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EXTRUSION : A MANUFACTURING
PROCESS
Presented By -
Deepam Goyal
Nitesh Parmar
Department of Mechanical Engineering
NITTTR , CHANDIGARH
 Introduction
 The Extrusion Process
 Hot & Cold Extrusion
 Impact Extrusion
 Hydrostatic Extrusion
 Extrusion Defects
 The Drawing Process
CONTENTS
Extrusion:-
• It is a manufacturing process, in which a block of metal enclosed in a
container is forced to flow through the opening of a die.
• The metal issubjectedto plastic deformation & it undergoes reduction
& elongation.
• Basically it is an adaption of
Open Die forging.
Uses:-
• Manufacture of solid & hollow sections from non ferrous metals &
alloys.
• Sliding doors, tubing having various cross sections, door & window
frames.
INTRODUCTION
CLASSIFICATION OF EXTRUSION PROCESSES
Extrusion
By Direction
By
Equipment
By Operating
Temperature
Indirect /
Backward
Direct /
Forward
Hot Cold Horizontal Vertical
CLASSIFICATION BY DIRECTION
1. Direct Extrusion:-
• It is a process in which the metal billet, placed in a container is
forced by a ram to pass through a die.
• In this type the direction
of flow of metal is, in same
as that of movement of ram.
•The punch closely fits the die cavity to prevent backward flow of
the material.
CLASSIFICATION BY DIRECTION
2. In-direct Extrusion:-
• It is a process in which a hollow ram containing the die is forced
into the container, containing metal.
• Hollow ram limits the applied load.
• The movement of metal is opposite to the direction of ram
motion.
CLASSIFICATION BY OPERATING TEMPERATURE
1.Hot Extrusion:-
• It is done at fairly high temperatures, approximately 50 to 75% of
the melting point of the metal.
• Die life and components are effected
due to the high temperatures and
pressures, which makes lubrication
necessary.
•Pressures Ranges: 35-700 Mpa.
TYPES OF HOT EXTRUSION
Hot Extrusion
Lubricated HydrostaticNon-Lubricated
LUBRICATED HOT EXTRUSION
 Before the billet is inserted into the hot extrusion container, a
suitable lubricating system is positioned immediately ahead of
the die in order to reduce frictional stresses.
 Oil and graphite are used at lower
temperature whereas at higher temperatures,
glass powder is used.
 Copper alloys, titanium alloys, alloy steels,
stainless steels, and tool steels are extruded using lubrication.
NON-LUBRICATED HOT EXTRUSION
 No lubrication is used on the billet, container, or die for
reducing frictional stresses.
 It has the ability to produce very complex
sections with excellent surface finishes
and low dimensional tolerances.
 Solid and hollow dies with flat shear faces are typically used.
HYDROSTATIC EXTRUSION
• In the hydrostatic extrusion process the billet is completely
surrounded by a pressurized liquid, except where the billet
contacts the die.
•The rate, with which the billet moves when pressing in the
direction of the die, is thus not equal to the ram speed, but is
proportional to the displaced hydrostatics medium volume.
•The process must be carried out in a sealed cylinder to contain
the hydrostatic medium.
• Pressure = 1400 Mpa (approx.)
Contd..
Advantages:
•Elimination of large friction force between the billet and the
container wall.
•Possible to use dies with a very low semi cone angle (α-200).
•This process can be done hot, warm, or cold, however the
temperature is limited by the stability of the fluid used.
Contd..
Limitations:
•Not suitable for hot-working due to pressurized liquid.
•A practical limit on fluid pressure is around 1.7GPa currently
exists because of the strength of the container.
•The liquid should not solidify at high pressure this limits the
obtainable.
Applications:
• Cladding of metals
• Making wires of less ductile materials
• Nuclear reactor fuel rods
ADVANTAGES OF HOT EXTRUSION
 Complex solid or hollow shapes can be produced.
 Small quantities can be economically produced.
 Delivery times are often far shorter than alternative processes.
LIMITATIONS OF HOT EXTRUSION
 High equipment set up and maintenance cost.
 Extrusion process for metals is at very high temperatures.
 Die is preheated to increase its life, so there are chances of
oxidation of hot billet.
 Process Wastage is higher as compared to rolling.
 Non-homogeneous.
CLASSIFICATION BY OPERATING TEMPERATURE
2. Cold Extrusion:-
• Cold extrusion is the process done at room temperature or
slightly elevated temperatures.
• This process can be used for materials that can withstand the
stresses created by extrusion.
