Shelf space + abstract + graph + fact assumption

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Shelf space + abstract + graph + fact assumption

  1. 1. Supplementary Exercise: “Shelf Space” <ul><li>Scan the article to find out what three distribution methods are mentioned (2 mins!). </li></ul>Independent distributors with vans, direct selling to retail outlets, selling direct to customers over the Internet.
  2. 2. Supplementary Exercise: “Shelf Space” <ul><li>Reading #2 </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul>
  3. 3. Supplementary Exercise: “Shelf Space” <ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Hundle  h. obstacle, difficulty </li></ul><ul><li>Unproven  g. new, inexperienced </li></ul><ul><li>Gain a foothold  e. find a place to start selling from </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase  d. buy </li></ul><ul><li>Hype  k. excessive publicity </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneer  c. being the first to sell </li></ul><ul><li>Rapport  a. a good relationship </li></ul><ul><li>A brand with legs  b. a product which will sell </li></ul><ul><li>Shoddy  j. poor quality </li></ul><ul><li>Inaugurated  i. opened </li></ul><ul><li>Warehouse  f. large building for storing goods </li></ul>
  4. 4. Supplementary Exercise: “Shelf Space” <ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><li>What is the main obstacle Coates and Rarrick found when they began their muffin business? </li></ul><ul><li>What are campaigns that Henry attended in order to make others recognize his brand? </li></ul><ul><li>What made Robbins and McLain discontinue the service with their initial distributors? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Supplementary Exercise: “Shelf Space” <ul><li>Translate the following sentences from the article. </li></ul><ul><li>The more they sold, they more they and Monkey Muffins profited. </li></ul><ul><li>Distributors are not interested in pioneering a new brand. They want a sure thing. </li></ul><ul><li>Every retail outlet is looking for a brand with legs. You just have to prove that your product will have longetivity. </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is an abstract? <ul><li>It is a brief summary of a project, research, or paper. </li></ul><ul><li>It is written to describe the content or scope of your work not explain what the topic is about. </li></ul><ul><li>The length really depends – normally an abstract should contain around 200-400 words. </li></ul>
  7. 7. An abstract should…. <ul><li>be concise – short and informative. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>don’t cite sources, tables, or figures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>don’t put long quotations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>use direct messages </li></ul><ul><li>use ‘past tense’ to describe what you already did e.g., methods </li></ul><ul><li>use ‘present tense’ to show the general information such as objective and results </li></ul>
  8. 8. What should an abstract include? <ul><li>Information in an abstract, in fact, varies from discipline to discipline. </li></ul><ul><li>However, it should include these four types of information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The objective/purpose of the research or paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results you obtain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion or indication of the results </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. An Objective/Rationale <ul><li>The issue that you want to explore in your paper. </li></ul><ul><li>What motivates you to do your project. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis statement </li></ul>
  10. 10. Methodology <ul><li>Explain how to solve the problem or what kind of method do you use to explore the issue you want to identify in the objective. </li></ul>Results <ul><li>What you find from the work you have done so far. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Conclusion/Indication <ul><li>Try to convince the readers that your project is interesting and valuable or how it contributes to the field. </li></ul><ul><li>It doesn’t matter whether the results are negative or positive. At least, it shows something. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Some common words that indicate summary In short In conclusion To sum up In brief In summary As we’ve seen The result is Thus Clearly Therefore Hence It can be concluded that
  13. 13. Describing chart <ul><li>Analyze the chart before you start writing. </li></ul><ul><li>What are the topics and the time frame? </li></ul><ul><li>What do the numbers and labels represent? </li></ul><ul><li>Be clear about what you are describing. </li></ul><ul><li>A number? A percentage? A price? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Describing chart <ul><li>Start by describing the overall situation. </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT describe every single detail. Find only important trends. </li></ul><ul><li>Try NOT to keep repeating the same language and sentence structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Stick to the facts! DO NOT add your own opinions. </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>This graph shows energy consumption in the UK. It demonstrates energy consumption throughout the entire day in households in the winter and summer. </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>In the summer , energy consumption is about 3200 watts at midnight. Over the next four hours it falls about 200 watts and then rises to a high point of 4200 watts at about 10 pm. Consumption falls sharply back to 3200 watts at midnight. </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>In the winter , energy consumption is about 1300 watts at midnight. It falls 1000 watts at 4 am and rises dramatically to 1600 watts at 8 am. It then rises slowly to a peak of 2200 watts at 10 pm. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Words and useful phrases <ul><li>Which 5 verbs mean ‘go up’? </li></ul><ul><li>Of these, which 3 verbs mean ‘go up suddenly’? </li></ul><ul><li>Which 5 verbs mean ‘go down’? </li></ul><ul><li>Which verb means reach its highest level? </li></ul><ul><li>Which verb means ‘stay the same’? </li></ul><ul><li>Which verb means ‘go up and down’? </li></ul><ul><li>More practice: http://www.eclecticenglish.com/applets/Graphs.html </li></ul>
  19. 21. Adverbs: Decide whether these phrases indicate a small or a large difference
  20. 22. Refresh your memory! <ul><li>Comparatives </li></ul><ul><li>My Internet connect is 16 Mega – it’s a lot faster than yours. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry’s new laptop is much less expensive than the old one. </li></ul>a lot far much considerably faster speedier more rapid less powerful than
  21. 24. <ul><li>Be careful when using prepositions with numbers. Simply changing the preposition can change the whole meaning of a sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the difference between these two sentences? </li></ul><ul><li>1) Newspaper circulation rose by 20,000 newspapers per month. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Newspaper circulation rose to 20,000 newspapers per month. </li></ul>Sentence 1 describes the size of the increase . Perhaps newspaper circulation was already 40,000 per month, and there has been a 20,000 per month increase. The final figure will be 60,000 per month. Sentence 2 shows the point reached . Perhaps newspaper circulation had been 15,000 per month and it then rose by another 5,000 to reach 20,000 per month.
  22. 25. <ul><li>In the last task you learned some useful phrases for describing increases and decreases. There are also two useful sentence structures for doing this: </li></ul>
  23. 26. 2 ways of expressing the same idea <ul><li>1 SUB + verb + [adverb] </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>The unemployment rate rose rapidly . </li></ul><ul><li>The cost of living fell dramatically . </li></ul><ul><li>2 There is/are + [adj] + noun + in + something </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>There was a rise in unemployment. </li></ul><ul><li>There has been an increase in the cost of living. </li></ul>
  24. 27. Exercise <ul><li>1 The price of oil rose sharply. </li></ul><ul><li>There… </li></ul><ul><li>2 There is a noticeable increase in temperature from May onwards. </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature… </li></ul><ul><li>3 The number of people attending the theatre has fallen dramatically. </li></ul><ul><li>There… </li></ul><ul><li>4 There had been a steady rise in DVD sales for the first six months of the year. </li></ul><ul><li>DVD sales… </li></ul>
  25. 28. Describing decrease and increase <ul><li>You can also describe increases and decreases by using fractions to show the size of the change over a certain period. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The cost of rents doubled in less than a year. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth rates have halved since the turn of the century. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By July , the price of petrol had fallen by a third . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of school leavers going on to university has risen by a quarter since 1980. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 29. Activity!!
  27. 31. Your graph should look like this!
  28. 32. Distinguishing Facts from Assumptions <ul><li>A fact = information that has been proven to be accurate </li></ul><ul><li>e.g., “It is 38c outside!” </li></ul><ul><li>An assumption = an idea that might not be true but has not be proven </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., “It is too hot to do anything right now.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Signal words can help you identify which information is a fact or an assumption </li></ul>
  29. 33. Distinguishing Facts from Assumptions <ul><li>A fact is a verified statement and it is something that you can check whether it is true. </li></ul><ul><li>An assumption may be based on opinion or belieft  it doesn’t mean that it will be valid. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercials contain assumption which is designed to influence us to belive. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is normally not based on research. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 34. Examples <ul><li>Assumption: </li></ul><ul><li>Gold prices are way too high this week. </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: </li></ul><ul><li>Gold prices have risen about 15% within a week. </li></ul>
  31. 35. Distinguishing Facts from Assumptions <ul><li>A fact: </li></ul><ul><li>found proof, a known fact, evidence, certain, scientific, clear, positive, demonstrate, show, prove, sure </li></ul><ul><li>An assumption: </li></ul><ul><li>believe, suggest, may/might, seem, claim, imply, possibly, likely, probably, think, doubt, possible, subjective </li></ul>
  32. 36. Let’s look at pages 200-203 together

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