A small introduction of Iceland and where the plant I work in is.330.000 people living in Iceland, most of them in the capital area.The area I live in it is about 10.000 people spread ofer a pretty big area, I live in a town of about 3500
A small intdroduction to the Alcoa Fjarðaál Aluminium plant.Design production capacity 345.000 tons per yearActual production capacity around 360.000 tons per year... And climbing Harbour, recieving of Alumina, tanks, distribution system into potsRodding and carbon recycling (Assemble Anodes and Cathodes)Pot line 336 potsCasthouse with 3 main production lines / 7 core processesHarbour, product out
Quick introduction to the product’s we make.The Casthouse has 3 lines, rod / ingot and T-bar / sowRod, from 9,5 to 18,5mm... There is a option to produce 25mmT-bar and Ingot from the same machine, we can produce there specific blends of aluminiumThe rest is Sow’s
That was just a small introduction of myself and where I come from and what I am doing on a day to day bases but let’s focus on why we are here...
A small talk about the choices in strategies, systems and KPI’sOEE MTBFPMC = Preventive Maintenance CostCMH = Corrective Maintenance HoursBSC = Balances Score Card
In this slide focus on why only one… there might be more than one option…Only one Strategy!Only one System!Only one Objective!Production facilities are usually more complex than that... If we brake it down we could say in a Aluminium smelter like I come from we have :Electrical supply, for potsHarbour facilities, to get Alumina to holding tanksAlumina transfer, to potsRod Shop to make Anodes and CathodesTransformation of Alumina into Aluminium, in the potsTransformation of molten Aluminium to whatever product we are making, Sow’s, Ingots or T-bar’s, Wire Rod... Etc.In this relatively simple production process we have 6 different processes, within those 6 different processes we have many types of different emphasys... So is RCM the right strategy for ALL of them... Is SAP the best system for ALL of them... Is OEE the best objective for ALL of them... Maybe... But maybe not... We would need to take a closer look at all of them to define what is best for each part of the process...Electricity is essential as well as transfer of Alumina... So nothing can fail, for a long time there, so what strategy do we choose?However we usually have a good stock of Anodes so we can stop for some time the production there... So what strategy do we choose?
Before we focus on how to choose strategies we might first focus on Why do we do maintenance...Preventive if we are doing work that actually prevents equipment to fail, focus on failure modesCondition monitoring if we can monitor a failure mode and see trend’s towards a failureBreak down maintenance... If it does not affect production when it fails (we might have a spare motor for that function, etc.) than why maintain it?Focus on the cost benefits... Include all costs/losses... Usually the benefits are where the production losses are
No one has however invented the maintenance free production process... At least I have not seen it... So we try and find the most profitable way of maintaining our machines... And yes the maintenance management process can be a VERY profitable process in a manufacturing facility!
Talking about how we can leverage our cash better with good methods and tools to achieve better and financial results with less money spent.
Talking about how we can leverage our cash better with good methods and tools to achieve better and financial results with less money spent.
Discussion about the dream place (Good maintenance, executed well).Point out that maintenance can be done well but executed badly as well as done badly in a very effective way (get things done quickly… finish on time… we need this machine operating NOW…)
Talking about the focus on risk vs. cost… making sure management realises the risk’s of their decisions.It is easy to save money in maintenance by cost cutting and it might not even show in a bad way on KPI’s of maintenance right away, it might even take 1-3 years to have some serious effect, however don’t be fooled… it will hit the company in the end if cost cutting is done in the wrong way… HARD!!!Talk about a known sales strategy to cost cut maintenance for 1-3 years and sell
How should we choose the right one?
Before we go further I would like to point out that we are going to focus on three main areas of Maintenance Management in this lecture, this chapter will focus on Strategies. Then we will talk about Systems and the last part will focus on Objectives, KPI’s...
Within each strategy you will find a set of tools, methods, KPI’s they will want you to use so focus on the methods and tools that fit your application, your production process, your needs... Most strategies are great, have a proven track record and success in industry in some way. The trick is to find the set of methods and tools that are the right ones for your needs...
