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Av aids in nursing education

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Av aids in nursing education

  1. 1. Introduction• Technological media or learning device help the teaching process• Learning made more concrete• Helps in motivation, clarification & stimulation• “Show & tell”• Significant gain in informational learning, retention, and recall, thinking and reasoning activities, interest, imagination, better assimilation and personal growth and development• Instructional media =AV aids
  2. 2. An effective instructional media;Clarify concepts or dataHighlight most significant pointIncreasing audience retentionFocusing audience attentionCreating interest to learnStimulating thoughtsInjecting humor“A good aid is like a window, it should not call attention to itself, it should just let in the light.”
  3. 3. Why to use an instructional media?
  4. 4. Importance of instructional media Attracting Developing attention interest Promoting Adjusting acceptance learning of an idea climate
  5. 5. 1. To increase the learners’ motivation.2. To avoid the learners bored.3. To make the learners easy to understand the instructional material.4. To make the teaching learning process more systematic Sukartiwi (1996)
  6. 6. • 43% more likely to be persuaded (University of Minnesota)• Learning is improved up to 200% (University of Wisconsin)• Retention is improved up to 38% (University of Harvard & Columbia)• Time to explain complex subject is reduced by 25-40% (Wharton school of business)
  7. 7. Definition• Instructional media are those sensory objects or images which initiate or stimulate and reinforce learning • Burton• Instructional media are those devices by the use of which communication of ideas between persons & groups in various teaching and training situations is helped.• These are termed to be multisensory materials • Edgar Dale Continues…
  8. 8. • Media are various components in learners’ environment which support the learners learn. • Gagne (1970)• Media are physical means which are used to send messages to the students and stimulate them to learn. • Briggs (1970)• Instructional media encompasses all the materials and physical means an instructor and teacher might use to implement instruction and facilitate learners achievement of instructional objectives.
  9. 9. • A V aids are those aids which help in completing the triangular process of learning • Carter V Good. Motivation Learning Process Clarification Stimulation
  10. 10. Based on the sense they stimulate• Audio• Visual• Visual (non projected, 2-D)• Visual (non projected, 3-D)• Visual (projected-still)• A-V(projected, Motion)• MultimediaAccording to the learners control over them• Learner –controlled or non controlledType of experience they provideAccording to their reach• Individuals, small or large groups, and mass media
  11. 11. • Audio – Voice (any human sender of the message), gramophone records, audiotapes, telephonic conversations• Visual – Textbooks, supplementary books (SIM), magazines, news papers, clippings from published material, duplicated written material• Visual (non-projected, 2-D) – Flat pictures, cutouts, posters, charts, graphs, cartoons etc• Visual (non projected; 3-D) – Models, mockup, display materials, globes, 3-D specimens (animate or inanimate) • Continues.
  12. 12. • Visual (projected, still) – Slides, film strips, OHP, micro-image system, micro-film, micro-card.• AV (projected, motion) – Film, TV, CCTV, video cassettes• Multimedia packages – Slide + tape, slide + tape + workbook, Radio + slide + poster, TV + workbook.• New emerging – Teleconferencing, cable television broadcastings, communication satellites etc.
