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House styles


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House styles

  1. 1. House Styles By: Brian Vieira
  2. 2. By Era By Style
  3. 3. By Era <ul><li>Colonial 1600 - 1800 </li></ul><ul><li>Classical 1780 - 1860 </li></ul><ul><li>Victorian 1840 - 1900 </li></ul><ul><li>Gilded Age 1880 - 1929 </li></ul><ul><li>Frank Lloyd Wright 1901 - 1955 </li></ul><ul><li>Early 20th Century 1905 - 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Post-War 1945 - 1980 </li></ul><ul><li>Modern 1930 - Present </li></ul><ul><li>“Neo” 1965 - Present </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish and Mediterranean 1600 – Present </li></ul><ul><li>French 1700 – Present </li></ul><ul><li>Earth Prehistoric – Present </li></ul><ul><li>Prefab 1906 – Present </li></ul><ul><li>Dome 1954 - Present </li></ul>Home
  4. 4. By Style <ul><li>American Foursquare House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial Revival House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Ranch Style </li></ul><ul><li>Raised Ranch Style </li></ul><ul><li>Split-Level Ranch Style </li></ul><ul><li>Cape Cod Revival House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Lustron Houses </li></ul><ul><li>Art Moderne House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Bauhaus Style </li></ul><ul><li>International Style </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary House Style </li></ul><ul><li>A-Frame Style </li></ul><ul><li>Postmodern House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Neoeclectic House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Neocolonial House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Neo-Mediterranean House Style </li></ul><ul><li>McMansion </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish Colonial House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish Colonial Revival (Spanish Eclectic) House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Pueblo Revival House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Mission House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Neo-Mediterranean House Style </li></ul><ul><li>French Colonial House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Tidewater House Style </li></ul><ul><li>French Creole Cottages </li></ul><ul><li>French Normandy House Style </li></ul><ul><li>French Provincial House Style </li></ul><ul><li>French Eclectic House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Adobe Houses </li></ul><ul><li>Rammed Earth Houses </li></ul><ul><li>Cob Houses </li></ul><ul><li>Compressed Earth Block Houses </li></ul><ul><li>Straw Bale Houses </li></ul><ul><li>Earth Sheltered Houses </li></ul><ul><li>New England Colonial House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial Cape Cod House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish Colonial House Style </li></ul><ul><li>German Colonial House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch Colonial House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Georgian Colonial House Style </li></ul><ul><li>French Colonial House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Federal and Adam House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Greek Revival House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Tidewater House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Antebellum Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Gothic Revival House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Italianate House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Second Empire or Mansard House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Victorian Stick House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Folk Victorian House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Shingle House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Richardson Romanesque House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Queen Anne House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Eastlake House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Beaux Arts Style </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance Revival House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Richardson Romanesque House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Queen Anne House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Tudor Revival House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Neo-Classical House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Prairie Style </li></ul><ul><li>Usonian Style </li></ul><ul><li>Hemicycle Design </li></ul><ul><li>Organic Design </li></ul><ul><li>Arts & Crafts (Craftsman) </li></ul><ul><li>Bungalow Styles </li></ul><ul><li>Cotswold Cottage </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish Mission House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Sears Catalog Houses </li></ul><ul><li>Lustron Homes </li></ul><ul><li>Log Homes </li></ul><ul><li>Katrina Cottages </li></ul><ul><li>Manufactured Houses </li></ul><ul><li>Modular Houses </li></ul><ul><li>Geodesic Domes </li></ul><ul><li>Monolithic Domes </li></ul>Home
  5. 5. Colonial 1600 - 1800 <ul><li>New England Colonial House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial Cape Cod House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish Colonial House Style </li></ul><ul><li>German Colonial House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch Colonial House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Georgian Colonial House Style </li></ul><ul><li>French Colonial House Style </li></ul>When North America was colonized, settlers brought building traditions from many different countries. Architecture from America's colonial period continues to influence the houses we build today. ERA STYLE
  6. 6. New England Colonial 1600 - 1740 The first British settlers in New England built simple timber-frame houses like the ones they had known in their home country. In the late 1500s and early 1600s, when the first settlers came to North America, houses in England had steep roofs, massive chimneys, and details that had survived from Medieval times. The Colonists continued these building traditions through the 1600s and well into the 1700s in some areas. Since these homes were constructed of wood, few original New England Colonials are still standing
  7. 7. House of Rebecca Nurse <ul><li>The New England Colonial shown was the home of Rebecca Nurse, who was executed in the Salem Witch Trials. Built in about 1678, the house has two rooms on the first floor and two rooms above. A large chimney runs through the center of the main house. A kitchen lean-to addition with its own chimney was built in about 1720. Another addition was constructed in 1850. </li></ul><ul><li>The Rebecca Nurse house has its original floors, walls, and beams. However, like most homes from this period, the house has been extensively restored. </li></ul>Built in 1678, this New England Colonial was the home of Rebecca Nurse, who was executed in the Salem Witch Trials.
  8. 8. Details <ul><li>Usually located in the northeastern USA, mostly in Massachusetts, Vermont, Connecticut, New Hampshire, and New York. </li></ul><ul><li>Steep roof with side gables 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Lean-to addition with saltbox roof </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow eaves 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Large chimney at the center 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Two stories </li></ul><ul><li>In some cases, the second story slightly protrudes over the lower floor </li></ul><ul><li>Wood framed with clapboard or shingles 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Small casement windows, some with diamond-shaped panes 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Little exterior ornamentation </li></ul>1 2 3 4 5 ERA STYLE
  9. 9. Colonial Cape Cod 1600 -1950 The Cape Cod house style originated in colonial New England. Today, the term refers to Cape Cod-shaped houses popular during the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s. The first Cape Cod style homes were built by English colonists who came to America in the late 17th century. They modeled their homes after the half-timbered houses of England, but adapted the style to the stormy New England weather. Over the course of a few generations, a modest, one- to one-and-a-half-story house with wooden shutters emerged. Reverend Timothy Dwight, a president of Yale University, is credited with recognizing these houses as a class and coining the term &quot;Cape Cod.&quot;
  10. 10. Colonial Cape Cod 1600 -1950 Much later, in the late 1800s and early 1900s, a renewed interest in America's past inspired a variety of Colonial Revival styles. Colonial Revival Cape Cod houses became especially popular during the 1930s. These small, economical houses were mass-produced in suburban developments across the United States. Twentieth century Cape Cod houses often have dormers. The chimney is usually placed at one end instead of at the center. The shutters on modern Cape Cod houses are strictly decorative; they can't be closed during a storm.
  11. 11. Details <ul><li>Most frequently found in the northeastern parts of the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Steep roof with side gables 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Small roof overhang 2 </li></ul><ul><li>1 or 1½ stories </li></ul><ul><li>Made of wood and covered in wide clapboard or shingles </li></ul><ul><li>Large central chimney linked to fireplace in each room </li></ul><ul><li>Symmetrical appearance with door in center </li></ul><ul><li>Dormers for space, light, and ventilation 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-paned, double-hung windows </li></ul><ul><li>Shutters </li></ul><ul><li>Formal, center-hall floor plan </li></ul><ul><li>Hardwood floors </li></ul><ul><li>Little exterior ornamentation </li></ul>In colonial days, a Cape Cod house was a simple, one-story structure with a single chimney in the center. 1 2 3 ERA STYLE
  12. 12. Spanish Colonial 1600 - 1900 Settlers in the Spanish territories of North America built simple, low homes made using rocks, adobe brick, coquina, or stucco. Settling in Florida, California, and the American Southwest, settlers from Spain and Mexico built homes with many of these features.
  13. 13. González-Alvarez House in St. Augustine <ul><li>The González-Alvarez House shown here is located in St. Augustine, Florida. Founded in 1565 by the Spanish conquistador Pedro Menendez de Aviles, St. Augustine is the oldest continually inhabited European settlement in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>The first houses in St. Augustine were made of wood with palm thatching. None of these survived. The González-Alvarez House we see today has been remodeled. When it was built in the early 1700s, the González-Alvarez House probably had one story and a flat roof. </li></ul><ul><li>Like many Spanish Colonial buildings in St. Augustine, Florida, the González-Alvarez House is made using coquina , a sedimentary rock composed of shell fragments. </li></ul>The González-Alvarez House in St. Augustine is the oldest surviving Spanish Colonial home in Florida.
  14. 14. Details <ul><li>Located in the American South, Southwest, and California </li></ul><ul><li>One story </li></ul><ul><li>Flat roof, or roof with a low pitch 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Earth, thatch, or clay tile roof covering </li></ul><ul><li>Thick walls made with rocks, coquina, or adobe brick coated with stucco 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Several exterior doors 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Small windows, originally without glass </li></ul><ul><li>Wooden or wrought iron bars across the windows </li></ul><ul><li>Interior shutters </li></ul><ul><li>Second story with recessed porches and balconies </li></ul><ul><li>Interior courtyards </li></ul><ul><li>Carved wooden brackets and ballustrudes </li></ul><ul><li>Double hung sashed windows </li></ul><ul><li>Dentil moldings and other Greek Revival details </li></ul>1 2 3 ERA STYLE
  15. 15. German Colonial 1600 - 1850 German Settlers in the American colonies used local materials to recreate buidling styles from their homeland. Schifferstadt Architectural Museum in Frederick, Maryland is a landmark example of German Colonial Architecture. Named by Joseph Brunner after his childhood home near Mannheim, Germany, the house was completed in 1756. Schifferstadt Architectural Museum in Frederick, Maryland is a German Colonial House completed in 1756
  16. 16. Details <ul><li>Most often found in New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Maryland </li></ul><ul><li>Two-feet thick walls made with sandstone </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforced stone arches above the first floor windows and doors 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Hand-hewn beams pinned with wodden pegs </li></ul><ul><li>Exposed half-timbering </li></ul><ul><li>Flared eaves 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Massive wishbone-shaped chimney </li></ul>1 2 ERA STYLE
  17. 17. Dutch Colonial 1625 - 1850 Settling along the Hudson River in the land that became New York State, Dutch colonists built brick and stone homes like those found in the Netherlands. Built in 1740, the Dutch Colonial Home shown here has a gambrel roof and a salt-box shaped lean-to addition. Modern-day Dutch Colonial Revival houses borrow the gambrel roof found on historic Dutch Colonial houses. The John Teller House is a Dutch Colonial home in the Stockade neighborhood of Schenectady, NY. The home was built in about 1740.