RCM is sometimes called the Resource Consuming Monster... It is a disciplined way and can take a lot of recourses to get done properly, however if used in a logical way it can be very effective and not so resource consuming...A “short” version has been developed that is called RCM Blitz ... This is also a good strategy to go for, where it applies...
This is more of a FMEA, where you chart the Occurrence and Severity... This is a good tool to see where we should place our focus and what we should do, should we use Condition Monitoring etc.
Here we add Criticality into the chart and we can actually define this any way we want... We just decide for our process what we would like to focus on, if we find it better we just use numbers and multiply them... This is often simpler when you add categories like criticality, cost, production loss... The point is you create a decision chart for what you want and for what best fits your process.
The 3D approach reveals an interesting reality that a score of 1 – 125 (if we set 5x5x5=125 as a cryticality, Occurrance and Severity rating). It can reveal that a neutral approach for all categories might not always apply. Example severity is high = 5 but Occurrance is low = 1 and Criticality is high = 5, it gives us a score of 25! Does that look OK ? Maybe even do nothing ? … in FMECA we most of the time need to have a logical approach… common sense tells us that a high severity and criticality rating of high must force us to move closer to red and there we go into a Balanced Scorecard approach where we are bias to one or more factors in the evaluation.
OEE helps us focus on the right things... Is it availability problems? Is it production problems? Is it quality problems?Do not forget it is always all our problems, not his or them... We all have oppertunities to improve together, co-operation is key to success
Going quickly over a small 5x why example, what can we do to prevent this problem from happening again?
Going through the conclusion points
Main conclusion point
With all those systems out there and all those choices it is helpfull to know that a large portion of implementations fail... There are many reasons for that, however you can make a bad system work... It is possible... It is a lot better to have a good system, however no system should fail because the system is bad... Usually it has more to do with the actual users and how they want to use the systems that they fail rather then the systems themselfs.The system works just as badly as it is designed to do
Go through each point and follow through on next slide.
However designing it from the ground up to your specific needs would be extremely expensive!
Go through the points and discuss them.
Discussion around each pointSAP = System Against People ... SAP = Superior Applications for People
Discuss the pros and cons
Go over the use of A3 system to improveWhat is the foundation of the project to improveWhat is the current conditionWhat are the goals that are wanted to reachList of how to reach those goals
Systems can be used to help with acheving the goals set. Executing the project plan.
Categorise type of work beeing done, the way to categorise is often different from one company to another. Even within one company there can be different understandings of what work falls into what category.
The registration of Analytical data (measurable numbers in any way) needs to be very disciplined and organised to be reliable in the analysis of the data. The registration of Objective data (not measurable, more an evaluation) needs to be clear and decisive, also these data should be taken with caution in analysis because it is a evaluation and one might evaluate something in bad condition while another one might say it is OK.
This is just one example of what should come out of systems... There are a lot of other information that should come out of systems. What one does with it is the real challange, how can we use information to improve? That is the real question.
Easy reports to analyse, act upon for better results later on... And more! A LOT MORE
All our objectives are focused on getting the right things done at the right time with the minimal cost’s and maximum benefit possible... So to put it in short, MAKE AS MUCH PROFIT AS POSSIBLE!!!
Go over points on slide
Discuss points on slide
Information are collected in systems, they are processed and information output systems can help us make great decisions or they can also make us take bad decisions. This all depends greatly on the quality of data put into the system as well as how we interpret the data. It is very important that the data gathering process is of very good quality.
