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Transforming the data center
          The impact of clouds on enterprise IT




Thursday, February 24, 2011


Good morning. Today, weʼre going to talk about a huge shift in
IT, and how it will change the enterprise data center.
Some background
          @acroll
          alistair@bitcurrent.com




Thursday, February 24, 2011


I write, organize, and analyze emerging IT trends at Bitcurrent,
and try to share some of these thoughts with enterprises and
startups.
The arrival of utility computing
          Overnight change, 20 years in the making




Thursday, February 24, 2011


Iʼm going to start out talking about cloud computing, because
thatʼs whatʼs prompting a major shift in enterprise IT. But most
of this content applies to you whether youʼre running your own
data center or entirely outsourced and whether youʼre a bare-
metal shop or completely virtualized.
Thursday, February 24, 2011


I need to spend some time explaining things, because clouds
are confusing.
http://img.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2008/04_01/tornadoDM3030a_800x533.jpg
Thursday, February 24, 2011


So here’s a simple, practical way to think about utility
computing.
http://www.flickr.com/photos/mynameisharsha/4092086880
Thursday, February 24, 2011


The step-function nature of dedicated machines doesn’t
distribute workload very efficiently.
http://www.flickr.com/photos/h4ck/2413562108/




     Thursday, February 24, 2011


          Virtualization lets us put many workloads on a single
          machine
Virtualization divorces the
          app from the machine.

                    One on many                     (or)         Many on one
                                                              Physical machine
                 Virtual machine

                                                            Virtual    Virtual    Virtual
         Physical             Physical   Physical          machine    machine    machine
         machine              machine    machine
                                                            Virtual    Virtual    Virtual
         Physical             Physical   Physical          machine    machine    machine
         machine              machine    machine



Thursday, February 24, 2011


Okay, so these things mean we have applications that
run “virtually” – that is, they’re divorced from the
underlying hardware. One machine can do ten things;
ten machines can do one thing.
http://www.flickr.com/photos/stawarz/3538910787/
Thursday, February 24, 2011


Once workloads are virtualized, several things happen.
First, they’re portable
http://www.flickr.com/photos/swimparallel/3391592144/
Thursday, February 24, 2011


Second, they’re ephemeral. That is, they’re short-lived:
Once people realize that they don’t have to hoard
machines, they spin them up and down a lot more.
http://www.flickr.com/photos/genewolf/147722350
Thursday, February 24, 2011


Which inevitably leads to automation and scripting: We nee
to spin up and down machines, and move them from place
to place. This is hard, error-prone work for humans, but
perfect for automation now that rack-and-stack has been
replaced by point-and-click
http://www.flickr.com/photos/pinkmoose/3278324276/
Thursday, February 24, 2011


Automation, once in place, can have a front end put on
it. That leads to self service.
Virtualization
                              Automation
                              Self-service
                              Elasticity
                              Usage tracking & billing
                              Service-centric design




“Cloudy” tech.
Thursday, February 24, 2011


These are the foundations on which new IT is being built.
Taken together, they’re a big part of the movement
towards cloud computing, whether that’s in house or on-
demand.
Two main models
          A field guide to IaaS and PaaS




Thursday, February 24, 2011


There is, in fact, a good definition of clouds from NIST. But
what you need to know, for the purpose of todayʼs content, is
two cloud models: Infrastructure- and platform-as-a-service.
Infrastructure as a Service
          Amazon EC2, Rackspace Cloud, Terremark,
          Gogrid, Joyent (and nearly every private cloud
          built on Xen, KVM, HyperV, or VMWare.)




Thursday, February 24, 2011


The first is called Infrastructure as a Service, because
you’re renting pieces of (virtual) infrastructure.
Machine      Web
                               Image      server
                                        Machine instance




Thursday, February 24, 2011


In an IaaS model, you’re getting computers as a utility.
The unit of the transaction is a virtual machine. It’s still
up to you to install an operating system, and software,
or at least to choose it from a list. You don’t really have a
machine -- you have an image of one, and when you
stop the machine, it vanishes.
DB              Machine
    Storage
                                server            Image

                              Machine instance


                                 App             Machine
                                Server            Image
                              Machine instance


                                 Web             Machine
                                server            Image
                              Machine instance