  18. 18. Details <ul><li>Located in New York State </li></ul><ul><li>Stone or brick construction 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch doors (upper and lower halves can be opened independently) 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Matching chimneys on each side 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Wide, slightly flared eaves, OR </li></ul><ul><li>Gambrel roof, OR </li></ul><ul><li>Gambrel roof with flared eaves </li></ul>1 2 3 ERA STYLE
  19. 19. Georgian Colonial House Styles 1690 - 1830 Spacious and comfortable, Georgian Colonial architecture reflected the rising ambition of a young country. Georgian Colonial became the rave in New England and the Southern colonies during the 1700's. Stately and symmetrical, these homes imitated the larger, more elaborate Georgian homes which were being built in England. But the genesis of the style goes back much farther. During the reign of King George I in the early 1700's, and King George III later in the century, Britons drew inspiration from the Italian Renaissance and from ancient Greece and Rome. Georgian ideals came to New England via pattern books, and Georgian styling became a favorite of well-to-do colonists. More humble dwellings also took on characteristics of the Georgian style. America's Georgian homes tend to be less ornate than those found in Britain.
  20. 20. Details <ul><li>Square, symmetrical shape </li></ul><ul><li>Paneled front door at center </li></ul><ul><li>Decorative crown over front door 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Flattened columns on each side of door 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Five windows across front </li></ul><ul><li>Paired chimneys 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Medium pitched roof </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal roof overhang </li></ul><ul><li>Nine or twelve small window panes in each window sash </li></ul><ul><li>Dental molding (square, tooth-like cuts) along the eaves </li></ul>1 2 3 ERA STYLE
  21. 21. French Colonial French colonists in the Mississippi Valley built houses especially suited to the hot wet climate of their new home. During the early 1700s, French colonists settled in the Mississippi Valley, especially in Louisiana. An eclectic &quot;Creole&quot; architecture evolved, combining building traditions from France, the Caribbean, the West Indies, and other parts of the world.
  22. 22. Details <ul><li>Located in Louisiana or Mississippi </li></ul><ul><li>Timber frame with brick or &quot;bousillage&quot; (mud combined with moss and animal hair) </li></ul><ul><li>Thin wooden columns 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Wide porches, called &quot;galleries&quot; 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Living quarters raised above ground level </li></ul><ul><li>Wide hipped roof that extends over the porches 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Porches used as passageway between rooms </li></ul><ul><li>No interior hallways </li></ul><ul><li>French doors (doors with many small panes of glass) </li></ul>1 2 3 ERA STYLE
  23. 23. Classical House Styles 1780 - 1860 <ul><li>Federal and Adam House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Greek Revival House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Tidewater House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Antebellum Architecture </li></ul>During the founding of the United States, many people felt that ancient Greece expressed the ideals of democracy. Architecture reflected classical ideals of order and symmetry. ERA STYLE
  24. 24. Federal and Adam House Styles 1780 - 1840 Graceful details distinguish Federal homes from the pragmatic Georgian colonial style. Like much of America's architecture, the Federal (or Federalist) style has its roots in the British Isles. Two Scottish brothers named Adam adapted the pragmatic Georgian style, adding swags, garlands, urns, and other delicate details. In the American colonies, homes and public buildings also took on graceful airs. Inspired by the work of the Adam brothers and also by the great temples of ancient Greece and Rome, Americans began to build homes with Palladian windows, circular or elliptical windows, recessed wall arches, and oval-shaped rooms. This new Federal style became associated with America's evolving national identity. It's easy to confuse Federalist architecture with the earlier Georgian Colonial style. The difference is in the details: While Georgian homes are square and angular, a Federal style building is more likely to have curved lines and decorative flourishes. Federalist architecture was the favored style in the United States from about 1780 until the 1830s. However, Federalist details are often incorporated into modern American homes. Look past the vinyl siding, and you may see a fanlight or the elegant arch of a Palladian window.
  25. 25. Details <ul><li>Low-pitched roof, or flat roof with a balustrade </li></ul><ul><li>Windows arranged symmetrically around a center doorway </li></ul><ul><li>Semicircular fanlight over the front door 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow side windows flanking the front door </li></ul><ul><li>Decorative crown or roof over front door </li></ul><ul><li>Tooth-like dentil moldings in the cornice </li></ul><ul><li>Palladian window </li></ul><ul><li>Circular or elliptical windows </li></ul><ul><li>Shutters 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Decorative swags and garlands </li></ul><ul><li>Oval rooms and arches </li></ul>1 2 ERA STYLE
  26. 26. Greek Revival 1825 - 1860 With details reminiscent of the Parthenon, stately, pillared Greek Revival homes reflect a passion for antiquity. In the mid-19th century, many prosperous Americans believed that ancient Greece represented the spirit of democracy. Interest in British styles had waned during the bitter War of 1812. Also, many Americans sympathized with Greece's own struggles for independence in the 1820s. Greek Revival architecture began with public buildings in Philadelphia. Many European-trained architects designed in the popular Grecian style, and the fashion spread via carpenter's guides and pattern books. Colonnaded Greek Revival mansions - sometimes called Southern Colonial houses - sprang up throughout the American south. With its classic clapboard exterior and bold, simple lines, Greek Revival architecture became the most predominant housing style in the United States. During the second half of the 19th century, Gothic Revival and Italianate styles captured the American imagination. Grecian ideas faded from popularity. However, front-gable design - a trademark of the Greek Revival style - continued to influence the shape of American houses well into the 20th century. You will notice the classic front-gable design in simple &quot;National Style&quot; farm houses throughout the United States.
  27. 27. Details <ul><li>Pedimented gable 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Symmetrical shape </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy cornice </li></ul><ul><li>Wide, plain frieze </li></ul><ul><li>Bold, simple moldings </li></ul><ul><li>Entry porch with columns 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Decorative pilasters </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow windows around front door </li></ul>1 2 ERA STYLE
  28. 28. Tidewater Style 1800s Built in coastal areas of the American South, these homes were designed for wet, hot climates. Tidewater homes have extensive porches (or &quot;galleries&quot;) sheltered by a broad hipped roof. The main roof extends over the porches without interruption. This &quot;Tidewater&quot; home has an extensive porch sheltered by a broad hipped roof. ERA STYLE
  29. 29. Antebellum Antebellum means &quot;before war&quot; in Latin. The term Antebellum refers to elegant plantation homes built in the American South in the 30 years or so preceding the Civil War. Antebellum is not a particular house style. Rather, it is a time and place in history. The features we associate with Antebellum architecture were introduced to the American South by Anglo-Americans who moved into the area after the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Most Antebellum homes are in the Greek Revival, Classical Revival, or Federal style: grand, symmetrical, and boxy, with center entrances in the front and rear, balconies, and columns or pillars.
  30. 30. Details <ul><li>Hipped or gabled roof </li></ul><ul><li>Symmetrical façade </li></ul><ul><li>Evenly-spaced windows </li></ul><ul><li>Greek pillars and columns </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborate friezes </li></ul><ul><li>Balconies </li></ul><ul><li>Covered porch </li></ul><ul><li>Central entryway </li></ul><ul><li>Grand staircase </li></ul><ul><li>Formal ballroom </li></ul>Oak Alley Plantation is an Antebellum home in Louisiana ERA STYLE
  31. 31. Victorian House Styles 1840 - 1900 <ul><li>Gothic Revival House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Italianate House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Second Empire or Mansard House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Victorian Stick House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Folk Victorian House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Shingle House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Richardson Romanesque House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Queen Anne House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Eastlake House Style </li></ul>Mass-production and factory-made building parts made large, elaborate houses more affordable. A variety of Victorian styles emerged, each with its own distinctive features. ERA STYLE
  32. 32. Gothic Revival Across the Atlantic, American builders began to borrow elements of British Gothic Revival architecture. New York architect Alexander Jackson Davis was evangelical about the ecclesiastical Gothic Revival style. He published floor plans and three-dimensional views in his 1837 book, Rural Residences . His design for Lyndhurst, an imposing country estate in Tarrytown, New York, became a showplace for Victorian Gothic architecture in the United States. Of course, most people could not afford a massive stone estate like Lyndhurst. In the United States, more humble versions of Gothic Revival architecture evolved Lyndhurst in Tarrytown, New York
  33. 33. Carpenter Gothic <ul><li>Steeply pitched roof 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Lacy bargeboards </li></ul><ul><li>Windows with pointed arches </li></ul><ul><li>One story porch 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Asymmetrical floor plan </li></ul><ul><li>Steep cross gables </li></ul><ul><li>Bay and oriel windows </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical board and batten trim </li></ul>The fanciful Gothic Revival style spread across North America via pattern books such as Andrew Jackson Downing's popular Victorian Cottage Residences (1842) and The Architecture of Country Houses (1850). Some builders lavished the fashionable Gothic details on otherwise modest wooden cottages. Characterized by scrolled ornaments and lacy &quot;gingerbread&quot; trim, these small cottages are often called Carpenter Gothic . 1 2 ERA STYLE
  34. 34. Italianate 1840 - 1885 <ul><li>Italiante became the most popular housing style in Victorian America. Italianate is also known as the Tuscan , the Lombard , or simply, the bracketed style. </li></ul><ul><li>The Italianate style began in England with the picturesque movement of the 1840s. For the previous 200 years, English homes tended to be formal and classical in style. With the picturesque, movement, however, builders began to design fanciful recreations of Italian Renaissance villas. When the Italianate style moved to the United States, it was reinterpreted again to create a uniquely American style. </li></ul><ul><li>By the late 1860s, Italianate was the most popular house style in the United States. Historians say that Italianate became the favored style for two reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>Italianate homes could be constructed with many different building materials, and the style could be adapted to modest budgets. </li></ul><ul><li>New technologies of the Victorian era made it possible to quickly and affordably produce cast-iron and press-metal decorations. </li></ul><ul><li>Italianate remained the most popular house style in the USA until the 1870s. Italianate was also a common style for barns, town halls, and libraries. You will find Italianate buildings in nearly every part of the United States except for the deep South. There are fewer Italianate buildings in the southern states because the style reached its peak during the Civil War, a time when the south was economically devastated. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Details <ul><li>Low-pitched or flat roof </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced, symmetrical rectangular shape </li></ul><ul><li>Tall appearance, with 2, 3, or 4 stories </li></ul><ul><li>Wide, overhanging eaves with brackets and cornices 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Square cupola </li></ul><ul><li>Porch topped with balustraded balconies 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Tall, narrow, double-paned windows with hood moldings </li></ul><ul><li>Side bay window 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Heavily molded double doors </li></ul><ul><li>Roman or segmented arches above windows and doors </li></ul>1 2 3 ERA STYLE
  36. 36. Second Empire (Mansard) Style 1855 - 1885 With tall mansard roofs and wrought iron cresting, Second Empire homes create a sense of height. Second Empire buildings with tall mansard roofs were modeled after the the opulent architecture of Paris during the reign of Napoleon III. French architects used the term horror vacui - the fear of unadorned surfaces - to describe the highly ornamented Second Empire style. Second Empire buildings were also practical: their height allowed for additional living space on narrow city lots. In the United States, government buildings in the Second Empire style resemble the elaborate French designs. Private homes, however, often have an Italianate flavor. Both Italianate and Second Empire houses tend to be square in shape, and both can have U-shaped window crowns, decorative brackets, and single story porches. But, Italianate houses have much wider eaves... and they do not have the distinctive mansard roof characteristic of the Second Empire style.