How To Get Results From Maintenance Systems Montreal2012
Choosing the right maintenance strategies to achieve desiredresults from maintenance systems and objectives Bjarni Ellert Ísleifsson, CMRP Maintenance Specialist Alcoa Fjarðaál, Iceland
Just a little about me Bjarni Ellert Ísleifsson, CMRP Maintenance Specialist Alcoa Fjarðaál Iceland MSc in Maintenance Engineering & Asset Management from Manchester University, EnglandThe short overview of my work so far:Maintenance Specialist at AlcoaChairman of The Icelandic Maintenance AssociationGeneral Manager at Maintenance Management ltd Consulting with focus on Maintenance Engineering , Reliability & Asset Management All my work was related to showing companies how to achieve success through good maintenance & reliability practices
… a little more about meDMM Solutions ltd, CMMS Software development company Software analysis Service management Maintenance consulting Training Implementation of Maintenance Management softwareSudurnes Geothermal Corporation, Svartsengi Power plant Engineer Implementing DMM, Maintenance Management SoftwareEngineer on various ships and production facilities Working in maintenance from 16 years old
Iceland, what does it look like ? Alcoa Fjarðaál
But we are here to talk about maintenance!Choosing the right maintenance strategies to achieve desired results frommaintenance systems and objectivesHow can we be sure about what maintenance strategies, systems andobjectives are best to be chosen? We have plenty of strategies to choose from We have plenty of systems to choose from We have plenty of objectives to choose fromIs there only one correct way to go? …of course there is one correct way to go, it is called my way
With all these choices can there ↓ be only one…Strategies Systems Objectives, KPI’s RCM SAP OEE TPM Maximo MTBF VDM JD Edwards PMC BCM DMM CMH QBM Many more… SO Many more… Many more…
Why do we do maintenance?To maintain equipment’s function and productivity! If an equipment does not work or deliver the required productivity then it does not return the investment that the owners of that equipment require from itMaintenance should only be done if it is justifiable, financially or otherwise Preventive Maintenance or Condition Based Maintenance or Break Down Maintenance
Why do we do maintenance?BUT you need to account for ALL costs and consequences of failures Usually production losses are what drives maintenance managerial decision making It is sometimes not a simple task to measure maintenance losses and gains, especially gains What is a maintenance gain? For examle a prevention of failure… how do you measure what does NOT happen? Maintenance Management can be a very complicated phenomenonMaintenance is ONLY a necessary evil!!!If we could choose not to do it, we would not do it!!!
General misunderstanding in maintenanceThrow money, recourses and time into the problem and it will be solved However it has been proven over and over again that if we use our recourses well with the right methods and tools, we actually save money and increase productivity Maintenance cost Productivity and availability of equipment $$$ Bad methods and toolsBad Good $ Good methods and tools
General misunderstanding in maintenance Maintenance cost Productivity and availability of equipment $$$ Bad methods and toolsBad Good PROFIT$ $ Good methods and tools $$$$$$$ $$$$$$$ Investing in good methods and tools can bring a company great benefits in the form of big gains in productivity and profit
Efficiency and effect Bad maintenance The dream place to be Executed well Efficiency Good maintenance Well executed Improved Maintenance Planning Good maintenance Bad maintenance Executed badly Executed badly Improved maintenance methods Effect
How do we get what we need for maintenance Always talk money, it is the only thing that matters at the end of the day! There is no certain amount of maintenance or methods that is more correctthen another You choose how much maintenance you do The maintenance process is based on finding the correct balance betweenacceptable risk and cost Cost Risk
And having said all that we are back to choices?Strategies Systems Objectives, KPI’s RCM SAP OEE TPM Maximo MTBF VDM JD Edwards PMC BCM ORACLE eAM CMH QBM DMM SO Many more… Many more… Many more…
Methods and tools vs. Strategy RCM has a great method called FMEA sometimes called FMECA, the 7 steps process... TPM has a great method called OEE, Operators care, 5S ... BCM has the maintenance circle... Business objectives Production objectives VDM... Maintenance Adjust as objectives REx... necassary Maintenance management Failure symtoms Safety demands Longevity demands Purchasing demands Life plansEmployee policy Organization Set up of production process PM / PdM Demands of production Stores policy Work planning Resource Budget Set up of production process planning Workload Employees Contractors
RCM, 7 steps processIt is defined by the technical standard SAE JA1011 , Evaluation Criteria forRCM Processes, which sets out the minimum criteria that any process shouldmeet before it can be called RCM. This starts with the 7 questions below,worked through in the order that they are listed: 1. What is the item supposed to do and its associated performance standards? 2. In what ways can it fail to provide the required functions? 3. What are the events that cause each failure? 4. What happens when each failure occurs? 5. In what way does each failure matters? 6. What systematic task can be performed proactively to prevent, or to diminish to a satisfactory degree, the consequences of the failure? 7. What must be done if a suitable preventive task cannot be found?
