Wind EnergyAlternative Dispute ManagementBusiness Effective CourseBritish CouncilMonday 10 June 2013Daniel Pons i Julià
Contents• Motivation1. History of wind energy2. What is it?3. How does it work?4. Types of wind turbine5. Location and placement election6. Wind power in Europe7. Future of wind power8. Pros and cons9. Consensus building and wind farms• Questions and answers
• We need to find alternative sources of energy, thatdon’t aggravate the pollution of our planet;• We can rely on the renewable energy, that uses thewind, the sun or the water in creating unpollutedsources of energy. And it works!!Motivation!
Wind energy history• 1 A.D. - Hero of Alexandria uses a wind machine to power an organ• ~ 400 A.D. - Wind driven Buddhist prayer wheels• 1200 to 1850 - Golden era of windmills in western Europe – 50,000• 9,000 in Holland; 10,000 in England; 18,000 in Germany• 1850’s - Multiblade turbines for water pumping made and marketed in U.S.• 1882 - Thomas Edison commissions first commercial electric generatingstations in NYC and London• 1900 - Competition from alternative energy sources reduces windmillpopulation to fewer than 10,000• 1850 – 1930 - Heyday of the small multiblade turbines in the US Midwest• As many as 6,000,000 units installed• 1936+ - US Rural Electrification Administration extends the grid to mostformerly isolated rural sites . Grid electricity rapidly displaces multibladeturbine uses
What is it? (1)• Cool surrounding air rushes in to fill the vacuum. Thismovement of rushing air is what we know as wind.• Energy is contained in the force of the wind blowing acrossearth’s surface.• Wind is a type of solar energy.• Wind is created when air hasbeen warmed over sun heatedland rises, leaving a vacuum inthe space it once occupied.• An estimated 1% to 3% of energyfrom the Sun that hits the earthis converted into wind energy.
What is it? (2)• Wind Energy is kinetic energy from the wind that can bedirectly converted to electrical or mechanical energy byreacting to the atmospheres pressure slope.• The windmill was invented in 200 BC in China and was used topump water and grind grain• In modern days, wind energy has doubled through the years
Wind turbines: how do they work? (1)• Wind turbines convert the kinetic energyin the wind into mechanical power.• This mechanical power can be used forspecific tasks (such as grinding grain orpumping water) or a generator canconvert this mechanical power intoelectricity.• A wind turbine works the opposite of afan.• Instead of using electricity to makewind, like a fan, wind turbines use wind tomake electricity. The wind turns theblades, which spin a shaft, which connectsto a generator and makes electricity.
• The energy in the wind turns twoor three propeller-like bladesaround a rotor. The rotor isconnected to the mainshaft, which spins a generator tocreate electricity.• Wind turbines are mounted on atower to capture the mostenergy. At 100 feet (30 meters)or more above ground, they cantake advantage of faster and lessturbulent wind.Wind turbines: how do they work? (2)
Types of wind turbines• Horizontal-axis Turbines- typically 20 stores tall and have 3blades that are 200 feet long• Vertical-axis Turbines- Blades that span from the top to thebottom and resembles an egg beater. It typically stands 100feet tall and 50 feet wide• Vertical-axis turbines areless common than thehorizontal-axis turbine
Wind turbines locations• Wind turbines are located where there is wind created suchas tops of smooth rounded hill, open plains and shore linesalso mountain gaps that produce wind• Wind turbines are pooled into areas called wind farms thatare gridded areas to put wind energy
Wind turbine placement• A good selection of a wind turbine site is critical to economicdevelopment of wind power and has to take in consideration anumber of factors:– availability of wind itself– availability of transmission lines– value of energy to be produced– cost of land acquisition– land use considerations– environmental impact ofconstruction and operations– Offshore locations may offset their higher construction cost withhigher annual load factors, thereby reducing cost of energyproduced.
Wind power in Europe (1)• In 2012, installed wind power capacity in the European Union totalled 105,000MW - enough to supply 7% of the EUs electricity. 11,895 MW of wind power wasinstalled in 2012 alone, representing 11.4% of new power capacity. The EU windindustry has had an average annual growth of 15.6% over the last 17 years (1995-2011).• A European Environment Agencyreport, entitled Europes onshoreand offshore wind energypotential confirms wind energycould power Europe many timesover. The report highlights windpower’s potential in 2020 asthree times greater than Europe’sexpected electricity demand,rising to a factor of seven by2030.
Wind power in Europe (2)• The Europe’s Wind EnergyEvent estimates that 230gigawatts (GW) of windcapacity will be installed inEurope by 2020, consisting of190 GW onshore and 40 GWoffshore. This would produce14-17% of the EUs electricity,avoiding 333 million tons ofCO2 per year and saving Europe€28 billion a year in avoidedfuel costs.Wind power installed in Europe in 2012
Future of Wind Power- Offshore• 1.5 - 6 MW per turbine• 60-120 m hub height• 5 km from shore, 30 m deep ideal• Gravity foundation, pole, or tripodformation• Shaft can act as artificial reef• Drawbacks- Visual impacts• Conflicts – fisheries and tourism
Pros of wind turbines• Clean source of energy• Fewer environmental impacts thanother sources of power• Don’t pollute water or air• Reduce the use for fossil fuels• Give extra incomes to farmers andbusinesses that help them stay inbusiness• Lowest prices renewable resources
Cons of wind turbines• Depending on how energetic a wind site is, the wind farm may or may notbe cost competitive.• Wind energy cannot be stored (unless batteries are used)• Good wind sites are often located in remote locations and natural areas• Wind resource development may compete with other uses for the landand those alternative uses may be more highly valued than electricitygeneration.• Sometimes birds have been killed byflying into the rotors, other times birdsand bats can get hit by blades• Landscape impact- Unappealing to the eye• Generate noise• Need of a back-up energy
Consensus building & wind farms (1)• Introduction• Goals• Methodology• Theoretical framework: conflict, conflictmanagement, consensus building,methods for consensus.• Wind power in Catalonia – promotersvision• Social impact and acceptance of windfarms• Environmental conflict and its managementin Catalonia
Consensus building & wind farms (2)• Analysis of experiences and projects– "Valencia’s Environmental Education andSustainable Development Strategy"– The "Bureau of Aragon’s mountain"– "Good Practice Wind“ Project– GECODIT Project• Proposed methodology for generating socialconsensus on energy infrastructuredevelopment• Case Study: Mini farm in Calonge (BaixEmpordà, Girona)– The social-environmental context– Interviews with key stakeholders– Proposed roadmap for conflict management
Questions & Answers time• Do you prefer to use wind power to generateelectricity or using fossil fuels source? Why?• Does the weather affect the wind energy around us?• Any further questions?Thank you all forlistening!