  37. 37. Details <ul><li>Mansard roof 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Dormer windows project like eyebrows from roof </li></ul><ul><li>Rounded cornices at top and base of roof </li></ul><ul><li>Brackets beneath the eaves, balconies, and bay windows </li></ul><ul><li>Cupola </li></ul><ul><li>Patterned slate on roof </li></ul><ul><li>Wrought iron cresting above upper cornice </li></ul><ul><li>Classical pediments </li></ul><ul><li>Paired columns 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Tall windows on first story 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Small entry porch 4 </li></ul>1 2 3 4 ERA STYLE
  38. 38. Stick Style 1860 - 1890 Stick Style Victorian houses have exposed trusses, &quot;stickwork,&quot; and other details borrowed from medieval times. The most important features of Stick Style houses are on the exterior wall surfaces. Instead of three-dimensional ornamentation, the emphasis is on patterns and lines. Because the decorative details are flat, they are often lost when homeowners remodel. If the decorative stickwork is covered up with vinyl siding or painted a single solid color, a Stick Style Victorian may appear plain and rather ordinary. The Palliser Company, which published many plan books during the Victorian era, called stick architecture plain yet neat , modern , and comfortable. However, Stick was a short-lived fashion. The angular and austere style couldn't compete with the fancy Queen Annes that took America by storm. Some Stick architecture did dress up in fancy Eastlake spindles and Queen Anne flourishes. But very few authentic Stick Style homes remain intact.
  39. 39. Stick Style 1860 - 1890 <ul><li>The house shown above is an early and especially fine example of Victorian Stick architecture. The exterior walls are ornamented with &quot;stickwork,&quot; or decorative half-timbering. The house also has brackets, rafters, and braces. These details are not necessary structurally. They are decorations that imitated architecture from the medieval past. </li></ul><ul><li>On first glance, you might confuse Stick houses with the later Tudor Revival Style. However, most Tudor Revival houses are sided with stucco, stone, or brick. Stick Style houses are almost always made with wood. </li></ul>The Physick House in Cape May, New Jersey is a hallmark example of the Stick Style. Brackets and stickwork suggest medieval building techniques.
  40. 40. Details <ul><li>Rectangular shape </li></ul><ul><li>Wood siding </li></ul><ul><li>Steep, gabled roof </li></ul><ul><li>Overhanging eaves </li></ul><ul><li>Ornamental trusses (gable braces) </li></ul><ul><li>Decorative braces and brackets </li></ul><ul><li>Decorative half-timbering </li></ul>ERA STYLE
  41. 41. Folk Victorian 1870 - 1910 Just plain folk could afford these simple North American homes, built between 1870 and 1910. Life was simple before the age of railroads. In the vast, remote stretches of North America, families built no-fuss, square or L-shaped houses in the National or Folk style. But the rise of industrialization made it easier and more affordable to add decorative details to otherwise simple homes. Decorative architectural trim could be mass produced. As the railroads expanded, factory-made building parts could be sent to far corners of the continent. Also, small towns could now obtain sophisticated woodworking machinery. A crate of scrolled brackets might find its way to Kansas or Wyoming, where carpenters could mix and match the pieces according to personal whim... Or, according to what happened to be in the latest shipment. Many Folk Victorian houses were adorned with flat, jigsaw cut trim in a variety of patterns. Others had spindles, gingerbread and details borrowed from the Carpenter Gothic style. With their spindles and porches, some Folk Victorian homes may suggest Queen Anne architecture. But unlike Queen Annes, Folk Victorian houses are orderly and symmetrical houses. They do not have towers, bay windows, or elaborate moldings.
  42. 42. Details <ul><li>Square, symmetrical shape </li></ul><ul><li>Brackets under the eaves 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Porches with spindlework or flat, jigsaw cut trim 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Carpenter Gothic details </li></ul><ul><li>Low-pitched, pyramid shaped roof </li></ul><ul><li>Front gable and side wings 3 </li></ul>1 2 3 ERA STYLE
  43. 43. Shingle Style 1874 - 1910 Rustic Shingle Style houses shunned Victorian fussiness. Read below for features of the style. Shingle Style houses can take on many forms. Some have tall turrets, suggestive of Queen Anne architecture. Some have gambrel roofs, Palladian windows, and other Colonial Revival details. Some Shingle houses have features borrowed from Tudor, Gothic and Stick styles. But, unlike those styles, Shingle architecture is relaxed and informal. Shingle houses do not have the lavish decorations that were popular during the Victorian era. The architectural historian Vincent Scully coined the term &quot;Shingle Style&quot; because these homes are usually sided in rustic cedar shingles. However, not all Shingle Style houses are shingle-sided. You will recognize them by their complicated shapes and rambling, informal floor plans.
  44. 44. Details <ul><li>Continuous wood shingles on siding and roof </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular roof line </li></ul><ul><li>Cross gables </li></ul><ul><li>Eaves on several levels </li></ul><ul><li>Porches </li></ul><ul><li>Asymmetrical floor plan </li></ul><ul><li>Wavy wall surface </li></ul><ul><li>Patterned shingles </li></ul><ul><li>Squat half-towers </li></ul><ul><li>Palladian windows </li></ul><ul><li>Rough hewn stone on lower stories </li></ul><ul><li>Stone arches over windows and porches </li></ul>ERA STYLE
  45. 45. Richardsonian Romanesque 1880 - 1900 Richardsonian Romanesque, or Romanesque Revival , houses have broad Roman arches and massive stone walls. During the 1870s, Boston architect Henry Hobson Richardson captured the American imagination with rugged, forceful buildings like Allegheny Courthouse in Pittsburgh and Trinity Church in Boston. These buildings were called &quot;Romanesque&quot; because they had wide, rounded arches like buildings in ancient Rome. Henry Hobson Richardson became so famous for his Romanesque designs that the style is often called Richardsonian Romanesque . The heavy Romanesque style was especially suited for grand public buildings. However, Romanesque buildings, with massive stone walls, were expensive to construct. Only the wealthy adopted the Richardsonian Romanesque style for private homes.
  46. 46. Details <ul><li>Constructed of rough-faced, square stones 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Round towers with cone-shaped roofs </li></ul><ul><li>Columns and pilasters with spirals and leaf designs 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Low, broad &quot;Roman&quot; arches over arcades and doorways </li></ul><ul><li>Patterned masonry arches over windows 3 </li></ul>1 2 3 ERA STYLE
  47. 47. Queen Anne 1880 - 1910 Fanciful Queen Anne architecture takes on many shapes. Read below for features of the style. Queen Anne became an architectural fashion in the 1880s and 1890s, when the industrial revolution brought new technologies. Builders began to use mass-produced pre-cut architectural trim to create fanciful and sometimes flamboyant houses. Not all Queen Anne houses are lavishly decorated, however. Some builders showed restraint in their use of embellishments. Still, the flashy &quot;painted ladies&quot; of San Francisco and the refined brownstones of Brooklyn share many of the same features.
  48. 48. Details <ul><li>Steep roof 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Complicated, asymmetrical shape </li></ul><ul><li>Front-facing gable 2 </li></ul><ul><li>One-story porch that extends across one or two sides of the house 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Round or square towers 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Wall surfaces textured with decorative shingles, patterned masonry, or half-timbering </li></ul><ul><li>Ornamental spindles and brackets </li></ul><ul><li>Bay windows </li></ul>1 2 3 4 ERA STYLE
  49. 49. Eastlake Victorian 1860 - 1880 <ul><li>These fanciful Victorian houses are lavished with Eastlake style spindlework. </li></ul><ul><li>This colorful Victorian home is a Queen Anne, but the lacy, ornamental details are called Eastlake . The ornamental style is named after the famous English designer, Charles Eastlake, who was famous for making furniture decorated with fancy spindles. </li></ul><ul><li>Eastlake details can be found on a variety of Victorian house styles. Some of the more fanciful Stick Style Victorians have Eastlake buttons and knobs combined with the angular stickwork. </li></ul>ERA STYLE
  50. 50. Gilded Age House Styles 1880 - 1929 <ul><li>Beaux Arts Style </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance Revival House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Richardson Romanesque House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Queen Anne House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Tudor Revival House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Neo-Classical House Style </li></ul>The rise of Industrialism brought the period we know as the Gilded Age. Business leaders amassed enormous wealth and built palatial, elaborate homes. ERA STYLE
  51. 51. Beaux Arts 1885 - 1925 Combining classical Greek and Roman architecture with Renaissance ideas, Beaux Arts was a favored style for grand public buildings and opulent mansions. The Beaux Arts (French for &quot;fine art&quot;) style originated in the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. Many American architects studied at this legendary architectural school, where they learned about the aesthetic principles of classical design and brought them to the United States. Also known as Beaux Arts Classicism, Academic Classicism, or Classical Revival, Beaux Arts is a late and eclectic form of Neoclassicism. It combines classical architecture from ancient Greece and Rome with Renaissance ideas. Beaux Arts is characterized by order, symmetry, formal design, grandiosity, and elaborate ornamentation. In the United States, the Beaux Arts style led to planned neighborhoods with large, showy houses, wide boulevards, and vast parks. Due to the size and grandiosity of the buildings, the Beaux Arts style is most commonly used for public buildings like museums, railway stations, libraries, banks, courthouses, and government buildings. The popularity of the Beaux Arts style waned in the 1920's, and within 25 years the buildings were considered ostentatious. Later in the 20th century, postmodernists rediscovered an appreciation of the Beaux Arts ideals.