RCM, FMECA Effectiveness analysis Example FMECA Worksheet Responsibility S O D C Failure Current Recommended and targetID Function Effects (severity Cause(s) (occurrence (detection (critical Action taken mode controls actions completion rating) rating) rating) characteristic) date High Filling High High of Liquid Look into Tundish level level tundish Bjarni E. aluminium installing a1 overflo sensor A sensor 5 based 1 4 Ísleifsson spills on direct switch w did not failed on laser 06-Apr-2010 floor to cast abort trip I/O unit level frose sensor Severity A B C D E Use absolutely the best 5 ID = 1 Occurrence methods that are cost justifyable 4 3 Use best known practises 2 ID = 4 1 ID = 2 ID = 3 Maybe even just do nothing
RCM, FMECA – The piramite approach Effectiveness analysis Example FMECA Worksheet Responsibility S O D C Failure Current Recommended and targetID Function Effects (severity Cause(s) (occurrence (detection (critical Action taken mode controls actions completion rating) rating) rating) characteristic) date High Filling High High of Liquid Look into Tundish level level tundish Bjarni E. aluminium installing a1 overflo sensor A sensor 5 based 1 4 Ísleifsson spills on direct switch w did not failed on laser 06-Apr-2010 floor to cast abort trip I/O unit level frose sensor Use absolutely the best methods that are cost justifyable Use best known practises 2 4 Maybe even just do nothing 1 3
RCM, FMECA – The 3D piramite approach Effectiveness analysis Example FMECA Worksheet Responsibility S O D C Failure Current Recommended and target ID Function Effects (severity Cause(s) (occurrence (detection (critical Action taken mode controls actions completion rating) rating) rating) characteristic) date High Filling High High of Liquid Look into Tundish level level tundish Bjarni E. aluminium installing a 1 overflo sensor 1 sensor 5 based 1 3 Ísleifsson spills on direct switch w did not failed on laser 06-Apr-2010 floor to cast abort trip I/O unit level frose sensor Use absolutely the best methods that are costMaybe even just do nothing Use best known practises justifyable1 62 - 64 125
TPM, OEE The definition of OEE Availability to Produce in the Quality wanted at the correct delivery timeActual Actual Producedproduction production volume intime volume correct quality X X = ?%Planned Planned Actualproduction production producedtime volume volume Availability Production Quality opportunities opportunities opportunities ? ? ?
TPM, 5 times why ? The simplest and most effective way to tackle problems is 5x why It is based on asking 5x why? EXAMPLE:1. Why did 2. Why was 5. Why not? 4. Why was there the there 3. Why did it The filter was no lubrication? machine overload? overheat? dirty Pump did not stop? Bearing No lubrication deliver oilOverload overheated 90% of the time it is enough to ask 5x
TPM, 5S - How much does a wrench cost? Your tools that you need for your job are numbers, you need to find your tool… try as quickly as you can to count from 1, 2, etc… up to 30… you get 15 seconds!
TPM, 5S - Practical example Now we have Sorted out all that we do not need in the work station, how quickly can you find 1, 2, 3… etc. you get 15 seconds!
TPM, 5S - Practical example 1 14 4 2 12 26 30 3 23 9 16 5 6 19 15 22 8 18 11 7 28 20 10 17 24 21 29 25 13 27 Now we have Set in order all of what we need in the work station, how quickly can you find 1, 2, 3… etc. you get 15 seconds!
TPM, 5S - Practical example 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Now we have Shined and Standardized all of what we need in the work station, how quickly can you find 1, 2, 3… etc. you get 15 seconds!
