulated.• On July 17, 1861, Mexican President Benito Juárez issued a statement in which he declared that all foreign debt payments would be suspended for a period of two years, but promised that after this period, payments would resume.
Background Information• The English, Spanish, and French refused to allow President Juárez to suspend payments.• They decided to invade Mexico and get payments by whatever means necessary. Although the Spanish and English soon abandoned their plans to invade Mexico, French Emperor Napoleon III persisted, intending to create an empire in Mexico.
La Batalla de Puebla• In 1862, the French army began its advance toward Mexico City. Waiting for the 8,000 French troops on May 5, 1862, at Puebla, however, were about 5,000 Mestizo and Zapotec Indian troops commanded by General Ignacio Zaragoza and Colonel Porfirio Diaz, the commander of the Mexican cavalry.• The French general ordered a frontal assault on Puebla. As Diaz’s troops rode to battle the French, Zaragoza’s fighters held their position and forced the French to retreat. The Mexican victory at the Batalla de Puebla halted the French invasion of Mexico.
General Ignacio Zaragoza(on the 500 peso note)
Map of Puebla, Mexico http://www.virtualmex.com/map.htm
Maximilian, Emperor of Mexico• Unfortunately, the victory was short lived. Upon hearing the news of the battle, Napoleon sent 30,000 more troops overseas to attempt another invasion of Mexico.• A year later, the French were finally able to defeat the Mexican army, take over Mexico City, and install Archduke Maximilian of Austria as the ruler of Maximilian, Emperor of Mexico Mexico.
Maximilian, Emperor of Mexico• Maximilian was crowned Emperor on April 10, 1864. Both he and his wife immersed themselves in Mexico’s culture. Charlotte changed her name to the Spanish equivalent and was known as Empress Carlota.• Once the U.S. Civil War was over, the U.S. recognized Benito Juarez as the legitimate President of Mexico, and France withdrew its military.• Without France’s military support, Maximilian was captured and executed by firing squad on June 19, 1867.
Folklórico• Folklórico, literally "folkloric dance" in Spanish, is a collective term for traditional Latin American dances that emphasize local folk culture.
El Jarabe Tapatío • The Jarabe Tapatío, known in English as the Mexican Hat Dance, is the title of the musical piece and the dance that accompanies it, which is accorded the title of the "national dance of Mexico".
El Jarabe TapatíoClick the picture to see the dance
Cielito Lindo Mariachi • “Cielito Lindo” is a popular mariachi song written inMariachi 1882. It has become a• The mariachi ensemble popular theme song for generally consists of violins, Mexicans, recently used in trumpets, a classical guitar, the FIFA World Cup. a vihuela (a high-pitched, • Click on Enrique Iglesias to five-string guitar), a hear “Cielito Lindo” guitarrón (a large acoustic bass) and, on occasion, a harp or two. They dress in silver studded charro outfits with wide-brimmed hats.
Mariachi – Click on the picture to hear “La Raspa”
MariachiClick on the picture to hear themariachi version of “La Bamba”
La Bandera de México• This flag is a vertical tricolor of green, white, and red with the national coat of arms charged in the center of the white stripe.• The current flag was adopted in 1968, but the overall design has been used since 1821, when the First National Flag was created.• The central emblem is the Aztec pictogram for Tenochtitlan (now Mexico City), the center of their empire. The coat of arms is derived from an Aztec legend that their gods told them to build a city where they spot an eagle on a nopal cactus eating a serpent, which is now Mexico City.• The tri-color flag includes green (representing hope); white (representing unity) and red (representing blood of the national heroes)
Conclusion• For the most part, Cinco de Mayo is primarily a regional holiday in Mexico, celebrated most enthusiastically in the state of Puebla and in Mexico City.• Celebrating Cinco de Mayo has become increasingly popular along the U.S.–Mexico border and in parts of the United States that have a high population of people with a Mexican heritage. In these areas the holiday is a celebration of Mexican culture and foods, music, and customs unique to Mexico.• Parades are a popular expression of celebration on this holiday, as are mariachi music, folklorico dancing, and other festive activities.