  52. 52. Details <ul><li>Massive and grandiose </li></ul><ul><li>Constructed with stone </li></ul><ul><li>Balustrades </li></ul><ul><li>Balconies 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Columns 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Cornices </li></ul><ul><li>Pilasters </li></ul><ul><li>Triangular pediments </li></ul><ul><li>Lavish decorations: swags, medallions, flowers, and shields </li></ul><ul><li>Grand stairway </li></ul><ul><li>Large arches </li></ul><ul><li>Symmetrical façade </li></ul>1 2 ERA STYLE
  53. 53. Renaissance Revival Style 1840 - 1915 A fascination for the architecture of Renaissance Europe and the villas of Andrea Palladio inspired elegant Renaissance Revival homes. Renaissance (French for &quot;rebirth&quot;) refers to the artistic, architectural, and literary movement in Europe between the 14th and 16th centuries. The Renaissance Revival style is based on the architecture of 16th-century Renaissance Italy and France, with additional elements borrowed from Ancient Greek and Roman architecture. Renaissance Revival is a general term which encompasses the various Italian Renaissance Revival and French Renaissance Revival styles, including Second Empire. The Renaissance Revival style was popular during two separate phases. The first phase, or the First Renaissance Revival, was from about 1840 to 1885, and the Second Renaissance Revival, which was characterized by larger and more elaborately decorated buildings, was from 1890 to 1915. Due to the expensive materials required and the elaborate style, Renaissance Revival was best suited for public and commercial buildings, and very grand homes for the wealthy.
  54. 54. Details <ul><li>Cube-shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced, symmetrical façade </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth stone walls, made from finely-cut ashlar, or smooth stucco finish </li></ul><ul><li>Low-pitched hip or Mansard roof 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Roof topped with balustrade </li></ul><ul><li>Wide eaves with large brackets 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal stone banding between floors </li></ul><ul><li>Segmental pediments </li></ul><ul><li>Ornately-carved stone window trim varying in design at each story </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller square windows on top floor </li></ul><ul><li>Quoins (large stone blocks at the corners) </li></ul><ul><li>Arched, recessed openings 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Full entablatures between floors </li></ul><ul><li>Columns 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Ground floor made of rusticated stone with beveled edges and deeply-recessed joints </li></ul>1 2 3 4 ERA STYLE
  55. 55. Tudor Revival 1890 - Present Heavy chimneys and decorative half-timbering give Tudor style houses a Medieval flavor. The Tudor style is sometimes called Medieval Revival . The name Tudor suggests that these houses were built in the 1500s, during the Tudor Dynasty in England. But of course, Tudor houses in the United States are modern-day re-inventions and are more accurately called Tudor Revival or Medieval Revival . Some Tudor Revival houses mimic humble Medieval cottages - They may even include a false thatched roof. Other Tudor Revival homes suggest Medieval palaces. They may have overlapping gables, parapets, and beautifully patterned brick or stonework. These historic details combine with Victorian or Craftsman flourishes. As in many Queen Anne and Stick style homes, Tudor style houses often feature striking decorative timbers. These timbers hint at - but do not reproduce - Medieval construction techniques. In Medieval houses, the timber framing was integral with the structure. Tudor Revival houses, however, merely suggest the structural framework with false half-timbering. This decorative woodwork comes in many different designs, with stucco or patterned brick between the timbers. Handsome examples of Tudor Revival architecture may be found throughout Great Britain, northern Europe, and the United States. The main square in Chester, England is surrounded by lavish Victorian Tudors that stand unapologetically alongside authentic medieval buildings. In the United States, Tudor styling takes on a variety of forms ranging from elaborate mansions to modest suburban homes with mock masonry veneers. The style became enormously popular in the 1920s and 1930s, and modified versions became fashionable in the 1970s and 1980s. One popular housing type inspired by inspired by Tudor ideas is the Cotswold Cottage . These quaint homes have an imitation thatched roof, massive chimneys, an uneven sloping roof, small window panes, and low doors.
  56. 56. Details <ul><li>Decorative half-timbering </li></ul><ul><li>Steeply pitched roof 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Prominent cross gables </li></ul><ul><li>Tall, narrow windows 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Small window panes </li></ul><ul><li>Massive chimneys, often topped with decorative chimney pots </li></ul>1 2 ERA STYLE
  57. 57. Neoclassical 1885 - 1925 Neoclassical, or &quot;new&quot; classical, architecture describes buildings that are inspired by the classical architecture of ancient Greece and Rome. The word Neoclassical is often used to describe an architectural style, but Neoclassicism is not actually any one distinct style. Neoclassicism is a trend, or approach to design, that can describe several very different styles. Neoclassical homes romanticize the architecture of ancient Greece and Rome. ERA STYLE
  58. 58. Frank Lloyd Wright House Styles 1901 - 1955 <ul><li>Prairie Style </li></ul><ul><li>Usonian Style </li></ul><ul><li>Hemicycle Design </li></ul><ul><li>Organic Design </li></ul>Frank Lloyd Wright revolutionized the American home when he began to design houses with low horizontal lines and open interior spaces. ERA STYLE
  59. 59. Prairie Style 1893-1920 Frank Lloyd Wright revolutionized the American home when he began to design &quot;Prairie&quot; style houses with low horizontal lines and open interior spaces. Frank Lloyd Wright believed that rooms in Victorian era homes were boxed-in and confining. He began to design houses with low horizontal lines and open interior spaces. Rooms were often divided by leaded glass panels. Furniture was either built-in or specially designed. These homes were called prairie style after Wright's 1901 Ladies Home Journal plan titled, &quot;A Home in a Prairie Town.&quot; Prairie houses were designed to blend in with the flat, prairie landscape. The first Prairie houses were usually plaster with wood trim or sided with horizontal board and batten. Later Prairie homes used concrete block. Prairie homes can have many shapes: Square, L-shaped, T-shaped, Y-shaped, and even pinwheel-shaped. Many other architects designed Prairie homes and the style was popularized by pattern books. The popular American Foursquare style, sometimes called the Prairie Box, shared many features with the Prairie style. In 1936, during the USA depression, Frank Lloyd Wright developed a simplified version of Prairie architecture called Usonian. Wright believed these stripped-down houses represented the democratic ideals of the United States.
  60. 60. Details <ul><li>Low-pitched roof 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Overhanging eaves 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal lines </li></ul><ul><li>Central chimney 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Open floor plan </li></ul><ul><li>Clerestory windows </li></ul>1 2 3 ERA STYLE
  61. 61. Usonian In 1936, when the United States was in the depths of an economic depression, Frank Lloyd Wright developed a series of homes he called Usonian . Designed to control costs, Wright's Usonian houses had no attics, no basements, and little ornamentation. The word Usonia is an abbreviation for United States of North America . Frank Lloyd Wright aspired to create a democratic, distinctly American style that was affordable for the &quot;common people.&quot; Usonian architecture grew out of Frank Lloyd Wright's earlier Prairie style homes. Both styles featured low roofs and open living areas. Both styles made abundant use of brick, wood, and other natural material. However, Wright's Usonian homes were small, one-story structures set on concrete slabs with piping for radiant heat beneath. The kitchens were incorporated into the living areas. Open car ports took the place of garages. In the 1950s, when he was in his '80s, Frank Lloyd Wright first used the term Usonian Automatic to describe a Usonian style house made of inexpensive concrete blocks. The three-inch-thick modular blocks could be assembled in a variety of ways and secured with steel rods and grout. Frank Lloyd Wright hoped that home buyers would save money by building their own Usonian Automatic houses. But assembling the modular parts proved complicated - most buyers hired pros to construct their Usonian houses. Despite Frank Lloyd Wright's aspirations toward simplicity and economy, Usonian houses often exceeded budgeted costs. ERA STYLE
  62. 62. Hemicycle Design at the Curtis Meyer House by Frank Lloyd Wright You may notice many similarities between Frank Lloyd Wright's Curtis Meyer House in Galesburg, Michigan and his earlier Jacobs II House in Wisconsin. Both are hemicycles with an arched glass front and a flat, protected back side. Along the eastern side of the Curtis Meyer house, a crescent-shaped glass wall seems to follow the line of the grassy knoll. At the center of the house, a two-story tower encloses a stairway that leads from a carport and bedroom down to the lower level living area. ERA STYLE
  63. 63. Organic Organic Architecture is a term Frank Lloyd Wright used to describe his approach to architectural design. The philosophy grew from the ideas of Frank Lloyd Wright's mentor, Louis Sullivan, who believed that &quot;form follows function.&quot; Wright argued that &quot;form and function are one.&quot; Organic architecture strives to integrate space into a unified whole. Frank Lloyd Wright was not concerned with architectural style, because he believed that every building should grow naturally from its environment. Taliesin West in Arizona expresses Frank Lloyd Wright's theories of Organic Architecture ERA STYLE
  64. 64. Early 20th Century House Styles 1905-1945 <ul><li>Arts & Crafts (Craftsman) </li></ul><ul><li>Bungalow Styles </li></ul><ul><li>Cotswold Cottage </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish Mission House Style </li></ul><ul><li>American Foursquare House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial Revival House Style </li></ul>In the early 1900s, builders sloffed off the elaborate Victorian styles. Homes for the new century were compact, economical, and informal. ERA STYLE
  65. 65. Arts and Crafts (Craftsman) 1905 - 1930 From cozy bungalows to sprawling Prairie houses, many American homes were shaped by Craftsman ideas. During the 1880s, John Ruskin, William Morris, Philip Webb, and other English designers and thinkers launched the Arts and Crafts Movement, which celebrated handicrafts and encouraged the use of simple forms and natural materials. In the United States, two California brothers, Charles Sumner Greene and Henry Mather Green, began to design houses that combined Arts and Crafts ideas with a fascination for the simple wooden architecture of China and Japan. The name &quot;Craftsman&quot; comes from the title of a popular magazine published by the famous furniture designer, Gustav Stickley, between 1901 and 1916. A true Craftsman house is one that is built according to plans published in Stickley's magazine. But other magazines, pattern books, and mail order house catalogs began to publish plans for houses with Craftsman-like details. Soon the word &quot;Craftsman&quot; came to mean any house that expressed Arts and Crafts ideals, most especially the simple, economical, and extremely popular Bungalow.
