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Anatomicomedical terminology ppt-1 by bitew m


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Anatomicomedical terminology ppt-1 by bitew m

  2. 2. HUMAN ANATO MYAnatomicomedical TerminologyDecember 01, 2012 2Bitew M/
  3. 3. OBJECTIVEAt the end of the session, students be able toList common anatomical terminologiesDescribe structures of the body usinganatomical termsApply Anatomicomedical terminologies instudying anatomyDecember 01, 2012 3Bitew M/
  4. 4. Terms of Relationship and Comparison• Various adjectives, arranged as pairs ofopposites, describe the relationship of parts ofthe body in the anatomical position andcompare the position of two structuresrelative to each other.December 01, 2012 4Bitew M/
  5. 5. •• Superficial, intermediate, and deepSuperficial, intermediate, and deep describe the position ofstructures relative to the surface of the body or the relationship ofone structure to another underlying or overlying structure.•• SuperficialSuperficial --Toward the surface of the body,- The skin is superficial to the muscles.•• IntermediateIntermediate- between a superficial and a deep structure-the infrascapularis muscle is intermediate betweenthe skin and the scapula• Deep- Away from the surface of the body-the brain is deep to the cranium• Medial- Toward the midline of the body- The heart is medial to the lungs.• lateral - Away from the midline of the body Lateral and medial are not synonymous with the terms external(outer) and internal (inner).• External and internal mean farther from and nearer to the center ofan organ or cavity, respectively, regardless of direction.December 01, 2012 5Bitew M/
  6. 6. •• Posterior (dorsal)Posterior (dorsal)-- Toward the back or nearerto the back.- The kidneys are posterior to theintestine.•• Anterior (ventral)Anterior (ventral)-- Toward the front surfaceof the body.-the sternum is anterior to the thoracicvertebrae• RostralRostral -is often used instead of anterior whendescribing parts of the brain; it means toward therostrum (L. from beak); however, in humans it denotesnearer the anterior part of the head (e.g., the frontallobe of the brain is rostral to the cerebellum).• December 01, 2012 6Bitew M/
  7. 7. •• SuperiorSuperior / CranialCranial -refers to a structure that is nearerthe vertex/toward the head.- The thorax is superior to the abdomen.•• Inferior/ caudalInferior/ caudal -- refers to a structure that is situatednearer the sole of the foot/away from the head; toward thebottom- The neck is inferior to the head.• Caudal (L. cauda, tail) is a useful directional term thatmeans toward the tail region, represented in humans bythe coccyx, the small bone at the inferior (caudal) end ofthe vertebral column.• Combined terms describe intermediate positionalarrangements: inferomedial means nearer to the feet and medianplane;for example, the anterior parts of the ribs runinferomedially; superolateral means nearer to the head and farther fromthe median plane.December 01, 2012 7Bitew M/
  8. 8. •• ProximalProximal-- nearer to the attachment of a limb or thecentral aspect of a linear structure-- The knee is proximal to the foot•• distaldistal-- farther from the attachment of a limb or thecentral aspect of a linear structure- The hand is distal to the elbow.•• DorsumDorsum-- usually refers to the superior or posterior (back)surface of any part that protrudes anteriorly from thebody, such as the dorsum of the tongue, nose, penis, orfoot. It is also used to describe the back of the hand.• The sole indicates the inferior aspect or bottom of thefoot, much of which is in contact with the ground whenstanding barefoot. The palm refers to the flat of the hand,exclusive of the thumb and other fingers, and is theopposite of the dorsum of the hand.December 01, 2012 8Bitew M/
