Slavery Close The Gaps

896 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
896
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
18
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Slavery Close The Gaps

  1. 1. Slavery: The Terrible Transformation CLOSE THE GAPSeconomic indentured servants freedom knowledge of the land House ofBurgessesJamestown chattel mortality diseases immuneslavery barbaric Racism cheap laborORIGINSIn 1619, slavery started in the British Colonies when “20 men and women naked and in chains“arrived in________________________, Virginia. John Rolfe published the 1st statement on theexistence of ______________________ in the 1st successful British settlement, “About the last ofAugust came in a Dutch man of warre (ship) that sold us twenty...”SOCIAL STATUS OF AFRICANS BEFORE 1660The Social Status of Africans was remarkably different before the 1660s. They workedalongside____________________ _____________________. Indentured servants worked 4-7 yearsfor passage to America from Europe. They were fed and clothed by the master and many earnedland after their service. Africans could gain their ______________________, right to vote, holdpublic office, and serve in the militia. They also shared their knowledge offarming, folktales, dances,arts & handicrafts.GREED AFTER THE 1660sSlavery evolved in the British American colonies as a social, _____________________, and legalinstitution. Cash crops (indigo, tobacco, & rice) requireda large labor force. Indentured servitudestarted to decrease as Europe’s economy improved. Therefore, in 1660, The_____________________ _______________________in Virginia formally establishes the institution of slavery. Slaveswere treated as____________________(property).RACISMSlavery was originally adopted for economic reasons. However, Southern whites justified slaverybased on_____________________. Racism is the belief that some people are inferior because oftheir race. Whites concluded that extermination of Indians and enslavement of Africans was logicalBECAUSE whites were civilized & others were __________________________.Native Americans were not suited for slavery because they had __________________ ____ _________________________. Additionally, Native Americans experienced high____________________(death) rates from European_____________________. Africans werebetter suited for slavery because they were ______________________to most European diseases,had no means (family, friends, knowledge of land) to escape in the Americas and were a permanentsource of cheap labor. 1
  2. 2. Wars dying tortured Middle Passage western coast shackles halfdiseasebranded exchange Americas slave coast overboard coffin mortality rates supply and demand revolts firearms andgunpowderTriangular Trade cash crop plantation system climate AbolitionistsTHE MIDDLE PASSAGE (c. 1600-1800)“The Middle Passage must have been as near as anyone ever comes to hell on earth.” -Barry Unsworth, authorThe law of _______________ _______ _______________created turmoil in West Africa. Thedemand for slaves by Europeans triggered ___________between African tribes. Local kings capturedAfricans in ___________________for guns, molasses, & rum. The trade route between Europe,Africa & the Americas is known as _______________________ _______________________.For weeks, months, or as long as a year, Africans waited in the dungeons of the slave factoriesscattered along Africas________________ ________________. Out of the roughly 20 million whowere taken from their homes and sold into slavery, _____________didnt complete the journey to theAfrican coast, most of those ________________along the way.The captives were about to embark on the infamous________________ _________________, socalled because it was the middle leg of a three-part voyage -- a voyage that began and ended inEurope. The first leg of the voyage carried a cargo that often included iron, cloth,brandy,_________________ _____ _______________. Upon landing on Africas "____________________________," the cargo was exchanged for Africans. Fully loaded with its human cargo,“white ships with black cargo” set sail for the__________________, where the slaves wereexchanged for sugar, tobacco, or some other product. The final leg brought the ship back to Europe.Slaves were _________________with hot irons and restrained with______________. With 300 to 400people packed in a tiny area -- an area with little ventilation and, in some cases, not even enoughspace to place buckets for human waste -- _________________was prevalent. Dr. AlexanderFalconbridge described the conditions stating, “They had not so much room as a man in his_________________.” The voyage lasted 1-4 months (depending on weather). Faced with thenightmarish conditions of the voyage and the unknown future that lay beyond, many Africanspreferred to die and some threw themselves ______________________to drown. From the captainspoint of view, his human cargo was extremely valuable. A slave who tried to starve him or herselfwas ________________________. If torture didnt work, the slave was force fed with the help of acontraption called a speculum orum, which held the mouth open.Middle Passage ________________ _____________were high. Although its difficult to determinehow many Africans died en route to the new world, it is now believed that between ten and twentypercent of those transported lost their lives.African __________________were squashed by public torture and death. A successful revolt was ledby Africans aboard the Spanish ship, Amistad (means friendship) in 1839. The Africans wereeventually freed after their case was argued before the SCOTUS. 2