  66. 66. Details <ul><li>Wood, stone, or stucco siding 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Low-pitched roof </li></ul><ul><li>Wide eaves with triangular brackets </li></ul><ul><li>Exposed roof rafters </li></ul><ul><li>Porch with thick square or round columns </li></ul><ul><li>Stone porch supports 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Exterior chimney made with stone </li></ul><ul><li>Open floor plans; few hallways </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous windows </li></ul><ul><li>Some windows with stained or leaded glass </li></ul><ul><li>Beamed ceilings </li></ul><ul><li>Dark wood wainscoting and moldings </li></ul><ul><li>Built-in cabinets, shelves, and seating </li></ul>1 2 ERA STYLE
  67. 67. Bungalow Styles 1905 - 1930 California Bungalows, Craftsman Bungalows, and Chicago Bugalows were variations of an affordable housing type that swept across America. Find facts below. The Bungalow is an all American housing type, but it has its roots in India. In the province of Bengal, single-family homes were called bangla or bangala . British colonists adapted these one-story thatch-roofed huts to use as summer homes. The space-efficient floor plan of bungalow houses may have also been inspired by army tents and rural English cottages. The idea was to cluster the kitchen, dining area, bedrooms, and bathroom around a central living area. The first American house to be called a bungalow was designed in 1879 by William Gibbons Preston. Built at Monument Beach on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, the two-story house had the informal air of resort architecture. However, this house was much larger and more elaborate than the homes we think of when we use the term Bungalow . Two California architects, Charles Sumner Greene and Henry Mather Greene, are often credited with inspiring America to build Bungalows. Their most famous project was the huge Craftsman style Gamble house (1909) in Pasadena, California. However, the Green brothers also published more modest Bungalow plans in many magazines and pattern books.
  68. 68. Details <ul><li>One and a half stories </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the living spaces on the ground floor </li></ul><ul><li>Low-pitched roof and horizontal shape </li></ul><ul><li>Living room at the center </li></ul><ul><li>Connecting rooms without hallways </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient floor plan </li></ul><ul><li>Built-in cabinets, shelves, and seats </li></ul>ERA STYLE
  69. 69. Cotswold Cottage 1890 - 1940 With roots in the pastoral Cotswold region of England, the picturesque Cotswold Cottage style may remind you of a cozy storybook house. The small, fanciful Cotswold Cottage is a popular subtype of the Tudor Revival house style. This quaint English country style is based on the cottages built since medieval times in the Cotswold region of southwestern England. A fascination for medieval styles inspired American architects create modern versions of the rustic homes. The Cotswold Cottage style became especially popular in the United States during the 1920s and 1930s. The picturesque Cotswold Cottage is usually asymmetrical with a steep, complex roof line. The floor plan tends to include small, irregularly-shaped rooms, and the upper rooms have sloping walls with dormers. The home may have a sloping slate or cedar roof that mimics the look of thatch. A massive chimney often dominates either the front or one side of the house.
  70. 70. Details <ul><li>Sloping, uneven roof, sometimes made of pseudo-thatch 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Brick, stone, or stucco siding </li></ul><ul><li>Very steep cross gables </li></ul><ul><li>Prominent brick or stone chimney, often at the front near the door 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Casement windows with small panes </li></ul><ul><li>Small dormer windows 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Asymmetrical design </li></ul><ul><li>Low doors and arched doors </li></ul><ul><li>Small, irregularly-shaped rooms </li></ul><ul><li>Sloping walls in rooms on upper floor </li></ul>1 2 3 ERA STYLE
  71. 71. Mission Revival House Style 1890 - 1920 Historic mission churches built by Spanish colonists inspired the turn-of-the-century house style known as Mission, Spanish Mission, or California Mission. Celebrating the architecture of Hispanic settlers, Mission Revival style houses usually have arched dormers and roof parapets. Some resemble old Spanish mission churches with bell towers and elaborate arches. The earliest Mission style homes were built in California, USA. The style spread eastward, but most Spanish Mission homes are located in the southwestern states. Deeply shaded porches and dark interiors make these homes particularly suited for warmer climates.
  72. 72. Mission Revival House Style 1890 - 1920 Shown here is the Owls Club Mansion, an especially elaborate example of Mission Revival architecture in Tucson, Arizona. Architect Henry Trost modeled the home after a design by Louis Sullivan. Completed in 1902, the house is decorated with geometric patterns, parapets with ornamental drainpipes, and other details inspired by historic Spanish mission churches. Owls Club Mansion is an especially elaborate example of Mission Revival architecture in Tucson, Arizona
  73. 73. Details <ul><li>Smooth stucco siding </li></ul><ul><li>Roof parapets </li></ul><ul><li>Large square pillars </li></ul><ul><li>Twisted columns </li></ul><ul><li>Arcaded entry porch </li></ul><ul><li>Round or quatrefoil window </li></ul><ul><li>Red tile roof </li></ul>ERA STYLE
  74. 74. American Foursquare 1895 - 1930 The Foursquare style, sometimes called the Prairie Box , can be found in nearly every part of the United States. The American Foursquare, or the Prairie Box , was a post-Victorian style that shared many features with the Prairie architecture pioneered by Frank Lloyd Wright. The boxy foursquare shape provided roomy interiors for homes on small city lots. The simple, square shape also made the Foursquare style especially practical for mail order house kits from Sears and other catalog companies.
  75. 75. Details <ul><li>Simple box shape </li></ul><ul><li>Two-and-a-half stories high </li></ul><ul><li>Four-room floor plan </li></ul><ul><li>Low-hipped roof with deep overhang 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Large central dormer 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Full-width porch with wide stairs </li></ul><ul><li>Brick, stone, stucco, concrete block, or wood siding </li></ul>1 2 ERA STYLE
  76. 76. Colonial Revival 1876 - 1955 Expressing American patriotism and a return to classical architectural styles, Colonial Revival became a standard style in the 20th century. Colonial Revival became a popular American house style after it appeared at the 1876 the US Centennial Exposition. Reflecting American patriotism and a desire for simplicity, the Colonial Revival house style remained popular until the mid-1950's. Between World War I and II, Colonial Revival was the most popular historic revival house style in the United States. Some architectural historians say that Colonial Revival is a Victorian style; others believe that the Colonial Revival style marked the end of the Victorian period in architecture. The Colonial Revival style is based loosely on Federal and Georgian house styles, and a clear reaction against excessively elaborate Victorian Queen Anne architecture. Eventually, the simple, symmetrical Colonial Revival style became incorporated into the Foursquare and Bungalow house styles of the early 20th century.
  77. 77. Details <ul><li>Symmetrical façade </li></ul><ul><li>Rectangular </li></ul><ul><li>2 to 3 stories </li></ul><ul><li>Brick or wood siding </li></ul><ul><li>Simple, classical detailing </li></ul><ul><li>Gable roof 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Pillars and columns </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-pane, double-hung windows with shutters </li></ul><ul><li>Dormers 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Temple-like entrance: porticos topped by pediment </li></ul><ul><li>Paneled doors with sidelights and topped with rectangular transoms or fanlights </li></ul><ul><li>Center entry-hall floor plan </li></ul><ul><li>Living areas on the first floor and bedrooms on the upper floors </li></ul><ul><li>Fireplaces </li></ul>1 2 ERA STYLE
  78. 78. Post-War House Styles 1945-1980 <ul><li>Ranch Style </li></ul><ul><li>Raised Ranch Style </li></ul><ul><li>Split-Level Ranch Style </li></ul><ul><li>Cape Cod Revival House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Lustron Houses </li></ul>Soldiers returning from World War II brought an enormous need for housing. Real estate developers purchased large tracts of land and constructed homes with an eye on simplicity and affordability. ERA STYLE
  79. 79. Ranch Style 1945 - 1980 One-story Ranch Style homes are so simple, some critics say they have no style. But there's more than meets the eye to the classic suburban Ranch Style house. Known as American Ranch, Western Ranch, or California Rambler, Ranch Style houses can be found in nearly every part of the United States. The earth-hugging Prairie Style houses pioneered by Frank Lloyd Wright and the informal Bungalow styles of the early 20th century paved the way for the popular Ranch Style. Architect Cliff May is credited with building the first Ranch Style house in San Diego, California in 1932. The California real estate developer Joseph Eichler popularized his own version of the Ranch Style, and Eichler Ranches were imitated across the USA. After World War II, simple, economical Ranch houses were mass-produced to meet the housing needs of returning soldiers and their families. Because so many Ranch Style homes were quickly built according to a cookie-cutter formula, the Ranch Style is often dismissed as ordinary or slipshod. Nevertheless, many homes built today have characteristics of the elegantly informal Ranch houses that Cliff May originated.
  80. 80. Details <ul><li>Single story </li></ul><ul><li>Low pitched gable roof </li></ul><ul><li>Deep-set eaves 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal, rambling layout: Long, narrow, and low to the ground </li></ul><ul><li>Rectangular, L-shaped, or U-shaped design </li></ul><ul><li>Large windows: double-hung, sliding, and picture 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Sliding glass doors leading out to patio </li></ul><ul><li>Attached garage </li></ul><ul><li>Simple floor plans </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on openness (few interior walls) and efficient use of space </li></ul><ul><li>Built from natural materials: Oak floors, wood or brick exterior 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Lack decorative detailing, aside from decorative shutters </li></ul>1 2 3 ERA STYLE
  81. 81. Raised Ranch Style 1945 - 1980 A traditional Ranch Style house is only one story, but a Raised Ranch raises the roof to provide extra living space. The Raised Ranch style has been adapted to take on a variety of forms. Neo-Mediterranean, Neo-Colonial, and other contemporary styles are often applied to the simple, practical Raised Ranch shape. Split-level homes may also be described as a variation on the Raised Ranch style. However, a true Raised Ranch has only two levels, while a split-level home has three stories or more. In this variation of the Ranch Style , the home has two stories. The lower story is at ground level or partially submerged below grade. From the main entrance, a full flight of stairs leads to the main living areas on the upper level. Some critics say that Raised Ranch houses are unattractive or ordinary. However, there's no question that this practical style fills a need for space and flexibility. Raised Ranch Style House in Northern Virginia
  82. 82. Details <ul><li>Two stories </li></ul><ul><li>Attached garage 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Partially submerged basement with finished rooms and windows 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Low-pitched gable roof 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Asymmetrical </li></ul><ul><li>Large windows: double-hung, sliding, and picture </li></ul><ul><li>Sliding glass doors leading to a back yard patio </li></ul><ul><li>Little decorative detailing, aside from decorative shutters and porch-roof supports </li></ul>1 2 3 ERA STYLE
  83. 83. Split-Level Ranch Style 1945 - 1980 In this popular variation of the Ranch house style, a Split-Level Ranch has three or more levels. A Split-Level Ranch is a Ranch Style house that is divided into several parts. One section is lowered and one section is raised. Regardless of the floor plan, split-level houses always have three or more levels. The main entrance is usually (although not always) on the center level. Split-level design reflects an approach popularized by American architect Frank Lloyd Wright. Wright believed that houses with &quot;half floors&quot; would blend naturally with the landscape. Living areas could be separated from private areas by just a few steps, rather than a single long staircase.