Thursday, February 24, 2011


Most applications consist of several machines -- web,
app, and database, for example. Each is created from an
image, and some, like databases, may use other services
from the cloud to store and retrieve data from a disk
DB
    Storage                     server

                              Machine instance
                                  Bigger
                                  App
                                 machine
                                 instance
                                Server
                              Machine instance


                                 Web
                                server
                              Machine instance




Thursday, February 24, 2011


If you run out of capacity, you can upgrade to a bigger
machine (which is called “scaling vertically.”)
DB
    Storage
                                server

                              Machine instance


                                 App
                                Server
                              Machine instance


                                 Web
                                server
                              Machine instance



                                         Load
                                        balancer
                                        Machine instance

Thursday, February 24, 2011


Or you can create several machines at each tier, and use
a load balancer to share traffic between them. These
kinds of scalable, redundant architectures are common
-- nay, recommended -- in a cloud computing world
where everything is uncertain.
Platform as a Service
          Google App Engine, Salesforce Force.com,
          Heroku, Springsource, (and nearly every
          enterprise mainframe.)




Thursday, February 24, 2011


The second kind of cloud is called Platform as a Service.
In this model, you don’t think about the individual
machines—instead, you just copy your code to a cloud,
and run it. You never see the machines. In a PaaS cloud,
things are very different.
Shared components

                              Data                       Processing platform
    Storage
                              API
                                                        Others’              Others’
                                                         code                 code
    User                      Auth
  database                    API
                                                          Your               Others’
                                                          code                code
    Image                     Image
  functions                    API                      Others’              Others’
                                                         code                 code
                               ...
       Big                    Blob                   Governor      Console     Schedule
     objects                  API
Thursday, February 24, 2011

- You write your code; often it needs some customization.
- That code runs on a share processing platform
- Along with other people’s code
- The code calls certain functions to do things like authenticate a user, handle a payment,
store an object, or move something to a CDN
- To keep everything running smoothly (and bill you) the platform has a scheduler (figuring
out what to do next) and a governor (ensuring one program doesn’t use up all the resources)
as well as a console.
http://www.computerhok.nl/JSPWiki/attach/GoogleAppEngine/GAEQuota.png
Thursday, February 24, 2011


It’s a true, pure utility because you pay for what you use.
Remember this picture; we’ll come back to it.
http://www.flickr.com/photos/olitaillon/3354855989/
Thursday, February 24, 2011


PaaS is a very different model from IaaS. On the one
hand, it’s more liberating, because you don’t have to
worry about managing the machines. On the other hand,
it’s more restrictive, because you can only do what the
PaaS lets you.
http://wiki.developerforce.com/index.php/Apex_Code:_The_World%27s_First_On-Demand_Programming_Language
Thursday, February 24, 2011


In the case of Salesforce’s Force.com, you have to use an
entirely new programming language, called Apex.
Thursday, February 24, 2011


PaaS isn’t common today, but it will catch on fast.
Consider a recent hackathon we ran: 55 coders, 18 apps,
12 hours. Several are live now. I’m betting there are
already a ton of rogue PaaS apps running on Force.com,
being built for the front office without IT’s involvement.
IaaS and PaaS differences
          IaaS                                    PaaS

                     Any operating system you        Use only selected
                     want                            languages and built-in APIs

                     Limited by capacity of          Limited by governors to
                     virtual machine                 avoid overloading

                     Scale by adding more            Scaling is automatic
                     machines
                                                     Use built-in storage
                     Many storage options (file       (Bigtable, etc.)
                     system, object, key-value,
                     RDBMS)


Thursday, February 24, 2011


To summarize: two kinds of cloud platforms
Another side to clouds:
          Clouds as a business model



Thursday, February 24, 2011


Now let’s talk about the other definition -- the populist,
popular one that has everyone believing clouds will
magically fix IT.
Thursday, February 24, 2011


All of the things we’ve seen about cloud technology
make it possible to deliver computing as a utility --
computing on tap. The virtualization provides a blood/
brain barrier between the application the user is running,
and the machines on which it runs. Which means it can
be a utility.
Thursday, February 24, 2011


 The utility promise is compelling. It means you can focus
 on the thing your business does that makes you special
Thursday, February 24, 2011


