History of
Military Sexual Trauma
& Sexualized Warfare
Kristen Zaleski, PhD, LCSW
Clinical Assistant Professor
University ...
Military
Sexual
Trauma
— “Sexual Misconduct Case Ends With No Jail
Time for General” (NY Times, March 2014)
— “Battle for Benefits: VA Discrimina...
— 750 BC The Roman
Empire “found wives”
by capturing and
raping Sabine women.
— The Greek poem
“The Illiad” details
the Tr...
— World War I
— Rape and
Brutalization
of Belgian
women by
German soliders
(Brownmiller, 1975)
— World War II
— Rape of Nanking- mass
murder and mass rape
by Japanese soldiers in
a six week period that
took place in t...
— 1945- Soviet forces
entered Berlin and
raped between 100,000
(some estimates
1 million) German
women in a few weeks
time...
— Terror and Territory
— Ethnic cleansing
— Fistulas in Democratic Republic of Congo
— Bosnian wars- rape camps.
— Pregnan...
— Vietnam War (1968)
— US servicemen massacred hundreds of unarmed
Vietnamese in small town of My Lai, raping and
sexually...
American men
and women
soldiers sexually
harassed,
sodomized with
objects, and
sexually posed
detainees.
— Jane Harman (2008) wrote in an LA Times op-ed that
“women serving in the U.S. military
are more likely to be raped by a
...
— Can we filter out predators?
— Sexual felony vs. misdemeanor for new recruits
— Sexualized age group (rates of college a...
Civilian Sexual
Assault
(CDC.gov)
1 in 5 women (1
in 71 men) report
rape in life span
73% by a Non-
stranger
37.4% of fema...
— No access to medical care without permission
— Reporting process lacks confidentiality and
transparency(more on this in ...
— According to the DOD only 8 percent of sexual
assailants are referred to the military court,
compared to 40 percent of o...
— Kristen Zaleski, PhD, LCSW
Clinical Assistant Professor
University of Southern California
School of Social Work
Kristen....
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Zaleski kristen(1)
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  1. 1. History of Military Sexual Trauma & Sexualized Warfare Kristen Zaleski, PhD, LCSW Clinical Assistant Professor University of Southern California School of Social Work May 29, 2014
  2. 2. Military Sexual Trauma
  3. 3. — “Sexual Misconduct Case Ends With No Jail Time for General” (NY Times, March 2014) — “Battle for Benefits: VA Discrimination Against Survivors of MST”- (ACLU, 2013) — “Yet Another Military Sex Scandal” - (Time, July 2012) — “Daughters and moms now consider rape before applying to military” (CNN, June 2013)
  4. 4. — 750 BC The Roman Empire “found wives” by capturing and raping Sabine women. — The Greek poem “The Illiad” details the Trojan War that started after Helen was kidnapped because of the sexual desire of Paris, the prince of Troy — (Homer, trans.1998)
  5. 5. — World War I — Rape and Brutalization of Belgian women by German soliders (Brownmiller, 1975)
  6. 6. — World War II — Rape of Nanking- mass murder and mass rape by Japanese soldiers in a six week period that took place in the Chinese capital city of Nanking — “Comfort Women”- mostly Korean kidnapping victims who were forced to work in brothels (average 10 men per day) for the Japanese
  7. 7. — 1945- Soviet forces entered Berlin and raped between 100,000 (some estimates 1 million) German women in a few weeks time(Grossmann, 1995).
  8. 8. — Terror and Territory — Ethnic cleansing — Fistulas in Democratic Republic of Congo — Bosnian wars- rape camps. — Pregnancy and war related rape are interconnected — Domination of the dominant army — Murderous rage and libidinal energy are inter- connected (Freud) — Not about sex– it’s about power — Masculinity is valued in war– femininity is equated with “weakness”. Thus, to be masculine is to dominate the feminine.
  9. 9. — Vietnam War (1968) — US servicemen massacred hundreds of unarmed Vietnamese in small town of My Lai, raping and sexually brutalizing dozens of women and children (Neill, 2000) — Tailhook Scandal (US Air Force, 1991) — 100 US Navy and Marine aviation officers accused of sexually assaulting at least 83 women and 7 men at the Las Vegas Hilton during a conference retreat.
  10. 10. American men and women soldiers sexually harassed, sodomized with objects, and sexually posed detainees.
  11. 11. — Jane Harman (2008) wrote in an LA Times op-ed that “women serving in the U.S. military are more likely to be raped by a fellow soldier than killed by enemy fire in Iraq”.
  12. 12. — Can we filter out predators? — Sexual felony vs. misdemeanor for new recruits — Sexualized age group (rates of college aged victims are the same as military) — Military instills power and domination in its training — “Thingification” vs. empathy — Social Construction — Co-ed dormitory (barracks)? — ‘Booty Duty’ — Sexual education and sexual boundaries taught as curriculum in military training? — How can we de-stigmatize being “weak” and reporting a sexual trauma when they are being trained to be fighers?
  13. 13. Civilian Sexual Assault (CDC.gov) 1 in 5 women (1 in 71 men) report rape in life span 73% by a Non- stranger 37.4% of female rape victims assaulted between age 18- 24 Rape results in 32,000 pregnancies each year Military Sexual Trauma (MST) - 1 in 4 female veterans (1 in 100 male) report MST to VA provider (Department of Veterans Affairs; 2014). - Estimates are 9.5%- 33% of women report attempted or completed rape while in the military (Turchick & Johnson, 2010) 97% of victims of MST knew their assailants. 84% of attacks involve a service member perpetrator. (Street & Stafford, 2002; Farris, Schell & Tanielian, 2013) About one half of the men and women in the military are between 17 and 24 years of age. 70% are under age 30. (Department of Defense, 2007) Military women are within child bearing age, therefore pregnancy rates are much higher for unintended pregnancy in general and rape specifically. (No official documentation of numbers is kept at this time).
  14. 14. — No access to medical care without permission — Reporting process lacks confidentiality and transparency(more on this in the next slide) — May not have access to prophylaxis (pregnancy) — Stranger assault still has a betrayal sense to it because of the nature of military family — Cannot miss work — Cannot move homes — Cannot visit family/call friends — Receiving psychological support is limited
  15. 15. — According to the DOD only 8 percent of sexual assailants are referred to the military court, compared to 40 percent of offenders in civilian courts. — New recruits can ask to have their civilian sexual crimes waved to become a new soldier — The military does not have a sex offender registry to alert services members, unit commanders or military families of these perpetrators. — Some convicted assailants are allowed to resign from the military rather than face jail time or other punishment.
  16. 16. — Kristen Zaleski, PhD, LCSW Clinical Assistant Professor University of Southern California School of Social Work Kristen.Zaleski@usc.edu ***Expected Spring 2015*** “Understanding and Treating Military Sexual Trauma” published by Springer Publications. Please e-mail if you would be interested to know when the book is published.

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