  84. 84. Details <ul><li>The front door opens to a landing. Facing the door, one short flight of stairs leads down. A parallel flight of stairs leads up. </li></ul><ul><li>The front door opens into an entry wing or foyer apart from the main house. To one side, a short flight of stairs leads down. To the other side, a short flight of stairs leads up. </li></ul><ul><li>The front door opens directly into the main living area. Elsewhere in the room, a short flight of stairs leads down and a parallel short flight of stairs leads up. </li></ul><ul><li>The front door opens on the lowest level, entering a garage or mudroom. A short flight of stairs leads up to the main living area. From there, another short flight of stairs leads up to the bedrooms. </li></ul>ERA STYLE
  85. 85. Cape Cod House With Dormers Twentieth century Cape Cod houses were often given large dormers and decorative shutters. ERA STYLE
  86. 86. Lustron Homes 1948 - 1950 Made of steel coated with porcelain enamel, Lustron Homes were manufactured like cars and transported across the USA. At the end of World War II, the United States did not have enough housing for the 12-million soldiers returning home. President Harry Truman pressured builders and suppliers to construct affordable housing. Many architects and designers, including Frank Lloyd Wright and Buckminster Fuller, tried to design inexpensive prefab housing that could be built quickly. But one of the most promising ventures was the Lustron Home by businessman and inventor Carl Strandlund. Vowing to mass-produce steel houses at the rate of 100 a day, Strandlund landed $37 million in government loans. The first Lustron house was produced in March 1948. A total of 2,498 Lustron Homes were manufactured over the next two years. The steel houses were made like cars on conveyor belts in a former aircraft plant in Columbus, Ohio. Flatbed trucks transported the Lustron panels to 36 states, where they were assembled on concrete slabs using nuts and bolts. Assembly took about two weeks. The completed house cost between $7,000 and $10,000, not including the foundation and the lot. Orders for some 20,000 Lustron Homes poured in, but by 1950 the Lustron Corporation was bankrupt. Today, well-preserved Lustron homes are scarce. Many have been demolished. Others have been altered as homeowners added sheetrock walls and new exterior siding.
  87. 87. Details <ul><li>One story with a rectangular Ranch Style shape </li></ul><ul><li>Constructed with prefabricated panels made of steel coated with colored porcelain enamel (the same finish found on bathtubs and appliances) </li></ul><ul><li>Roof, ceiling, and interior and exterior walls made entirely of porcelain-enameled steel 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Magnets or glued-on hooks used to hang pictures on walls </li></ul><ul><li>Four factory-colored finishes: Desert Tan , Dove Gray , Maize Yellow , or Surf Blue 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete slab foundation </li></ul><ul><li>Two or three bedrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Radiant heating in the ceiling </li></ul><ul><li>Built-in bookcase, china cabinet, and overhead cabinets </li></ul><ul><li>Combination washing machine / dishwasher </li></ul>1 2 ERA STYLE
  88. 88. Modern House Styles 1930-present <ul><li>Art Moderne House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Bauhaus Style </li></ul><ul><li>International Style </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary House Style </li></ul><ul><li>A-Frame Style </li></ul><ul><li>Postmodern House Style </li></ul>Modernist houses broke away from conventional forms, while postmodernist houses combined traditional forms in unexpected ways. ERA STYLE
  89. 89. Art Moderne 1930 - 1945 With the sleek, streamlined appearance of a modern machine, Art Moderne architecture expressed the spirit of a new, technological age. It's easy to confuse Art Moderne with Art Deco, but they are two distinctly different styles. While both have stripped-down forms and geometric designs, the Art Moderne style will appear sleek and plain, while the slightly earlier Art Deco style can be quite showy. Art Moderne buildings are usually white, while Art Deco buildings may be brightly colored. The Art Deco style is most often used for public buildings like theaters, while the Art Moderne style is most often found in private homes. The sleek, rounded Art Moderne style originated in the Bauhaus movement, which began in Germany. Bauhaus architects wanted to use the principles of classical architecture in their purest form, designing simple, useful structures without ornamentation or excess. Building shapes were based on curves, triangles, and cones. Bauhaus ideas spread worldwide and led to the Moderne or International Style in the United States. Art Moderne art, architecture, and fashion became popular just as Art Deco was losing appeal. Many products produced during the 1930s, from architecture to jewelry to kitchen appliances, expressed the new Art Moderne ideals. Art Moderne truly reflected the spirit of the early twentieth century. Expressing excitement over technological advancements, high speed transportation, and innovative new construction techniques, Art Modern design was highlighted at the 1933 World Fair Chicago. For homeowners, Art Moderne also proved to be a pragmatic style because these simple dwellings were so easy and economical to build.
  90. 90. Details <ul><li>Asymmetrical </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Flat roof 1 </li></ul><ul><li>No cornices or eaves </li></ul><ul><li>Cube-like shape </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth, white walls </li></ul><ul><li>Sleek, streamlined appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Rounded corners highlighted by wraparound windows 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Glass block windows </li></ul><ul><li>Aluminum and stainless steel window and door trim </li></ul><ul><li>Mirrored panels </li></ul><ul><li>Steel balustrades </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestion of speed and movement: Horizontal rows of windows or stripes </li></ul><ul><li>Little or no ornamentation </li></ul><ul><li>Open floor plans </li></ul>1 2 ERA STYLE
  91. 91. The Walter Gropius House 1937: Bauhaus home of Walter Gropius in Lincoln, Massachusetts. Walter Gropius, architect. New England details combine with Bauhaus ideas in the Massacusetts home of Bauhaus architect Walter Gropius. The Walter Gropius House in Lincoln, Massachusetts ERA STYLE
  92. 92. The Farnsworth House 1946 to 1950: Glass-walled International Style home in Plano, Illinois, USA. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, architect. Hovering in a green landscape, the transparent glass Farnsworth House by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe is often celebrated as his most perfect expression of the International Style. The house is rectangular with eight steel columns set in two parallel rows. Suspended between columns are two steel-framed slabs (the ceiling and the roof) and a simple, glass-enclosed living space and porch. All the exterior walls are glass, and the interior is entirely open except for a wood paneled area containing two bathrooms, a kitchen and service facilities. The floors and exterior decks are Italian travertine limestone. The steel is sanded smooth and painted a gleaming white. The Farnsworth House took six years to design and build. During this period, Philip Johnson built his famous Glass House in New Canaan, Connecticut. However, Johnson's home is symmetrical, ground-hugging structure with a very different atmosphere. Edith Farnsworth was not happy with the house Ludwig Mies van der Rohe designed for her. She sued Mies van der Rohe, claiming that the house was not livable. Critics, however, said that Edith Farnsworth was lovesick and spiteful. The Farnsworth House by Mies van der Rohe ERA STYLE
  93. 93. Contemporary 1965 - Present Contemporary homes are designed for today's lifestyles with huge windows and large, open spaces. &quot;Contemporary&quot; describes a catch-all style that can take on many different shapes. A Contemporary home can have the quirkiness of Postmodernism, but it will not express the same kind of irony or humor you find in a Postmodern house. Some Neoeclectic homes are called &quot;Contemporaries,&quot; but a true Contemporary does not use odd mixtures of historic deals the way a Neoeclectic house does. Confused? Your most important clue is the windows: A Contemporary home will always have expansive, very tall panes of glass.
  94. 94. Details <ul><li>odd, irregular shape </li></ul><ul><li>lack of ornamentation </li></ul><ul><li>tall, over-sized windows, some with trapezoid shapes 1 </li></ul><ul><li>open floor plan </li></ul><ul><li>natural materials such as cedar or stone 2 </li></ul><ul><li>harmony with the surrounding landscape </li></ul>1 2 ERA STYLE
  95. 95. A-frame Style 1957 – Present With a dramatic, sloping roof and cozy living quarters, an A-frame style house is ideal for wintery regions with lots of snow. Triangular and tee-pee shaped homes date back to the dawn of time, but architect Andrew Geller turned an old idea into a revolutionary concept in 1957 when he built an &quot;A-frame&quot; house in Long Island, New York. Named for the distinctive shape of its roofline, Geller's design won international attention when it was featured in the New York Times. Soon, thousands of A-frame homes were built around the world. The steep slope of the A-frame roof is designed to help heavy snow to slide to the ground, instead of remaining on top of the house and weighing it down. At the same time, the sloped roof provides two other benefits. It creates a half floor at the top of the house which can be used for lofts or storage space, and, since the roof extends down to the ground and doesn't need to painted, it minimizes the amount of exterior maintenance required on the house. On the other hand, the sloped roof creates a triangular &quot;dead space&quot; at the base of the walls on each floor. A-frame houses have limited living space and are usually built as vacation cottages for the mountains or beach.
  96. 96. Details <ul><li>Triangular shape </li></ul><ul><li>Steeply sloping roof that extends to the ground on two sides 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Front and rear gables </li></ul><ul><li>Deep-set eaves 2 </li></ul><ul><li>1½ or 2½ stories </li></ul><ul><li>Many large windows on front and rear façades 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Small living space </li></ul><ul><li>Few vertical wall surfaces </li></ul>1 2 3 ERA STYLE
  97. 97. Postmodern (Pomo) 1965 - Present Unique, whimsical, and surprising, Postmodern houses give the impression that anything goes. The impossible is not only possible, but exaggerated. Postmodern (or post-modern) architecture evolved from Modernism, yet it rebells against that style. Modernism is viewed as excessively minimalist, anonymous, monotonous, and boring. Postmodernism has a sense of humor. The style often combines two or more very different elements. A Postmodern house may combine traditional with invented forms or use familiar shapes in surprising, unexpected ways. In other words, postmodern houses often don't have anything in common with one another, other than their lack of commonality. Postmodern houses may be bizarre, humorous, or shocking, but they are always unique. Sometimes the term Postmodern is loosely used to describe Neoeclectic homes that combine a variety of historic styles. However, unless there is a sense of surprise, irony, or originality, a neoeclectic home is not truly postmodern. Postmodern houses are also sometimes called &quot;Contemporaries,&quot; but a true Contemporary Style house does not incorporate traditional or historical architectural details.