 And stop worrying about many of the tasks you really
 didn’t want to do anyway.
Cloud technology makes a
          wide range of business
          relationships possible




Thursday, February 24, 2011


In other words, all of these cloud technologies, because they
separate the computing from the computers, make new
business relationships—such as outsourcing—possible.
http://www.flickr.com/photos/hugo90/4154329689/
Thursday, February 24, 2011


Consider, for a minute, the number of business models
available to a car user.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hyundai_car_assembly_line.jpg
Thursday, February 24, 2011


At one extreme, you could be a car manufacturer. Youʼd have
complete control over every aspect of your car, even though
the cost of doing so would be very high. But you could still
build cars from parts, and get them road-certified. It wouldnʼt
scale very well as demand increased, so this is the domain of
hobbyists (who need high customization) or large
manufacturers (who need economies of scale)
http://www.flickr.com/photos/stevoarnold/2789464563/
Thursday, February 24, 2011


For most of us, the answer to transportation is to own a car.
Youʼre not responsible for design – though you have some
choice of models and features – but you are liable for
everything. You have to finance it, maintain it, and so on.
http://www.flickr.com/photos/mpk/50046296/
Thursday, February 24, 2011


If youʼre a traveller, then you rent. This is a different model,
with different responsibilities. Youʼre still at fault if you scratch
or hit something, and still need to know directions, but
someone else finances the deal and handles storage,
cleaning, and other things. And youʼre paying for what you use,
not for the entire asset.
http://www.flickr.com/photos/uggboy/4594493429/
Thursday, February 24, 2011


A car hire service abdicates even more control – you can still
decide where to go and how to get there, pickup and dropoff
times, etc., but everything else is the driverʼs responsibility. You
have only marginal control over the car model.
http://www.flickr.com/photos/xjrlokix/4379281690/
Thursday, February 24, 2011


A taxicab takes this to the ultimate extreme: pay-as-you-drive
economics, and nothingʼs your fault provided youʼre well
behaved in the back seat. You have almost no control over the
platform.
The abdication of
                                                       authority (and
                                                       responsibility.)


http://www.flickr.com/photos/abulic_monkey/130899453/
Thursday, February 24, 2011


These are all degrees of abdication and abstraction.
Sometimes a taxi makes sense – for example, when weʼre
going from place to place in a city. Other times, building our
own makes sense – for example, if weʼre landing on the moon.
This challenges a decades-
          long monopoly on IT




Thursday, February 24, 2011


Models like these are now rushing into enterprise IT,
challenging what has long been a monopoly within
organizations.
http://www.flickr.com/photos/harshlight/3235469361
Thursday, February 24, 2011


For decades, IT-as-a-monopoly was a good thing.
Two reasons.




Thursday, February 24, 2011


There were a couple of reasons IT was a monopoly for so
long.
http://www.flickr.com/photos/brewbooks/3319730327/
                    (16MB)
Thursday, February 24, 2011


First, the machines were expensive. That meant they
were a scarce resource, and someone had to control
what we could do with them.
http://www.flickr.com/photos/argonne/4563394851/
Thursday, February 24, 2011


Second, they were complicated. It took a very strange
sect of experts to understand them. AVIDAC, Argonne's
first digital computer, began operation in January 1953.
It was built by the Physics Division for $250,000.
Pictured is pioneer Argonne computer scientist Jean F.
Hall.
AVIDAC stands for "Argonne Version of the Institute's
Digital Automatic Computer" and was based on the IAS
architecture developed by John von Neumann.
http://www.flickr.com/photos/ebeam/3586287989/
Thursday, February 24, 2011


This was also a result of scarcity. When computers and
humans interact, they need to meet each other halfway.
But it takes a lot of computing power to make something
that’s easy to use;
http://www.flickr.com/photos/ecastro/3053916892/
Thursday, February 24, 2011


in the early days of computing, humans were cheap and
machines weren’t
http://www.flickr.com/photos/binaryape/458758810/
Thursday, February 24, 2011


  So we used punched cards,
http://50ans.imag.fr/images/galerie/Source/IBM-1130-1.jpg
Thursday, February 24, 2011


and switches,
http://honeynet.onofri.org/scans/scan22/sol/submission/reverse.jpg
Thursday, February 24, 2011


and esoteric programming languages like assembler.
http://www.flickr.com/photos/flem007_uk/4211743886/
Thursday, February 24, 2011