TPM, 5S - Practical example 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 15 16 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 28 29 30 Now we “just” need to Sustain all of what we need in the work station, it is amazing how convenient it is to get what you need and not return it! Old habits die hard
TPM, 5S - Practical example 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Lets not forget that there is always room for improvements.
TPM, 5S - Practical example A well organized toolboxcan be quick to pay for itself!
StrategiesStrategies, conclusion Here above we have talked about methods and tools from many strategies and even the strategies we did not talk about (VDM, REx) also have some great tools that can be used in an effective way Maintenance management is not a simple process to control effectively However by focusing on the right methods and tools you can achieve great results in a manufacturing facility and set up the right strategy that can work for your process
So what strategy should we choose ?Strategies Systems Objectives, KPI’s RCM SAP OEE TPM Maximo MTBF VDM JD Edwards PMC BCM DMM CMH QBM Many more… SO Many more… Many more…
Now let’s take a look at systemsStrategies Systems Objectives, KPI’s RCM SAP OEE TPM Maximo MTBF VDM JD Edwards PMC BCM ORACLE eAM CMH QBM DMM SO Many more… Many more… Many more…
Systems Before you select a system, define the outcome you want from it, but remember: A system that solves all of managers problems ... ... does not exist but in the advertisement brochures A bad manager without a system, will be ... ... a bad manager with a system A good manager without a system, will be ... ... a better manager with a system Define your processes first and then choose the system ... ... but be aware of the extreme and specific solutions; how much do you think a specificly designed car for you would cost? However you can modify some systems to fit better your specific needs…
Just like you can modify a car to better suit your needs
What does a system need to do ?Give access to technical datasPlan & ScheduleAsset registryMaintenance proceduresBacklog of work needed to doControl calibrationAccountingProject managementInventoryCondition monitoring & analysis resultsProcess parametersAnalysisE-mail, Internet, Report generation ... The list is almost endless ...
What type of system is best for us ?Generally we have BIG systems or small systems that are focused on their corefunctionExample SAP is a big system with most functionalities that anyone could thinkof ever needing, however there are concerns that it could be too big in somecases...There are many small CMMS solutions out there to choose from, howeverthere are concerns that these systems might be too small in some cases...There are also examples that we do not have to worry about; what we shouldchoose, the corporate has already made a decision In these cases we should just do whatever we can to make it work, whatever the system
Big vs. smallMain benefits of big systems are : “Everything” is there Same basic principles throughout the system When updating the system, you seldomly get conflicts between functionsMain negatives of big systems are : Designed for many purposes so they can be not very user friendly in many functionsMain benefits of small systems are : Most of the time they are user friendly Specifically designed for the functionMain negatives of small systems are : When one system is upgraded it can cause conflicts with other systems
Systems Problem : Company X Project registration Production is not stableRegistered by: Project due date: Next review: 24. June2008John Doe 15. July2008The foundation of the project The goals To make money $$$ 1. Machines Who is responsible 2. Resources Who is backing it up 3. People Who are participating 4. MethodsCurrent condition Project plan 1. Machines What Who With who Date Comment 2. Resources ... ... ... ... ... 3. People ... ... ... ... ... 4. Methods ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Systems Problem : Company X Project registration Production is not stableRegistered by: Project due date: Next review: 24. June2008John Doe 15. July2008 To make money $$$ Who is responsible Systems can help here!!!The foundation of the project The goals 1. 2. Machines Resources Who is backing it up 3. People Who are participating 4. MethodsCurrent condition Project plan 1. Machines What Who With who Date Comment 2. Resources ... ... ... ... ... 3. People ... ... ... ... ... 4. Methods ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
The workflow of systems in maintenance Objectives and Work Descripripn policy Check lists Deviation corrected Time controlled Analyze Work Deviation Condition Warnings controlled Work Reports Filled out data Information to Information other systems from other systems
Systems of work done Common ratios Total number Amount of Type of work of work % work orders ordersCondition monitoring 31 193 16%Redesign and improvement 2 193 1%Condition based maintenance 41 193 21%Failures 107 193 55%New setup of equipment 5 193 3%Work orders that are generated from Condition monitoring 1 193 1%Human mistakes 6 193 3% 100%General guidelines: This example: Today in many places:•Condition monitoring 75% •Condition monitoring 17% •Condition monitoring 5%•Preventive 13% •Preventive 21% •Preventive 25%•Redesign and improvement 2% •Redesign and improvement 4% •Redesign and improvement 0%•Failures 5% •Failures 59% •Failures 65%•Laws 5% •Laws 0% •Laws 5%
Registration of data into Maintenance SystemsThe registration needs to be clear and disciplined Numerical data (Analytical analysis) Time registry Register spare parts Measurements Types of Work Orders Failure type registration Etc.Reports Information in text format (Objective analysis) Reports need to answer at least three questions What failed? How did it fail? How was it fixed to prevent it from happening again?