  3. 3. NORTH vs. SOUTHSlavery was the basis for the Southern economy because ofthe_________________ ____________. The plantation system is a system of agricultural productionbased on large-scale land ownership and the exploitation of labor and the environment. Production isusually concentrated on a___________ ______________. For instance, the South produced tobacco,rice, sugar and cotton.The Northern ________________and region were not conducive for large scale farming. Inaddition,______________________fought to end slavery. Eventually Northern colonies outlawedslavery.Analyzing Images:Label the key term/concept with the correct image. A. Not so Much room as a Man in His Coffin B. Triangular Trade C. Middle Passage D. Plantation System 1. The entire map shows:_____________________________. The journey from Africa across the Atlantic to the Americas is known as the ___________________________________.2. _________________ 3.____________________ 3
  4. 4. 4
  5. 5. Slavery in the colonies: “A peculiar Institution”ORIGINSIn 1619, slavery started in the British Colonies when20 men and women naked and in chains“arrivedin Jamestown, Virginia. John Rolfe published the 1st statement on the existence of slavery in the1st successful British settlement, “About the last of August came in a Dutch man of warre that sold ustwenty...”SOCIAL STATUS OF AFRICANS BEFORE 1660The Social Status of Africans was remarkably different before the 1660s. They worked alongsideindentured servants. Indentured servants worked 4-7 years for passage to America from Europe.They were fed and clothed by the master and many earned land after their service. Africans couldgain their freedom, right to vote, hold public office, and serve in the militia. They also shared theirknowledge offarming, folktales, dances, arts & handicrafts.GREED AFTER THE 1660sSlavery evolved in the British American colonies as a social, economic, and legal institution. Cashcrops (indigo, tobacco, & rice) requireda large labor force. Indentured servitude started to decreaseas Europe’s economy improved. Therefore, in 1660, TheHouse of Burgesses in Virginia formallyestablishes the institution of slavery. Slaves were treated aschattel (property).RACISMSlavery was originally adopted for economic reasons. However, Southern whites justified slaverybased onRacism. Racism is the belief that some people are inferior because of their race. Whitesconcluded that extermination of Indians and enslavement of Africans was logical BECAUSE whiteswere civilized & others were BARBARIC.THE MIDDLE PASSAGE (c. 1600-1800)The law of supply and demand created turmoil in West Africa. The demand for slaves byEuropeanstriggered wars between African tribes. Local kings captured Africans in exchange forguns, molasses, & rum. The trade route between Europe, Africa & the Americas is known asTriangular Trade.For weeks, months, or as long as a year, Africans waited in the dungeons of the slave factoriesscattered along Africas western coast. Out of the roughly20 million who were taken from theirhomes and sold into slavery, half didnt complete the journey to the African coast, most of thosedying along the way.The captives were about to embark on the infamous Middle Passage, so called because it was themiddle leg of a three-part voyage -- a voyage that began and ended in Europe. The first leg of thevoyage carried a cargo that often included iron, cloth, brandy, firearms, and gunpowder. Uponlanding on Africas "slave coast," the cargo was exchanged for Africans. Fully loaded with itshuman cargo, the ship set sail for the Americas, where the slaves were exchanged for sugar, tobacco, 5
  6. 6. or some other product. The final leg brought the ship back to Europe.Slaves were branded with hot irons and restrained with shackles. With 300 to 400 people packed ina tiny area -- an area with little ventilation and, in some cases, not even enough space to placebuckets for human waste -- disease was prevalent. Dr. Alexander Falconbridge described theconditions stating, “They had not so much room as a man in his coffin.” The voyage lasted 1-4months (depending on weather). Faced with the nightmarish conditions of the voyage and theunknown future that lay beyond, many Africans preferred to die and some threw themselvesoverboard to drown. From the captains point of view, his human cargo was extremely valuable. Aslave who tried to starve him or herself was tortured. If torture didnt work, the slave was force fedwith the help of a contraption called a speculum orum, which held the mouth open.Middle Passage mortality rates were high. Although its difficult to determine how many Africansdied en route to the new world, it is now believed that between ten and twenty percent of thosetransported lost their lives.African revolts were squashed by public torture and death. A successful revolt was led by Africansaboard the Spanish ship, Amistad (means friendship) in 1839. The Africans were eventually freedafter their case was argued before the SCOTUS.The Middle Passage must have been as near as anyone ever comes to hell on earth.- Barry Unsworth, authorWHY AFRICANS?Native Americans were not suited for slavery because they had knowledge of the land. Additionally,Native Americans experienced high mortality (death) rates from European diseases. Africans werebetter suited for slavery because they were immune to most European diseases, had no means(family, friends, knowledge of land) to escape in the Americas and were apermanent source of cheaplabor.NORTH vs. SOUTHSlavery in the SOUTH was the basis for their economy because of the plantation system. Theplantation system is a system of agricultural production based on large-scale land ownership and theexploitation of labor and the environment. Production is usually concentrated on a cash crop. Forinstance, the plantation system in the South produced tobacco, rice, sugar and cotton for the worldmarket.The Northern climate and region were not conducive for large scale farming. In addition, Abolitionistsfought to end slavery. Eventually Northern colonies outlawed slavery.Sources: Dalleck, R. et al (2008). American history. McDougal Littell. Garraty, J. ( 1991). The American nation. New York, NY: Harper Collins Publishers. http://www.polytechnic.org/faculty/gfeldmeth/USHistory.html www.americanabolitionist.liberalarts.iupui.edu/ file PBS Africans In America http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/home.htmlWebsites to explore: http://www.nmm.ac.uk/freedom/ 6
  7. 7. 7

×