ADVANTAGES OF COLD EXTRUSION
 Improved Mechanical properties.
 Good control of dimensional tolerances.
 Improved surface finish.
 No need for heating billet.
 No oxidation takes place.
DISADVANTAGES OF COLD EXTRUSION
 Tooling cost is high, therefore large production lot size is
required.
 Special coating is required to reduce friction and to maintain a
lubricant film throughout.
 Limited deformation can be obtained.
APPLICATIONS OF COLD EXTRUSION
 Cu, Pb, Sn, Al Alloys, Ti, Mo, V, Steel, Zr parts can be extruded.
 Tubes, Gear Blanks, Aluminum Cans, Cylinders, Fire
Extinguisher Cases, Shock Absorber Cylinders, and Automotive
Pistons are manufactured.
IMPACT EXTRUSION
Impact extrusion-
• A manufacturing process in which a
small shot of solid material is placed
in the die and is impacted by a ram,
which causes cold flow in the
material.
• It may be either direct or indirect
extrusion and it is usually performed
on a high- speed mechanical press.
contd..
Applications-
• Although the process is generally performed cold, considerable
heating results from the high speed deformation.
• A short lengths of hollow shapes, such as collapsible toothpaste
tubes or spray cans.
• Requires soft materials such as Al, Pb, Cu or Sn.
CLASSIFICATION BY EQUIPMENT
Horizontal extrusion process-
• The layout of operating machine is horizontal and movement of
billet as well as of ram is horizontal in direction.
• 15-50 MN capacity.
• It is mostly used for commercial extrusion of bars and shapes.
CLASSIFICATION BY EQUIPMENT
Vertical extrusion process-
• The movement of billet and ram is vertical in orientation.
• 3-20 MN capacity.
• Mainly used in the production of thin-wall tubing.
DIE MATERIALS
 Commonly used materials are Tool Steels and Carbides
 Diamond dies are used for fine wire.
 For improved wear resistance, steel dies may be chromium
plated, and carbide dies may be coated with titanium nitride
 For Hot drawing, cast-steel dies are used .
 Dies are made from highly alloy tools steels or ceramics
(Si3N4).
 Heat treatments such as nitriding are required (several times)
to increase hardness (1000-1100 Hvor 65-70 HRC). This
improves die life.
LUBRICATION
NEED-
 Proper lubrication is essential in extruding, in order to
improve die life, reduce drawing forces and temperature,
and improve surface finish.
 Types of Lubrication-
a) Wet drawing : Dies and Rods are completely immersed in
lubricant.
b) Dry drawing : Surface of the rod to be drawn is coated
with a lubricant.
c) Coating : Rod or Wire is coated with a soft metal that acts
as a solid lubricant.
d) Ultrasonic Vibration : of the dies and mandrels.
FACTORS AFFECTING THE EXTRUSION FORCE
1. Type of extrusion
2. Extrusion ratio
3. Working temperature
4. Deformation
5. Frictional conditions at the die and the container wall
MATHEMATICAL RELATIONS
1. Extrusion ratio, R -
It is defined as the ratio of the initial cross-sectional area ,
Ao, of the billet to the final cross-sectional area , Af, after
extrusion.
fA
A
R 0
R ~ 40:1 for hot extrusion of steels.
R ~ 400:1 for aluminum.
2.Fractional reduction in area, r -
0
1
A
A
r
f

r
R


1
1
Contd..
3. Velocity -
Velocity of extruded product = (Ram velocity) x (R)
4. Extrusion force -
where k = extrusion constant,
fA
A
kAP 0
0 ln
EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE ON HOT EXTRUSION
The temperature of the work piece in metal working
depends on:-
The initial temperature of the tools and the materials.
Heat generated due to plastic deformation.
Heat generated by friction at the die/material
interface.
Heat transfer between the deforming material and the
dies and surrounding environment.
EXTRUSION DEFECT
1) Inhomogeneous deformation -
 In direct extrusion, a dead zone along the outer
surface of the billet due to the movement of metal in
the centre being higher than the periphery.
 After 2/3 of the billet is extruded, the outer
surface of the billet (normally with oxidised skin)
moves toward the centre and extrudes to the through
the die, resulting in internal oxide stringers.
Contd..
2) Surface cracking
 It is the ranging from a badly roughened surface to
repetitive transverse cracking called fir-tree cracking.
 It is due to longitudinal tensile stresses generated as
the extrusion passes through the die.
 In hot extrusion, this form of cracking usually is
intergranular and is associated with hot shortness.
 The most common case is too high ram speed for the
extrusion temperature.