What should come out of systems Data collection to advance maintenance management and maintenance practices to support business objectives Objective = 100% -- Success =87% The cost category The efficiency category The quality category The equipment health categoryObjective = 1.024.442$ Objective = 1.3 Objective = 1.0 Objective = 1.4 Reality = 1.527.762$ Reality = 1.1 Reality = 1.1 Reality = 1.0 Success = 67% Success = 118% Success = 91% Success = 71% Loss of production due to unplanned maintenance (breakdowns) Objective = 244.442$ Reality = 611.105$ Success = 40% Amount of lost production due to unplanned inspections Spare parts cost Objective = 70.000$ Objective =300.000$ Reality =122.221$ Reality =305.552$ Success = 57% Success = 98% Amount of lost production due to unknown failure Labor cost causes Objective = 350.000$ Objective =160.000$ Reality =458.329$ Reality =244.442$ Success = 76% Success = 65% Etc Amount of lost production due to known failure Objective = 130.000$ causes Reality = 152.776$ Objective = 10.442$ Success = 85% Reality =183.332$ Success = 6% Etc. Objective = 4.000$ Bad maintenance Reality =61.110$ Objective = 1.442$ Inefficient maintenance Success = 7% Objective =1.000$ Reality =100.000$ Reality =66.666$ Success = 1% Success = 2% Too little lubrication Too much lubrication Reality =20.000$ Reality =30.000$ Inspection failure Etc. Wrong assembly Reality =40.000$ Objective = 8.000$ Reality =60.000$ Reality =16.666$ Etc. Success = 48% Etc. Reality =6.667$ Reality =10.000$ LEVEL 1 LEVEL 2 LEVEL 3 LEVEL 4 LEVEL 5 LEVEL 6
What should come out of systemsExamples of reports
And last but not least, lets look at objectives, KPI’s Strategies Systems Objectives, KPI’s RCM SAP OEE TPM Maximo MTBF VDM JD Edwards PMC BCM ORACLE eAM CMH QBM DMM SO Many more… Many more… Many more…
KPI’sThere are literally hundreds of KPI’s that we can use to measure differentelements of maintenance and reliabilityWhen we choose which ones we use, we should always focus on the ones thatmake us better at the moment we are inWe should be careful not to focus on too many at each given momentSMRP and EFNMS have developed a harmonized document where these KPI’sare described and comparedThe EN 15341 standard is published and if companies want to comparebetween each other, this is a good starting pointSMRP has also published many KPI’s that can be used as well
KPI’sThe one thing to be aware when comparing KPI’s is to be careful not tocompare apples with orangesHere below is a sample of the Harmonized KPI’s published by EFNMS andSMRP
Thank you very much for your attentionIf you would like to contact me, you are welcome to do so. Bjarni Ellert Ísleifsson, CMRP Maintenance Specialist Alcoa Fjarðaál Iceland firstname.lastname@example.org / email@example.com http://www.linkedin.com/profile/view?id=8579177&trk=tab_pro http://bjarniis.wordpress.com