  13. 13. Vernon (1996) states that there are six kinds of media;• 1. Drawing or teacher mode drawings• 2. Still pictures• 3. Audio recording• 4. Motion picture and TV• 5. Real object, simulation and models• 6. Programmed and computer-assisted instruction
  14. 14. • Chalk board – 30x40 inches painted dark – Oldest , cheaper and universally used• Uses – Makes group instruction more concrete and understandable – Set standards of neatness, accuracy & speed – Can restore the attention of the learners – Vague statement can be clarified – Initiate aural, visual sensations – Means of motivation – Easy to give lecture notes – Scope for lot of creative and decorative works
  15. 15. Types of chalk board Fixed Black Magna board boards on easel Graphic Roller boards boards
  16. 16. Green • White or yellow chalksGray • Yellow chalks may be used Red • Green or yellowOrange • Blue or light greenYellow • BlueRose • Purple or dark blueBlack • Any light colors
  17. 17. • Limitations – Students heavily depends on teacher – Doesn’t care for the students individual needs – Makes lessons a dull routine – Constant use can affect the quality of the board• Rules – Write clearly & do not overcrowd information – Letters and drawing should be large in size – Don’t use abbreviations – Underline the key words or statements – Difficult illustrations to be drawn before – Use color chalks for aesthetic appeal – Rubbing vertically first and then horizontally – Don’t stand in front but to the side – Use of large scales, protractors, compass for large geometric figures
  18. 18. • Bulletin board – It is a device for displaying study material or current news in a visualized form – It is the work of the students, by students and for the students. – Active & exciting display element in the class room• Purpose – Motivates the learner – Broadens the sensory experience beyond the students world – Gives correct initial information – Supplement & correlate the instruction and saves time• Items that can be placed in the bulletin board are – Photographs, newspaper cuttings, all creative works, group activities, announcements etc. • Continues
  19. 19. • Advantages – Explain important events or announcement – Report social activities in the school, shares knowledge & stimulate curiosity – Summarize & highlights the events – Serves as a introduction to a particular topic• Using guidelines – Themes of msg conveyed to be clear, simple, interesting, & balanced – Arrange the information in orderly way using appropriate material – Don’t crowd the BB – Give suitable title, large enough to see from the distance – Use neutral color to the background – Layout to be attractive• Types of BB – Flanel board, magnetic board, fixed type, movable, foldable type
  20. 20. • Flannel board • A rigid board covered using flannel, cloth, felt sheet, wool, cotton, paper or suede cloth • Things to be pasted should have a flannel or sand paper on the reverse side • It can be used throughout the discussion • Pictures should be large enough to view by the learners.• Magnetic board – Iron board coated with porcelain in dark or green colors – Writings using chalk sticks, markers, or crayons. – Pictures can be pasted using disc magnets – Works as a combination of chalk board & flannel board to display
  21. 21. • Illustrations – Drawings, painting, or sketches• Photographs – Exact visual recording of things which will occur in real life situations – May be B&W or colored, mounted or non mounted – Used either as display in a bulletin board, or projected with a projector – It should be accurate, prominent and understanding
  22. 22. • Flash cards – Prepared on a single topic and presented serially – Compact card which is flashed before to bring an idea – Size: 10x12 or 22x28 inch; used for a group of 30 members and less – Message can be brief simple line drawing or photographs or cartoons, and the content will be written in simple words behind each cards – Can be used individually or with other charts.• Advantages – Attract attention – Conveys messages quickly – Dynamic, flexible, maintains continuity • Continues
  23. 23. – Easy to prepare, portable and economic – Can be used for illiterate groups• Disadvantages: – Used for limited number of people – Prone for easy damage – Time consumption in preparation is more • Posters – Visual combination of illustration of messages conveyed to people • Uses Advertizing an event or product Campaigning for a cause Giving directives Popularizing a slogan • Continues
  24. 24. Drawing attention towards desirable actions and values Giving warning Propaganda• Features of a good poster – Brevity- concise message – Simplicity- easily understandable – Idea- single & relevant idea – Layout – Color- attractive & suitable color – Display- adequate lighting
  25. 25. • Diagrams: – Simple drawing showing inter-relationship by means of lines & symbols – E.g: stick figures, science figures, geometrical diagrams, facial expression etc. – Can better used for summary & review• A good diagram should; – Technically correct – Neatly drawn & explained – Well labeled & explained – Can be moved & seen from all angles
  26. 26. Narrative chart The cause & effect chart• Charts: chart Overlay The chain• Illustrative visual media for depictingchart a logical relationship betweenchart ideas & supportive Flip chart Pie main facts The evolution chart Job chart Time or table Strip-teas chart chart Flow Genealog Tabulatio chart y chart n chart
  27. 27. • Maps: – Graphic representation of the earth’s surface – Relief maps, historical maps, and geographical maps• Graphs: – Depicts numerical or quantitative relationship or statistical data in the form of visual symbols. • Pie graphs Line graphs • Histogram • Pictograms Bar graphs Ogive
  28. 28. Uses of AV Aids• Appear to our senses and open better avenues of learning• Perception of information is better and its retention is improved• Brings realities of our world into the class room• Abstract ideas to make them more concrete• Economical in long run because of their repeated usage and coverage of large number of students • Continues..