Think about what a monopoly means.
http://www.flickr.com/photos/caveman_92223/3531128799/
Thursday, February 24, 2011


A monopoly was once awarded for a big project beyond
the scope of any one organization, but needed for the
public good.
http://www.flickr.com/photos/athomeinscottsdale/2850893998/
Thursday, February 24, 2011


Sometimes, nobody wants the monopoly—like building
the roads.
http://www.flickr.com/photos/leokoivulehto/2257818167/
Thursday, February 24, 2011


(IT’s been handed many of these thankless tasks over
the years, and the business has never complained.)
http://www.flickr.com/photos/crobj/4148482980/
Thursday, February 24, 2011


The only time we can charge back for roads are when the
resource is specific and billable: a toll highway, a bridge.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bell_System_hires_1900_logo.PNG
Thursday, February 24, 2011


Sometimes, we form a company with a monopoly, or
allow one to operate, in order to build something or
allow an inventor to recoup investment. This is how we
got the telephone system, or railways.
For much of its history, AT&T and its Bell System functioned as
           a legally sanctioned, regulated monopoly.
           The US accepted this principle, initially in a 1913 agreement
           known as the Kingsbury Commitment.
           Anti-trust suit filed in 1949 led in 1956 to a consent decree
           whereby AT&T agreed to restrict its activities to the regulated
           business of the national telephone system and government
           work.
           Changes in telecommunications led to a U.S. government
           antitrust suit in 1974.
           In 1982 when AT&T agreed to divest itself of the wholly owned
           Bell operating companies that provided local exchange service.
           In 1984 Bell was dead. In its place was a new AT&T and seven
           regional Bell operating companies (collectively, the RBOCs.)
                                                      http://www.corp.att.com/history/history3.html

Thursday, February 24, 2011


When monopolies are created with a specific purpose,
that’s good. But when they start to stagnate and restrict
competition, we break them apart.
http://www.flickr.com/photos/ktylerconk/4096965228/
Thursday, February 24, 2011


In fact, there’s a lot of antitrust regulation that prevents
companies from controlling too much of something
because they can stifle innovation and charge whatever
they want. That’s one of the things the DOJ does.
First: Monopoly good.




Thursday, February 24, 2011


In other words, early on monopolies are good because
they let us undertake hugely beneficial, but largely
unbillable, tasks.
Then: Monopoly bad.




Thursday, February 24, 2011


Later, however, they’re bad because they reduce the level
of creativity and experimentation.
Data center upheaval
          What utility computing changes for enterprise IT




Thursday, February 24, 2011


So we live in a world where internal IT monopolies are
increasingly seen as bad—inefficient, costly, unable to adapt to
change, and so on.
So now IT is competing with
          public providers.



Thursday, February 24, 2011


That means enterprise IT professionals have to compete
with external providers. To do so, they need to catch up.
Cycle time from years to
          days

             Developers, not
              accountants,
             decide when the
              infrastructure
                 needs to
                 change.

Thursday, February 24, 2011


Once, IT used to buy a machine and run it for three years,
because thatʼs how long accountants told us it took to
depreciate. Today, machines live for as long as fickle
developers need them—and their requirements change
constantly, because of iterative development approaches like
Agile and rapid-fire front-office initiatives.
Extreme horizontal scaling

             Loads are tied to
             variable demand
                   from a
                connected
                   market;
             developers code
                 in parallel.

Thursday, February 24, 2011


Today, we donʼt buy one big machine; we have many small
ones, able to adapt to demand as it changes, and resilient.
Think RAID, but for entire application stacks.
Portability matters

             Workloads move
             between public
                & private
                platforms
              according to
                  price,
              governance.

Thursday, February 24, 2011


Today, a workload that runs in-house for cost, capacity or
compliance reasons may run elsewhere when those change.
Service levels shift radically

                 A shared
              resource means
               competition for
               capacity; utility
                models mean
              you can pay for
                   faster.

