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  1. 1. Chapter 4: The Business Research Process
  2. 2.  Reduces uncertainty  Helps focus decision making
  3. 3.  Exploratory  Descriptive  Causal
  5. 5. Exploratory Research Descriptive Research Causal Research (Unaware of Problem)(Aware of Problem) (Problem Clearly Defined) “Our sales are declining and “What kind of people are buying “Will buyers purchase more of we don’t know why.” our product? Who buys our our products in a new package? competitor’s product?” “Would people be interested “Which of two advertising in our new product idea?” “What features do buyers prefer campaigns is more effective?” in our product?” possiblesituation
  6. 6. 6 Exploratory Research Secondary data Experience survey Pilot studies
  7. 7.  Initial research conducted to clarify and define the nature of a problem  Does not provide conclusive evidence  Subsequent research expected
  8. 8.  Describes characteristics of a population or phenomenon  Some understanding of the nature of the problem
  9. 9. 9 I keep six honest serving men, (they taught me all I knew), their names are --Rudyard Kipling what, and why, and when, and how, and where and who.”
  10. 10.  Weight Watchers average customer  Woman about 40 years old  Household income of about $50,000  At least some college education  Trying to juggle children and a job
  11. 11.  Men’s fragrance market  1/3 size of women’s fragrance market  But growing at a faster pace  Women buy 80 % of men’s fragrances
  12. 12.  Conducted to identify cause and effect relationships
  13. 13.  A causal relationship is impossible to prove.  Evidence of causality: ◦ 1. The appropriate causal order of events ◦ 2. Concomitant variation--two phenomena vary together ◦ 3. An absence of alternative plausible explanations
  14. 14. Stages of the Research Process Problem Discovery and Definition Research Design Sampling Data Gathering Data Processing and Analysis Conclusions and Report Discovery and Definition and so on
  15. 15.  Cyclical process - conclusions generate new ideas  Stages can overlap chronologically  Stages are functionally interrelated ◦ Forward linkages ◦ Backward linkages
  16. 16. Problem discovery Problem definition (statement of research objectives) Secondary (historical) data Experience survey Pilot study Case study Selection of exploratory research technique Selection of basic research method Experiment Survey Observation Secondary Data StudyLaboratory Field Interview Questionnaire Selection of exploratory research technique Sampling Probability Nonprobability Collection of data (fieldwork) Editing and coding data Data processing Interpretation of findings Report Data Gathering Data Processing and Analysis Conclusions and Report Research Design Problem Discovery and Definition
  17. 17. The Business Research Process Problem Discovery Exploratory Research Selection of the Basic Research Method Selection of Sample Design Collection of the Data
  18. 18. The Research Process (cont.) Editing and Coding Data Processing Interpretation of the Findings Report
  19. 19.  Problem Discovery and Problem Definition  Research Design  Sampling  Data Gathering  Data Processing and Analysis  Conclusions And Report
  20. 20.  First step  Problem, opportunity, or monitor operations  Discovery before definition  Problem means management problem
  21. 21. Albert Einstein
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23.  A statement  that can be refuted  by empirical data
  24. 24. SecondarySecondary ((historicalhistorical)) DataData PilotPilot StudyStudy ExperienceExperience SurveySurvey CaseCase StudyStudy ExploratoryExploratory ResearchResearch
  25. 25.  Secondary data (historical data) ◦ Previously collected ◦ Census of population ◦ Literature survey  Pilot study ◦ A number of diverse techniques
  26. 26.  Master plan  Framework for action  Specifies methods and procedures
  27. 27.  Surveys  Experiments  Secondary data  Observation
  28. 28. POPULATIONPOPULATION SAMPLESAMPLESample:Sample: subsetsubset of a larger populationof a larger population..
  29. 29.  Who is to be sampled?  How large a sample?  How will sample units be selected?
  30. 30.  Effective communication of the research findings
  31. 31.  A written statement of the research design that includes a statement explaining the purpose of the study.  Detailed outline of procedures associated with a particular methodology
  32. 32. Statement of Research Objectives Problem Definition Defining Problem Results in Clear Cut Research Objectives Exploratory Research (Optional) Analysis of the Situation Symptom Detection