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  13. 13. Terms of Laterality•• BilateralBilateral- Paired structures having right and leftmembers-the kidneys are bilateral•• UnilateralUnilateral-- Structures occurring on one side only-- the spleen is unilateral•• IpsilateralIpsilateral- something occurring on the same sideof the body as another structure-the right thumb and the right great toe•• ContralateraContralateral-means occurring on the oppositeside of the body relative to another structure; theright hand is contralateral to the left hand.December 01, 2012 13Bitew M/
  14. 14. Terms of Movement• Various terms describe movements of the limbs and other parts of thebody.• While most movements occur at joints where two or more bones orcartilages articulate with one another, several non-skeletal structuresexhibit movement (e.g., tongue, lips, eyelids).•• FlexionFlexion indicates bending or decreasing the angle between the bones orparts of the body. For most joints (e.g., elbow), flexion generally involvesmovement in an anterior direction; however, flexion at the knee jointinvolves posterior movement.• Dorsiflexion describes flexion at the ankle joint, as occurs when walkinguphill or lifting the toes off the ground.• Plantarflexion turns the foot or toes toward the plantar surface (e.g., whenstanding on your toes).December 01, 2012 14Bitew M/
  15. 15. •• ExtensionExtension indicates straightening or increasingthe angle between the bones or parts of thebody. Extension usually occurs in a posteriordirection, but extension of the knee jointoccurs in an anterior direction.•• HyperextensionHyperextension (overextension) -extension ofa limb or part beyond the normal limit;cancause injury, such as whiplash (i.e.,hyperextension of the neck during a rear-endautomobile collision).December 01, 2012 15Bitew M/
  16. 16. • when the foot is extended at the ankle joint, it isplantarflexed (e.g., when standing on your toes).• Except for the thumb, from the anatomicalposition, flexion and extension are movements inthe sagittal plane.December 01, 2012 16Bitew M/
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  18. 18. Figure .Joint Flexion and Extension. (a) Flexion of the elbow;(b) extension of the elbow;(c) hyperextension of the wrist; (d) extension of the wrist; (e) flexionof the wrist; (f) flexion of thespine; (g) extension of the spine and flexion of the shoulder; (h)hyperextension of the neck and shoulderDecember 01, 2012 18Bitew M/
  19. 19. Abduction and AdductionAbduction and Adduction•• AbductionAbduction-moving away from the medianplane in the frontal plane. e.g1., when moving an upper limb away fromthe side of the body. e.g.2 raising the arm to one side of the body orstanding spread-legged.To abduct the fingers is to spread them apart•• AdductionAdduction - moving toward the median plane ina frontal plane (e.g., when moving an upper limbtoward the side of the body).December 01, 2012 19Bitew M/
  20. 20. • (a) Abduction of the limbs;• (b) adduction of the limbs;• (c) abduction (lateral flexion) of the spineDecember 01, 2012 20Bitew M/
  21. 21. (d) abduction of the fingers(e) adduction of the fingersDecember 01, 2012 21Bitew M/
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  23. 23. Terms of movement of the thumbTerms of movement of the thumbA.NeutralA.Neutral hand positionhand position B.ExtensionB.Extension (radial abduction)(radial abduction)C.FlexionC.Flexion ((transpalmartranspalmar adduction)adduction) D.OppositionD.OppositionF.AdductionF.AdductionDecember 01, 2012 23Bitew M/
  24. 24. •• CircumductionCircumduction is a circular movement that is acombination of flexion, extension, abduction, andadduction occurring in such a way that the distalend of the part moves in a circle. Circumductioncan occur at any joint at which all the above-mentioned movements are possible (e.g., the hipjoint).•• RotationRotation involves turning or revolving a part ofthe body around its longitudinal axis, such asturning ones head to face sideways. Medialrotation (internal rotation) brings the anteriorsurface of a limb closer to the median plane,whereas lateral rotation (external rotation) takesthe anterior surface away from the median plane.December 01, 2012 24Bitew M/
  25. 25. (a) Circumduction of the upper limband lateral rotation of the right femur(b) medial rotation of the right femur(c) rotation of the spine;December 01, 2012 25Bitew M/