Thursday, February 24, 2011


Today, we can no longer determine how much traffic an app
handles or how fast it will respond. It depends on the
resources available—and those resources are elastic. You can
handle a ton of users; but itʼll cost you. Old SLAs donʼt make
sense.
The end of perimeters


                  Topology
              thinking about
              security won’t
                 last when
             workloads move
                   around.

Thursday, February 24, 2011


We used to think things on one side of a firewall were safe. We
even had terms like the “Demilitarized zone.” No more; when
apps move, they have to take their permissions and controls
with them.
From machines to services

                 Seeing the
               sausage being
                made doesn’t
               benefit anyone;
               VMs are a nice
               metaphor but a
                  damned
                 nuisance.
Thursday, February 24, 2011


While we still think in terms of virtual machines, thatʼs just a
convenient unit of measure for computing. Managing those
underlying components has less and less value, and giving
users too much control limits the operatorʼs ability to optimize
things.
Getting there from here
          Practical migration strategies




Thursday, February 24, 2011


So how do we get there? Here are some practical strategies.
Thursday, February 24, 2011


First of all, recognize that itʼs not a big switch. While that might
be a good book title, itʼs not a sudden change from one thing to
another.
A spectrum of architectures

                                                             <script>
                                                             </script>




        Bare              Virtual Private   Virtual   IaaS     PaaS          Cloud
        metal            machines cloud     private                         services
                                             cloud                       (i.e. storage)




Thursday, February 24, 2011


Ultimately, cloud computing is about a significant
broadening of the available architectures -- there’s no
“big switch”, just a series of new options.
What makes a workload suitable to move?

                  Benefit                              Examples

                              Can be broken into component parts (storage, network,
        Componentable
                              billing) separated by SOA-like, RESTful interfaces

         Encapsulatable       Easily encapsulated into virtual machine format

                              Won’t suffer from performance issues if WAN latency
            Performance
                              increases
              tolerant

          Architecturally     Doesn’t have an “architectural opinion”—in other words,
             agnostic         it’s network and hardware agnostic

                              Is free of legislative or compliance problems that restrict
              Compliant
                              how and where it’s deployed

Thursday, February 24, 2011


In the coming year, youʼre going to have to decide which
workloads are suitable to move into an on-demand
environment, whether thatʼs a private or public cloud. First, you
need to look at applications and see which ones can move.
What makes a workload beneficial to move?

                Benefit                                 Examples

                              Vary in demand (because of seasonality, usage spikes,
                   Cost
                              and so on)

                              Can be divided into chunks and performed in parallel
                   Time
                              (such as data analysis)

                              Requires high levels of redundancy that aren’t
                   Risk
                              economically feasible to deliver on dedicated equipment

                      Has an experimentation benefit because of trial-and-error
      Experimentation
                      development or a continuous deployment process

                              The line of business can service itself, rather than relying
                 Agility
                              on central IT and human involvement


Thursday, February 24, 2011


Then, you have to decide which workloads are beneficial to the
business. These benefits come from a number of places.
High
                                                                 Virtualize,
                                                                                        Move first. Use
                                                                  ensure,
                                                                                         to showcase
                    Technical suitability for migration

                                                                 portability.
                                                                                        cloud benefits
                                                                Monitor cost
                                                                                           and ROI.
                                                                and pricing.

                                                            Don’t move.                Hybridize, make
                                                            Optimize bare               portable, seek
                                                                metal,                      vertical
                                                            acceleration,                “community”
                                                            virtualization.                 clouds.
                  Low
                                                          Low          Business case for migration   High

Thursday, February 24, 2011


Put these together and you have a good model for deciding
what to do with each application.
How to think about migration
                                                 What you
    Model                     What it offers                                 Best for
                                                  move

                                               Content and       Commodity tools (mail,
                        Turnkey software                         collaboration, word processing)
      SaaS                                     business
                        functionality                            and simple forms (order entry,
                                               processes         CRM)

                        A platform that runs                     New, relatively simple applications
                                             Your source         where you don’t need control over
      PaaS              your code, with
                                             code                network topology, OS, or data
                        APIs                                     location


                        Virtual infrastructure               Variable workloads, testing and
       IaaS                                    Your OS or VM QA, massively parallel tasks
                        rented by the hour

Thursday, February 24, 2011


Once you know whatʼs moving, figure out whether itʼs moving
to Infrastructure, Platform, or third-party SaaS environments.
People, processes, technology
          (Only three tiny things to worry about.)