  29. 29. • Reinforcing the spoken or written words by the teacher• Helps the teacher in complementing her teaching efforts• Helps in overcoming the language barrier and provide more clear ideas• Provides a variety of instructional methods and motivate the students in independent learning• Reduces the verbalism and thus reduce the boredom in the class
  30. 30. Gain attentionRecall prerequisitesPresent objectives to the learnersPresent new contentsSupport learning through examples & visualelaborationElicit student responseProvide feedbackEnhance retention & transferAssess performance
  31. 31. Principles• Instructional media should suite; – The teaching objective – Unique characteristics of the special group of learners. – The age level, grade level etc. – Specific educational values and stimulate interest and motivation – True representative of the real things – Helps in the realization of desires, and learning objectives
  32. 32. Criteria for selecting instructional media 2. 4. 1. Subject 3. Supplemen Accessibili relatedness Accuracy tary role ty
  33. 33. Criteria for selecting instructional media 6. Cost- 7. Pre- 5. Variety effectivene 8. Utility viewing ss
  34. 34. Factors in selection of media Strauss & Frost, 19991. Institutional resource constraints2.Course content & appropriateness3.Learner characteristics4.Teachers’ attitude & skill levels5.Course’s learning objectives6.The learning relationship7.Learning location8.Time9.Media richness
  35. 35. 2. Student 3. Instructional 1. Practicability appropriateness appropriateness• 1. Is the intended media • Is it appropriate to the • Is it appropriate to the practical, cost developmental or planned instructional effective, time experiential level of the strategy? efficient, & understood students? • Presentation of the by the instructor ? • What are the most proposed lesson is• 2. Is the presentation important tasks or effective by the adaptive for the requirements? specified media? learners response? • What are the learning• 3. What is the range of outcomes? viewing or hearing • Media is appropriate to distance for the use of meet the learning the media? outcome?• 4. Does the desired instructional stimulus require motion, colour, still pic, or spoken words? • (Reiser & Dick, 1996)
  36. 36. Learning objectives Exclusion criteria Selection criteriaIntellectual skills Media which are non- Media providing feedback interactiveCognitive strategies -do- -do-Verbal information Only real equipment or Media able to present simulator with no verbal verbal messages and accomplishment elaborationAttitude -do- Media which present realistic picture of human model and the model’s messageMotor skills Media have no provision Media making possible for learner response and direct practice of skill, with feedback informative feedback Gagne, Briggs and Wagger, 1992
  37. 37. Constraints in media selection Dick, Carrey & Carrey, 2001
  38. 38. Guidelines in preparation• Must be easy to see & • Please to the senses understand • Accurate• Simple & direct • Represents the things that• Easy to handle & are common & transport understandable• Emphasize the key point • Conveys up-to-date ideas• Good working condition • Words should be• Time & place appropriate clear, brief, visible, simple• Colors should be natural and with required space in to the related between items, appealing, attractiv • Create interest & positive e, clear & visible. attitude in the learners
  39. 39. Principles1. Principle of selection: – Suite to the unique objectives of learning and needs of the learners – Adaptation to the intellectual maturity & previous learning experience – Familiarity with the advantages & disadvantages of instructional media in use – Educational values besides being interesting and motivating – True representative of the things need to teach • Continues.
  40. 40. • Principle of preparation: – Cost effective ways of preparation – Commercial instructional media Vs. teacher-made instructional media – Preparation using locally available materials• Principle of presentation: – Plan the use of instructional media – Visual media should not be confused with entertainment – Working condition should be checked before the use – Care to prevent damage – Maximum visualization of the media – Directions in between the presentation to be avoided to the maximum to decrease the distractions • Continues
  41. 41. • Principle of physical control• Principle of response• Principle of evaluation• Important!! Instructional media never replace a teacher but it supplement the teaching process
  42. 42. Steps in utilization Review Implement or Evaluate &instructional apply revise goals Conduct aDetermine the formativebest medium evaluation Review Prepare a newexisting media media (South Cloud University, 1997)
  43. 43. Teachers’ Role in effective use A) Planning Know clearly the objective of Plan well in presentation advanceAnticipate the Plan for variety Plan in advance size of the of colorful & about the time audience vivid AV aids. of presentation
  44. 44. B) Preparation Place & seating Anticipate the need for arrangements special effectsMake surethat all the Sequence Rehearsing Keep themequipments the aids in are in or within the the order working previewing reach of their use condition
  45. 45. C) PresentationMotivate & stress the key Present in the right time points & proper sequence Display Speak Remove all Stand only one facing the unrelated beside & aid at a audience & items not in front time not by side
  46. 46. D) Evaluation Evaluation using Undertake a follow-up discussion & dispel studymisunderstanding if any
  47. 47. Discussion

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