  98. 98. Details <ul><li>Sense of &quot;anything goes&quot;: Forms filled with humor, irony, ambiguity, contradiction </li></ul><ul><li>Juxtaposition of styles: Blend of traditional, contemporary, and newly-invented forms </li></ul><ul><li>Exaggerated or abstract traditional detailing </li></ul><ul><li>Materials or decorations drawn from far away sources </li></ul>ERA STYLE
  99. 99. &quot;Neo&quot; House Styles 1965-present <ul><li>Neoeclectic House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Neocolonial House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Neo-Mediterranean House Style </li></ul><ul><li>McMansion </li></ul>Neo means new . Many new homes borrow details from historic styles and combine them with modern features. ERA STYLE
  100. 100. Neoeclectic 1965 - Present If your home was built recently, chances are it incorporates many styles. Architects and designers call this new stylistic mix Neoeclectic , or Neo-eclectic . A Neoeclectic home can be difficult to describe because it combines many styles. The shape of the roof, the design of the windows, and decorative details may be inspired by several different periods and cultures. During the late 1960s, a rebellion against modernism and a longing for more traditional styles influenced the design of modest tract housing in North America. Builders began to borrow freely from a variety of historic traditions, offering Neoeclectic (or, Neo-eclectic) houses that were &quot;customized&quot; using a mixture of features selected from construction catalogs. These homes are sometimes called Postmodern because they borrow from a variety of styles without consideration for continuity or context. However, Neoeclectic homes are not usually experimental and do not reflect the artistic vision you would find in a truly original, architect-designed postmodern home. Critics use the term McMansion to describe a Neoeclectic home that is over-sized and pretentious. Coined from the McDonald's fast food restaurant, the name McMansion implies that these homes are hastily assembled using cheaply-made materials and a menu of mix-and-match decorative details.
  101. 101. Details <ul><li>Constructed in the 1960s or later </li></ul><ul><li>Historic styles imitated using modern materials like vinyl or imitation stone </li></ul><ul><li>Details from several historic styles combined </li></ul><ul><li>Details from several cultures combined </li></ul><ul><li>Brick, stone, vinyl, and composite materials combined </li></ul>ERA STYLE
  102. 102. Neocolonial 1965 - present Modern-day Neocolonial, or Neo-Colonial , houses are romantic versions of the historic Colonial and Federal style buildings. Neocolonial is a Neoeclectic style, borrowing details from many different styles and historic periods. Modern-day houses are often a mixture of historic styles adapted for contemporary lifestyles. New England Colonial, Southern Colonial, Georgian, and Federal details are imitated using low maintenance modern materials. The idea is to convey the traditional, refined atmosphere of a Colonial home, but not to recreate a Colonial style. Unlike the earlier Colonial Revival homes, the interiors of Neocolonial homes are thoroughly modern with great rooms, high-tech kitchens, and other conveniences.
  103. 103. Details <ul><li>Constructed in the late 20th century through the present time </li></ul><ul><li>Rectangular shape </li></ul><ul><li>2 to 3 stories </li></ul><ul><li>Center entry-hall floor plan </li></ul><ul><li>Living areas on the first floor and bedrooms on the upper floors </li></ul><ul><li>Great room and other large living areas </li></ul><ul><li>Siding made with vinyl, faux stone, faux brick, or other composite materials 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Complicated roofline with cross gables and dormers 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Palladian windows and semicircular fanlights 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Double-hung windows with shutters 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Temple-like entrance: portico topped by a pediment </li></ul><ul><li>Dentil moldings 5 </li></ul>1 2 3 4 5 ERA STYLE
  104. 104. Neo-mediterranean 1965 - Present Details from Spain, Italy, and other Mediterranean countries combine with North American ideas to create contemporary Mediterranean or Neo-mediterranean homes. Neo-mediterranean is a Neoeclectic house style that incoporates a fanciful mix of details suggested by the architecture of Spain, Italy, and Greece, Morocco, and the Spanish Colonies. Realtors often call Neo-mediterrean houses Mediterranean or Spanish . A Neo-mediterranean home may resemble the much earlier Spanish Revival style. However, Neo-mediterranean homes are not careful recreations of Spanish Colonial architecture. If you remove the romantic decorative details, a Neo-mediterranean home is more likely to resemble a no-nonsense, all-American Ranch or Raised Ranch.
  105. 105. Details <ul><li>Low-pitched roof </li></ul><ul><li>Red roof tiles </li></ul><ul><li>Stucco siding </li></ul><ul><li>Arches above doors, windows, or porches </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy carved wooden doors </li></ul>ERA STYLE
  106. 106. McMansion <ul><li>Over-sized in proportion to the building lot </li></ul><ul><li>Poorly proportioned placement of windows, doors, and porches </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive use of gabled roofs </li></ul><ul><li>Poorly planned mixture of details borrowed from a variety of historic periods </li></ul><ul><li>Abundant use of vinyl and artificial stone </li></ul><ul><li>Unpleasing combination of many different siding materials </li></ul><ul><li>Atriums, great rooms, and other grand open spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Quickly constructed using mix-and-match details from a builder's catalog </li></ul>McMansion is a derogatory term for a large, showy Neoeclectic home, usually built without the guidance of an architect. The word McMansion was coined in the 1980s by architects and architecture critics in response to the many over-sized, poorly designed homes being built in American suburbs. McMansion is derived from the name McDonald's , the fast food restaurant known for mass producing huge quantities of Big Mac hamburgers. So, a McMansion is a Big Mac version of architecture: mass produced, quickly built, generic, bland, and unnecessarily large. ERA STYLE
  107. 107. Spanish and Mediterranean House Styles 1600s - present <ul><li>Spanish Colonial House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish Colonial Revival (Spanish Eclectic) House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Pueblo Revival House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Mission House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Neo-Mediterranean House Style </li></ul>Spanish settlers in Florida and the American Southwest brought a rich heritage of architectural traditions and combined them with ideas borrowed from Hopi and Pueblo Indians. Modern day &quot;Spanish&quot; style homes tend to be Mediterranean in flavor, incorporating details Italy, Portugal, Africa, Greece, and other countries. ERA STYLE
  108. 108. Spanish Colonial Revival (Spanish Eclectic) House Style Step through the stucco archway, linger in the tiled courtyard, and you might think you were in Spain. Or Portugal. Or Italy, or northern Africa, or Mexico. North America's Spanish inspired homes embrace the entire Mediterranean world, combine it with ideas from Hopi and Pueblo Indians and add flourishes that would make Walt Disney proud. It's hard to know what to call the style. Spanish-inspired homes built in the first decades of the 20th century are usually described as Spanish Colonial Revival , suggesting that they borrow ideas from early settlers. However, these homes might also be called Hispanic or Mediterranean . And, because these homes often combine many different styles, some use the term Spanish Eclectic . Spanish Eclectic Home in Schenectady, New York ERA STYLE
  109. 109. Pueblo Revival Style 1912 - Present Because they are built with adobe, Pueblo homes are sometimes called Adobes. Modern Pueblos are inspired by homes used by Native Americans since ancient times. Pueblo Revival homes borrow ideas from the ancient earthen homes of Native Americans. Since ancient times, Pueblo Indians built large, multi-family houses, which the Spanish called pueblos (villages). In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Spanish made their own Pueblo homes, but they adapted the style. They formed the adobe into sun-dried building blocks. After stacking the blocks, the Spaniards covered them with protective layers of mud. Pueblo Revival houses became popular in the early 1900s, mainly in California and the southwestern United States. During the 1920s, aviation pioneer Glenn Curtiss and his partner James Bright introduced their own version of Pueblo Revival architecture to Florida. In the region that is now Miami Springs, Curtiss and Bright built an entire development of thick-walled buildings made of wood frame or concrete block. Modern day Pueblo homes are often made with concrete blocks or other materials covered with adobe, stucco, plaster, or mortar.