Thursday, February 24, 2011
People
          The changing role of enterprise IT professionals




Thursday, February 24, 2011


Let’s face it: tomorrow’s IT team will look a lot different
from today’s.
Less of some things, more
          of others
          Less of                   More of
               Fire and forget       Adapt and adjust
               Business case first    Ongoing analytics
               Configuration          Adaptive policies
               Procurement           Terms & relationships
               Fishing               Teaching people to fish


Thursday, February 24, 2011


You’ll spend your time doing a lot less of some things,
and a lot more of others.
Not everyone will survive




Thursday, February 24, 2011


And not everyone will make it.
Poor
                                           Ada.




Thursday, February 24, 2011


Let me tell you a story about ADA. This was an early object-
oriented language, named for the Ada Lovelace, the first real
programmer and muse to early computer inventors.
OO promised so much

               Object oriented (OOD) techniques and Ada (1985-95)
                     Increased NASA code reuse by 300 percent
                     Reduced all systems costs by 40 percent
                     Shortened development cycle time by 25 percent
                     Slashed error rates by 62 percent



Thursday, February 24, 2011


Remember Object-Oriented Programming?
Object oriented design (OOD) techniques and ADA (1985-95)
But fell so short

               Only 15-20% of FDD software written in Ada
               Naysayers resisted the language change
                     Wanted to stay with what they knew (FORTRAN)
                     Had reusable components maintained by others
               Evangelists didn’t help
                     Promised too much too soon
                     Avoided root issue: Lack of environment

Thursday, February 24, 2011


Only a certain percentage of NASAʼs coders could make that
jump. With sharded, shared-nothing, distributed data, that may
happen again.
Processes
          Retooling the way you work: two simple tests




Thursday, February 24, 2011


Okay, what about processes. How will they change? I can
give you two simple tests.
The first test



               What if you had to do it a thousand times?




Thursday, February 24, 2011

First, it’s all about large numbers. You’ll be measured on operating efficiency—things like the
ratio of people to servers. Metrics like cost per visitor-second. So everything you do, ask
yourself, how would you do it if it had to be done a thousand times?
The second test



               Can you throw a random thing from a tenth story
               window?




Thursday, February 24, 2011


Second, itʼs all about architectures. We donʼt buy one big
machine we hope wonʼt break—we buy a thousand we know
will break, just not all at once, and design for failure.
Technology
          A return to centralization, with services and
          portability




Thursday, February 24, 2011


And the technology will change too.
Once upon a time: mainframes


                                          Computers
                                       expensive, humans
                                            cheap.




               IT             Mainframes
            controlled
                              Centralized
Thursday, February 24, 2011


In the early days of IT, computers were complicated and
expensive. Not a lot of people knew how to use them, and they
were precious. So humans bent to their will: we wrote in
languages they understood, like assembler. We shared time,
waiting until late at night to run batch jobs.
Client-server shares the load


                                             Computers cheaper,
                                           distance expensive, user
                                           tasks varied, UI changes




               IT             Mainframes             Client-server
            controlled
                              Centralized            Distributed
Thursday, February 24, 2011

As computers became more affordable, we decided that some computing could happen at the
edge of the network, in the client-server model.
The web puts developers on
            top
                                              Computers cheap,
                                               IT democratized,
                                            complexity expensive,
                                                   WAN slow
                               Web stack
             Developer
                                (LAMP)
             controlled


               IT             Mainframes       Client-server
            controlled
                              Centralized      Distributed
Thursday, February 24, 2011


Then the web – and with it an explosion of creativity – made it
easy for developers to build atop software stacks like LAMP.
Developers were in charge, and while browsers were
everywhere, this was a return to centralization: huge farms of
web, app, and database servers in data centers handled the
load.
Rich clients spread out again
                                Users smarter,
                        demanding better experiences,
                          mobile, disconnected uses.