3) Centre burst or chevron cracking
 It can occur at low extrusion ratio due to low
frictional conditions on the zone of deformation at
the extrusion die.
 High friction(at a the tool-billet interface).
 Low friction centre burst.
Contd..
4) Variations in structure and properties
 Structure & properties are varied within the extrusions
due to non-uniform deformation for example at the front
and the back of the extrusion in both longitudinal and
transverse directions.
 Regions of exaggerated
grain growth, due to high
hot working temperature.
Contd..
Grain
Growth
5) Hot shortness (in aluminium extrusion)
 High temperatures generated cause incipient melting,
which causes cracking.
Contd..
stock (bar)
F (pulling force)
wire
diestock (bar)
F (pulling force)
wire
die
DRAWING PROCESS
Drawing –
It is an operation in which the cross-section of solid
rod, wire or tubing is reduced or changed in shape by
pulling it through a die.
Working Principle –
The principle of this procedure consist of reducing the
thickness of a pointed ,tapered wire by drawing it
through a conical opening in a tool made of a hard
material.The wire will take shape of the hole.
Contd..
Various variables affecting the Drawing Process –
1. Work Material
2. Reduction in curve section
3. Die angle
4. Drawing speed
5. Lubrication
Note:-
It is almost similar to extrusion, except that
pulling force is applied.
REFERENCES
 Kalpakjian Seope, Schmid Steven R.: “Manufacturing
Engineering & Technology” Pearson Education India, 2009, pp
395-402.
 Sharma, P.C. A textbook of production engineering. 11. New
DELHI: S.Chand & Company Ltd, 2009, 504-515. Print.
 Sharma, P.C. A textbook of production Technology. 7. New
Delhi: S.Chand & Company Ltd, 2011, 265-280. Print.
 Todd H. Robert, Allen K. Dell, Alting Leo. Manufacturing
processes reference guide.1. New york: Industrial Press Inc,
1994, pp. 295-299.
 Rajput, R. K. A textbook of Manufacturing technology.1. New
Delhi: Luxmi Publishers (P) Ltd,2007,pp. 295-299.
Email ID :- bkdeepamgoyal@gmail.com & er.nitesh41@gmail.com

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Extrusion

  • 1. EXTRUSION : A MANUFACTURING PROCESS Presented By - Deepam Goyal Nitesh Parmar Department of Mechanical Engineering NITTTR , CHANDIGARH
  • 2.  Introduction  The Extrusion Process  Hot & Cold Extrusion  Impact Extrusion  Hydrostatic Extrusion  Extrusion Defects  The Drawing Process CONTENTS
  • 3. Extrusion:- • It is a manufacturing process, in which a block of metal enclosed in a container is forced to flow through the opening of a die. • The metal issubjectedto plastic deformation & it undergoes reduction & elongation. • Basically it is an adaption of Open Die forging. Uses:- • Manufacture of solid & hollow sections from non ferrous metals & alloys. • Sliding doors, tubing having various cross sections, door & window frames. INTRODUCTION
  • 4. CLASSIFICATION OF EXTRUSION PROCESSES Extrusion By Direction By Equipment By Operating Temperature Indirect / Backward Direct / Forward Hot Cold Horizontal Vertical
  • 5. CLASSIFICATION BY DIRECTION 1. Direct Extrusion:- • It is a process in which the metal billet, placed in a container is forced by a ram to pass through a die. • In this type the direction of flow of metal is, in same as that of movement of ram. •The punch closely fits the die cavity to prevent backward flow of the material.
  • 6. CLASSIFICATION BY DIRECTION 2. In-direct Extrusion:- • It is a process in which a hollow ram containing the die is forced into the container, containing metal. • Hollow ram limits the applied load. • The movement of metal is opposite to the direction of ram motion.
  • 7. CLASSIFICATION BY OPERATING TEMPERATURE 1.Hot Extrusion:- • It is done at fairly high temperatures, approximately 50 to 75% of the melting point of the metal. • Die life and components are effected due to the high temperatures and pressures, which makes lubrication necessary. •Pressures Ranges: 35-700 Mpa.
  • 8. TYPES OF HOT EXTRUSION Hot Extrusion Lubricated HydrostaticNon-Lubricated
  • 9. LUBRICATED HOT EXTRUSION  Before the billet is inserted into the hot extrusion container, a suitable lubricating system is positioned immediately ahead of the die in order to reduce frictional stresses.  Oil and graphite are used at lower temperature whereas at higher temperatures, glass powder is used.  Copper alloys, titanium alloys, alloy steels, stainless steels, and tool steels are extruded using lubrication.