  110. 110. Details <ul><li>Massive, round-edged walls made with adobe </li></ul><ul><li>Flat roof with no overhang </li></ul><ul><li>Stepped levels </li></ul><ul><li>Rounded parapet </li></ul><ul><li>Spouts in the parapet to direct rainwater </li></ul><ul><li>Vigas (heavy timbers) extending through walls to support the roof </li></ul><ul><li>Latillas (poles) placed above vigas in angled pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Deep window and door openings </li></ul><ul><li>Simple windows </li></ul><ul><li>Beehive corner fireplace </li></ul><ul><li>Bancos (benches) that protrude from walls </li></ul><ul><li>Nichos (niches) carved out of wall for display of religious icons </li></ul><ul><li>Brick, wood, or flagstone floors </li></ul>ERA STYLE
  111. 111. French House Styles 1700s - present <ul><li>French Colonial House Style </li></ul><ul><li>Tidewater House Style </li></ul><ul><li>French Creole Cottages </li></ul><ul><li>French Normandy House Style </li></ul><ul><li>French Provincial House Style </li></ul><ul><li>French Eclectic House Style </li></ul>Spanish, African, Native American, and other heritages combined to create a unique blend of housing styles in America's French colonies. Two hundred years later, soldiers returning from World War I brought a keen interest in French housing styles. ERA STYLE
  112. 112. French Creole Architecture French Creole plantation houses were small, one-story wooden structures with low, sloping roofs. The main roof extends over the porch. The reader who submitted this photo writes, &quot;Around a millennium ago, in the late 1930's, I was born in this old farm home in North Louisiana. Back then, it was in much better shape--immaculate in fact. The yard was filled with flowers such as hyacinths, daffodils, dwarf Cape Jessamine, antique roses, and hydrangea .... Note the long 'gallery' across the front of the house. Back then there was a chimney at each end of the front--only left chimney remains here. And, at one time, there was a dog trot down the middle. The house was an &quot;L&quot; shape with a long screened in porch that ran the length of the back of the house. And, it had a 'well porch' at the tip of the &quot;L&quot; in the back of the home.&quot; Small Creole Plantation House in Louisiana ERA STYLE
  113. 113. French Normandy House Style Some French style homes borrow ideas from Normandy, where barns were attached to the living quarters. Grain or ensilage was stored in a central turret. The Norman Cottage is a cozy and romantic style that features a small round tower topped by a cone-shaped roof. Other Normandy homes resemble miniature castles with arched doorways set in imposing towers. Like Tudor style houses, 20th-century French Normandy homes may have decorative half-timbering. Unlike Tudor style homes, however, houses influenced by French styles do not have a dominant front gable. French Normandy House Style ERA STYLE
  114. 114. French Provincial House Style French Provincial houses tend to be square and symmetrical. They resemble small manor homes with massive hipped roofs and window shutters. Frequently, tall second floor windows break through the cornice. Unlike French Normandy houses, French Provincial homes do not have towers. French Prorovincial House Style ERA STYLE
  115. 115. French Eclectic House Styles French Eclectic homes combine a variety of French influences. The cottage pictured above is a charming example of a home inspired by the symmetrical Provincial style. It was built in 1938 and is sided in Austin Stone French Eclectic Cottage ERA STYLE
  116. 116. Earth Houses Prehistoric - present <ul><li>Adobe Houses </li></ul><ul><li>Rammed Earth Houses </li></ul><ul><li>Cob Houses </li></ul><ul><li>Compressed Earth Block Houses </li></ul><ul><li>Straw Bale Houses </li></ul><ul><li>Earth Sheltered Houses </li></ul>ERA STYLE
  117. 117. Rammed Earth Rammed earth construction resembles adobe construction. Both use soil mixed with waterproofing adatives. However, even with the waterproofing additives, adobe requires dry weather so that the bricks can harden enough to build walls. In rainy parts of the world, builders developed &quot;rammed earth&quot; construction. A mixture of soil and cement are compacted into forms. Later, the forms are removed and solid earth walls remain. Rammed earth buildings are environmentally-friendly and fire and termite resistant. Some modern-day designers also say that the thick earthen walls create a sense of solidity and security. ERA STYLE
  118. 118. Cob Houses In Old English, cob was a root word that meant lump or rounded mass . Cob houses are made of clay-like lumps of soil, sand, and straw. Unlike adobe and straw bale construction, cob does not use bricks or blocks. Instead, wall surfaces can be sculpted into smooth, sinuous forms. A cob home may have sloping walls, arches and lots of wall niches. Cob homes are one of the most durable types of earth architecture. Because the mud mixture is porous, cob can withstand long periods of rain without weakening. A plaster made of lime and sand may be used to windproof the exterior walls from wind damage. Cob houses are suitable for the desert or for very cold climates. ERA STYLE
  119. 119. Compressed Earth Block (CEB) Compressed Earth Blocks, or CEBs, are construction blocks made with clay, sand, and a stabilizing ingredient such as lime or Portland cement. The earth mixture is poured into a hydraulic press machine. Since they are machine-made, compressed earth blocks are uniform in size and shape. ERA STYLE
  120. 120. Straw Bale In the African prairies, houses have been made of straw since the Paleolithic times. Straw construction became popular in the American Midwest when pioneers discovered that no amount of huffing and puffing would blow down hefty bales of straw and grass. Architects and engineers are now exploring new possibilities for straw bale construction. Modern day &quot;pioneers&quot; who are building and living in these homes say that building with straw instead of conventional materials cuts the construction costs by as much as half. ERA STYLE
  121. 121. Earth Sheltered Earth sheltered, or underground, houses lie mostly beneath the ground surface. The surrounding soil provides natural insulation, making these houses inexpensive to heat and cool. The best location for an earth sheltered house is on a well-drained hillside. Windows facing the south or an overhead skylight will fill the interior with sunshine. Designers of underground homes have developed several methods for regulating the interior temperature. Some underground homes depend entirely on the natural insulation provided by the walls and floors. Sometimes tubes are channeled through the earth to bring in air. And, sometimes a heat pump is used to regulate temperatures. Earth sheltered homes are typically made of concrete. Construction costs can run 10% higher than that of a conventional house. However, enthusiasts say that the lower maintenance and energy costs make earth sheltered homes a good buy. ERA STYLE
  122. 122. Prefab Houses 1906 - Present <ul><li>Sears Catalog Houses </li></ul><ul><li>Lustron Homes </li></ul><ul><li>Log Homes </li></ul><ul><li>Katrina Cottages </li></ul><ul><li>Manufactured Houses </li></ul><ul><li>Modular Houses </li></ul>Factory-made modular and prefabricated houses have been popular since the early 1900s when Sears, Aladdin, and other mail order companies shipped house kits to far corners of the United States. Today, &quot;prefabs&quot; are gaining new respect as architects experiment with bold new forms. ERA STYLE
  123. 123. Sears Catalog Houses Did your old house come &quot;in the mail&quot;? Between 1906 and 1940, thousands of North American homes were built according to plans sold by mail order companies such as Sears and Montgomery Wards. Often the entire mail order house (in the form of labeled timbers) came via freight train. Other times, builders used local materials to construct homes according to the mail order catalog house plans. Catalog house plans by Sears, Montgomery Wards, Aladdin, and other companies were widely distributed in the United States and Canada. Modern Home No. C227 - &quot;The Castleton&quot; - from the Sears Modern Homes Mail Order Catalog, 1921 ERA STYLE
  124. 124. Log Homes Log cabins started out as basic shelter, built from the most plentiful building material around - trees. Though we think of log cabins as being uniquely American, they originated in Scandinavia and Russia. For example, the Kremlin is actually a log building underneath the stucco. Regardless of their roots, the appeal of log cabins or, more appropriately, &quot;log homes&quot; has endured for centuries. Their continuing popularity stems from the warmth and security of living in a house made of solid wood. Log Cabins have even gone mainstream with over 50 manufacturers of log home kits belonging to the National Association of Homebuilders under the banner Log Homes Council. At least four log home consumer magazines appear on newsstands, covering everything from buying and building to landscaping and decor. Scores of books have been written on the subject that can be found at in onlinie bookstores. Designed by professionals, modern day log homes include brand name double-paned windows and patio doors, Fiberglas roofing shingles, contemporary kitchens and baths, and energy-efficient heating systems. Most log homes are built by general contractors who take care of everything from building permits to handing the homeowner the key to the front door. ERA STYLE
  125. 125. Katrina Cottages 2006 - Present Inspired by the need for emergency housing after Hurricane Katrina, this cozy cottage took America by storm In 2005, many homes and communities along America's Gulf Coast were destroyed by Hurricane Katrina and the floods that followed. Architects responded to the crisis by designing low-cost emergency shelters. The Katrina Cottage was a highly popular solution because its simple, traditional design suggested the architecture of a cozy turn-of-the-century house. The original Katrina Cottage was developed by Marianne Cusato and other leading architects, including renowned architect and town planner Andres Duany. Cusato's 308-square foot prototype was later adapted to create a series of about two dozen different versions of the Katrina Cottage designed by a variety of architects and firms. Katrina Cottages are typically small, ranging from less than 500 square feet up to about 1,000 square feet. A limited number of Katrina Cottage designs are 1,300 square feet and larger. While size and floor plans can vary, Katrina Cottages share many features. These quaint cottages are prefab houses constructed from factory-made panels. For this reason, Katrina Cottages can be built quickly (often within a few days) and economically. Katrina Cottages are also especially durable. These homes meet the International Building Code and most hurricane codes.
  126. 126. Details <ul><li>Usually (not always) one story </li></ul><ul><li>Front porch </li></ul><ul><li>Turn-of-the century details such as turned columns and brackets </li></ul><ul><li>Rot- and termite-resistant siding such as Cementitious Hardiboard </li></ul><ul><li>Steel studs </li></ul><ul><li>Steel roof </li></ul><ul><li>Moisture and mold resistant drywall </li></ul><ul><li>Energy-efficient appliances </li></ul>ERA STYLE
  127. 127. Manufactured Homes A manufactured home is one that is constructed almost entirely in a factory. The house is placed on a steel chassis and transported to the building site. The wheels can be removed but the chassis stays in place. A manufactured home can come in many different sizes and shapes. It may be a simple one-story &quot;mobile home,&quot; or it can be so large and complex that you might not guess that it was constructed off site. Local building codes do not apply to manufactured homes; instead, these houses are built according to specialized guidelines (Federal HUD regulations in the United States) for manufactured housing. Manufactured homes are not permitted in some communities. ERA STYLE
  128. 128. Modular Home A modular home is constructed of pre-made parts and unit modules. A complete kitchen and bath may be pre-set in the house. Wall panels, trusses, and other pre-fabricated house parts are transported on a flatbed truck from the factory to the building site. You may even see an entire half-house moving along the highway. At the building site, these house sections are lifted onto the foundation where they are permanently anchored. Unlike manufactured homes, modular homes must conform to the building codes for the locations where they are erected. Some housing subdivisions prohibit modular homes. ERA STYLE
  129. 129. Dome Homes 1954 - Present <ul><li>Geodesic Domes </li></ul><ul><li>Monolithic Domes </li></ul>The idea of constructing dome-shaped structures dates back to prehistoric times, but the 20th century brought exciting new approaches to dome design. ERA STYLE
  130. 130. Geodesic Dome 1954 - Present Buckminster Fuller's invention promised to provide affordable, energy-efficient housing for a troubled planet. Developed by Buckminster Fuller in 1954, the Geodesic Dome was promoted as the world's strongest, most economical, lightweight structure. The ingenious engineering of the geodesic dome allows it to cover a wide stretch of space without using internal supports. The geodesic dome design was patented in 1965. Geodesic Domes are ideal for emergency housing and mobile shelters such as military camps. However, the innovative geodesic shape has been adopted for elegant, upscale housing. ERA STYLE
  131. 131. Monolithic Dome 1975 - Present Also known as EcoShells , Monolithic Domes can survive tornadoes, hurricanes, earthquakes, fire, and insects. A Monolithic Dome is a one-peice structure made with concrete and rebar (ridged steel rods). The Monolithic Dome Institute uses the term EcoShells ( Economical, Eco-Friendly and Thin-Shell ) to describe the monolithic dome structures they developed. ERA STYLE