  26. 26. • (d) lateral rotation of the humerus• (e) medial rotation of the humerus• (f) rotation of the neck (atlantoaxial joint)December 01, 2012 26Bitew M/
  27. 27. •• PronationPronation is the rotational movement of theforearm and hand that swings the radius (thelateral long bone of the forearm) mediallyaround its longitudinal axis so that the palm ofthe hand faces posteriorly and its dorsumfaces anteriorly. When the elbow joint isflexed, pronation moves the hand so that thepalm faces inferiorly (e.g., placing the palmsflat on a table). When applied to the foot,pronation refers to a combination of eversionand abduction that results in lowering of themedial margin of the foot. (The feet of anindividual with flat feet are pronated.)December 01, 2012 27Bitew M/
  28. 28. •• SupinationSupination is the rotational movement of the forearm andhand that swings the radius laterally around its longitudinalaxis so that the dorsum of the hand faces posteriorly andthe palm faces anteriorly (i.e., moving them into theanatomical position). When the elbow joint is flexed,supination moves the hand so that the palm facessuperiorly. (Memory device: You can hold soup in the palmof your hand when the flexed forearm is supinated but areprone [likely] to spill it if the forearm is then pronated!)When applied to the foot, supination generally impliesmovements resulting in raising the medial margin of thefoot.• Opposition is the movement by which the pad of the 1stdigit (thumb) is brought to another digit pad. Thismovement is used to pinch, button a shirt, and lift a teacupby the handle. Reposition describes the movement of the1st digit from the position of opposition back to itsanatomical position.December 01, 2012 28Bitew M/
  29. 29. • (a) Supination of the forearm• (b) pronation of the forearmDecember 01, 2012 29Bitew M/
  30. 30. • (c) opposition of the thumb• (d) reposition of the thumbDecember 01, 2012 30Bitew M/
  31. 31. •• ProtrusionProtrusion is a movement anteriorly (forward) as inprotruding the mandible (chin), lips, or tongue.•• RetrusionRetrusion is a movement posteriorly (backward), asin retruding the mandible, lips, or tongue. Thesimilar terms protraction and retraction are usedmost commonly for anterior and posteriormovements of the shoulder.•• ElevationElevation raises or moves a part superiorly, as inelevating the shoulders when shrugging, the upperlid when opening the eye, or the tongue whenpushing it up against the palate.•• DepressionDepression lowers or moves a part inferiorly, as indepressing the shoulders when standing at ease,the upper lid when closing the eye, or pulling thetongue away from the palate.December 01, 2012 31Bitew M/
  32. 32. • (a) Elevation of the scapulae;• (b) depression of the scapulae;December 01, 2012 32Bitew M/
  33. 33. Lateral and Medial ExcursionBiting and chewing food require severalmovements of the jaw: up and down(elevation-depression), forward and back(protraction-retraction), and side-to-sidegrinding movements.The last of these are called lateral excursion(sideways movement to the right or left) andmedial excur-sion(movement back to themidline)December 01, 2012 33Bitew M/
  34. 34. (c) protraction ofthe mandible(d) retraction ofthe mandible(e) lateralexcursion of themandible(f)medialexcursion ofthe mandibleDecember 01, 2012 34Bitew M/
  35. 35. •• EversionEversion moves the sole of the foot away fromthe median plane (turning the sole laterally).When the foot is fully everted it is alsodorsiflexed.•• InversionInversion moves the sole of the foot towardthe median plane (facing the sole medially).When the foot is fully inverted it is alsoplantarflexed.December 01, 2012 35Bitew M/
  36. 36. • Joint Movements of the Foot. (a) Dorsiflexion;• (b) extension; (c) plantar flexion; (d) inversion; (e) eversion.December 01, 2012 36Bitew M/
  37. 37. Summary of terms of movementDecember 01, 2012 37Bitew M/
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  42. 42. AnyAnyQuestion?Question?December 01, 2012 42Bitew M/
  43. 43. The endThank for yourattention!December 01, 2012 43Bitew M/