  • 10. NON-LUBRICATED HOT EXTRUSION  No lubrication is used on the billet, container, or die for reducing frictional stresses.  It has the ability to produce very complex sections with excellent surface finishes and low dimensional tolerances.  Solid and hollow dies with flat shear faces are typically used.
  • 11. HYDROSTATIC EXTRUSION • In the hydrostatic extrusion process the billet is completely surrounded by a pressurized liquid, except where the billet contacts the die. •The rate, with which the billet moves when pressing in the direction of the die, is thus not equal to the ram speed, but is proportional to the displaced hydrostatics medium volume. •The process must be carried out in a sealed cylinder to contain the hydrostatic medium. • Pressure = 1400 Mpa (approx.)
  • 12. Contd.. Advantages: •Elimination of large friction force between the billet and the container wall. •Possible to use dies with a very low semi cone angle (α-200). •This process can be done hot, warm, or cold, however the temperature is limited by the stability of the fluid used.
  • 13. Contd.. Limitations: •Not suitable for hot-working due to pressurized liquid. •A practical limit on fluid pressure is around 1.7GPa currently exists because of the strength of the container. •The liquid should not solidify at high pressure this limits the obtainable. Applications: • Cladding of metals • Making wires of less ductile materials • Nuclear reactor fuel rods
  • 14. ADVANTAGES OF HOT EXTRUSION  Complex solid or hollow shapes can be produced.  Small quantities can be economically produced.  Delivery times are often far shorter than alternative processes.
  • 15. LIMITATIONS OF HOT EXTRUSION  High equipment set up and maintenance cost.  Extrusion process for metals is at very high temperatures.  Die is preheated to increase its life, so there are chances of oxidation of hot billet.  Process Wastage is higher as compared to rolling.  Non-homogeneous.
  • 16. CLASSIFICATION BY OPERATING TEMPERATURE 2. Cold Extrusion:- • Cold extrusion is the process done at room temperature or slightly elevated temperatures. • This process can be used for materials that can withstand the stresses created by extrusion.
  • 17. ADVANTAGES OF COLD EXTRUSION  Improved Mechanical properties.  Good control of dimensional tolerances.  Improved surface finish.  No need for heating billet.  No oxidation takes place.
  • 18. DISADVANTAGES OF COLD EXTRUSION  Tooling cost is high, therefore large production lot size is required.  Special coating is required to reduce friction and to maintain a lubricant film throughout.  Limited deformation can be obtained.
  • 19. APPLICATIONS OF COLD EXTRUSION  Cu, Pb, Sn, Al Alloys, Ti, Mo, V, Steel, Zr parts can be extruded.  Tubes, Gear Blanks, Aluminum Cans, Cylinders, Fire Extinguisher Cases, Shock Absorber Cylinders, and Automotive Pistons are manufactured.
  • 20. IMPACT EXTRUSION Impact extrusion- • A manufacturing process in which a small shot of solid material is placed in the die and is impacted by a ram, which causes cold flow in the material. • It may be either direct or indirect extrusion and it is usually performed on a high- speed mechanical press.
  • 21. contd.. Applications- • Although the process is generally performed cold, considerable heating results from the high speed deformation. • A short lengths of hollow shapes, such as collapsible toothpaste tubes or spray cans. • Requires soft materials such as Al, Pb, Cu or Sn.
  • 22. CLASSIFICATION BY EQUIPMENT Horizontal extrusion process- • The layout of operating machine is horizontal and movement of billet as well as of ram is horizontal in direction. • 15-50 MN capacity. • It is mostly used for commercial extrusion of bars and shapes.
  • 23. CLASSIFICATION BY EQUIPMENT Vertical extrusion process- • The movement of billet and ram is vertical in orientation. • 3-20 MN capacity. • Mainly used in the production of thin-wall tubing.
  • 24. DIE MATERIALS  Commonly used materials are Tool Steels and Carbides  Diamond dies are used for fine wire.  For improved wear resistance, steel dies may be chromium plated, and carbide dies may be coated with titanium nitride  For Hot drawing, cast-steel dies are used .  Dies are made from highly alloy tools steels or ceramics (Si3N4).  Heat treatments such as nitriding are required (several times) to increase hardness (1000-1100 Hvor 65-70 HRC). This improves die life.
  • 25. LUBRICATION NEED-  Proper lubrication is essential in extruding, in order to improve die life, reduce drawing forces and temperature, and improve surface finish.  Types of Lubrication- a) Wet drawing : Dies and Rods are completely immersed in lubricant. b) Dry drawing : Surface of the rod to be drawn is coated with a lubricant. c) Coating : Rod or Wire is coated with a soft metal that acts as a solid lubricant. d) Ultrasonic Vibration : of the dies and mandrels.
  • 26. FACTORS AFFECTING THE EXTRUSION FORCE 1. Type of extrusion 2. Extrusion ratio 3. Working temperature 4. Deformation 5. Frictional conditions at the die and the container wall
  • 27. MATHEMATICAL RELATIONS 1. Extrusion ratio, R - It is defined as the ratio of the initial cross-sectional area , Ao, of the billet to the final cross-sectional area , Af, after extrusion. fA A R 0 R ~ 40:1 for hot extrusion of steels. R ~ 400:1 for aluminum. 2.Fractional reduction in area, r - 0 1 A A r f  r R   1 1
  • 28. Contd.. 3. Velocity - Velocity of extruded product = (Ram velocity) x (R) 4. Extrusion force - where k = extrusion constant, fA A kAP 0 0 ln
  • 29. EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE ON HOT EXTRUSION The temperature of the work piece in metal working depends on:- The initial temperature of the tools and the materials. Heat generated due to plastic deformation. Heat generated by friction at the die/material interface. Heat transfer between the deforming material and the dies and surrounding environment.
  • 30. EXTRUSION DEFECT 1) Inhomogeneous deformation -  In direct extrusion, a dead zone along the outer surface of the billet due to the movement of metal in the centre being higher than the periphery.  After 2/3 of the billet is extruded, the outer surface of the billet (normally with oxidised skin) moves toward the centre and extrudes to the through the die, resulting in internal oxide stringers.
  • 31. Contd.. 2) Surface cracking  It is the ranging from a badly roughened surface to repetitive transverse cracking called fir-tree cracking.  It is due to longitudinal tensile stresses generated as the extrusion passes through the die.  In hot extrusion, this form of cracking usually is intergranular and is associated with hot shortness.  The most common case is too high ram speed for the extrusion temperature.
  • 32. 3) Centre burst or chevron cracking  It can occur at low extrusion ratio due to low frictional conditions on the zone of deformation at the extrusion die.  High friction(at a the tool-billet interface).  Low friction centre burst. Contd..
  • 33. 4) Variations in structure and properties  Structure & properties are varied within the extrusions due to non-uniform deformation for example at the front and the back of the extrusion in both longitudinal and transverse directions.  Regions of exaggerated grain growth, due to high hot working temperature. Contd.. Grain Growth
  • 34. 5) Hot shortness (in aluminium extrusion)  High temperatures generated cause incipient melting, which causes cracking. Contd..
  • 35. stock (bar) F (pulling force) wire diestock (bar) F (pulling force) wire die DRAWING PROCESS Drawing – It is an operation in which the cross-section of solid rod, wire or tubing is reduced or changed in shape by pulling it through a die. Working Principle – The principle of this procedure consist of reducing the thickness of a pointed ,tapered wire by drawing it through a conical opening in a tool made of a hard material.The wire will take shape of the hole.
  • 36. Contd.. Various variables affecting the Drawing Process – 1. Work Material 2. Reduction in curve section 3. Die angle 4. Drawing speed 5. Lubrication Note:- It is almost similar to extrusion, except that pulling force is applied.
  • 37. REFERENCES  Kalpakjian Seope, Schmid Steven R.: “Manufacturing Engineering & Technology” Pearson Education India, 2009, pp 395-402.  Sharma, P.C. A textbook of production engineering. 11. New DELHI: S.Chand & Company Ltd, 2009, 504-515. Print.  Sharma, P.C. A textbook of production Technology. 7. New Delhi: S.Chand & Company Ltd, 2011, 265-280. Print.  Todd H. Robert, Allen K. Dell, Alting Leo. Manufacturing processes reference guide.1. New york: Industrial Press Inc, 1994, pp. 295-299.  Rajput, R. K. A textbook of Manufacturing technology.1. New Delhi: Luxmi Publishers (P) Ltd,2007,pp. 295-299.
  • 38. Email ID :- bkdeepamgoyal@gmail.com & er.nitesh41@gmail.com

Editor's Notes

  1. The difference being that in forging, the main body of metal is product & flash is cut away & discarded; in extrusion, the flash (metal flowing out of die) is product and slug remianing in die isn’t used.
  2. At lower temperature, sticking in the die land and the sudden building up of pressure and then breakaway will cause transverse cracking.