                                                        Rich clients (AJAX,
                                   Web stack
             Developer                                   Silverlight, tablet
                                    (LAMP)              apps, Flash, Java)
             controlled


               IT                 Mainframes             Client-server
            controlled
                                  Centralized            Distributed
Thursday, February 24, 2011


The rich client explosion – first in the browser, and now on
tablets and mobile devices – is a second wave of distributed
computing, this time, with the consumer and developer in
charge.
Now: virtual architectures
                               Virtualization &         Separation of
             Workload         clouds (adaptive    compute, storage costly;
             controlled        infrastructure)     retooling the platforms

                                                  Rich clients (AJAX,
                               Web stack
             Developer                             Silverlight, tablet
                                (LAMP)            apps, Flash, Java)
             controlled


               IT              Mainframes          Client-server
            controlled
                              Centralized          Distributed
Thursday, February 24, 2011


Now weʼre seeing the pendulum swing back to centralization,
for several reasons.
Hairy, smoking golf balls.
                              http://www.flickr.com/photos/onigiri_chang/4791909127/
Thursday, February 24, 2011


The extraordinary Jim Gray of Microsodft described the CPU of
tomorrow as a “smoking, hairy golf ball” – a tiny computer
bristling with wires and generating a lot of heat. He also said
that, compared to the cost of moving bytes around, everything
else is basically free.
Thursday, February 24, 2011


This means a return to centralized machines—but adaptive
ones that can be re-tooled to handle different workloads, and
that are able to move applications from place to place
according to cost, compliance, and capacity policies.
What can IT do to prepare?
          Some practical steps.




Thursday, February 24, 2011


Yikes. So what can you do to prepare?
Cycle time from years to
          days
                                      Figure out how
             Developers, not           to retool the
              accountants,            data center on
             decide when the             the fly with
              infrastructure           virtualization,
                 needs to               centralized
                 change.                  storage,
                                        automation.
Thursday, February 24, 2011


First, get ready for this adaptive, always-being-redesigned data
center.
Extreme horizontal scaling

             Loads are tied to
                                     Resilient, elastic
             variable demand
                                      architectures
                   from a
                                        and fast
                connected
                                       backplanes
                   market;
                                      replace large
             developers code
                                     vertical boxes.
                 in parallel.

Thursday, February 24, 2011


Second, focus on the kinds of architectures that let you pass
the two tests we alluded to.
Portability matters

             Workloads move
                                          Look at
             between public
                                        portability &
                & private
                                       compatibility;
                platforms
                                         check out
              according to
                                       private cloud
                  price,
                                          stacks.
              governance.

Thursday, February 24, 2011


Third, pay a lot of attention to cloud stacks like Cloud.com,
Openstack, Redhat Makara, Xen, VMWare, Eucalyptus, and
so on. You need to know that your workloads can move
between them, which means you need standard virtual
machine formats and standard APIs and controls to manage
them.
Service levels shift radically

                                    Performance
                 A shared
                                    matters a lot;
              resource means
                                   learn to define
               competition for
                                    and negotiate
               capacity; utility
                                       service
                models mean
                                   contracts with
              you can pay for
                                        good
                   faster.
                                     monitoring.
Thursday, February 24, 2011


Reconsider what performance and cost means. Thereʼs a huge
change coming here.
The end of perimeters


                  Topology               Focus on
              thinking about           application-
              security won’t          centric security
                 last when           and policies that
             workloads move               survive
                   around.              relocation.

Thursday, February 24, 2011


Get ready to throw out your firewalls too.
From machines to services

                 Seeing the
               sausage being
                made doesn’t
                                       Get ready for
               benefit anyone;
                                      PaaS and a set
               VMs are a nice
                                        of services.
               metaphor but a
                  damned
                 nuisance.
Thursday, February 24, 2011


And while you need to deliver comfortable, familiar models like
virtual machines today, figure out how PaaS offerings will get
deployed. Are you running a private storage service for large
objects? a key-value store? Plenty of tools, public and private
—Cassandra, Hadoop, Ceph, CouchDB, MongoDB,
Hypertable, and more—are ready for you to play with.
http://www.computerhok.nl/JSPWiki/attach/GoogleAppEngine/GAEQuota.png
Thursday, February 24, 2011


Remember this screen? Assume that in two years, this is
what your business users will expect from you. And they
won’t want any more confusing details. They won’t care
which machines they ran stuff on—just how many CPU-
hours they consumed.
Don’t believe me? How many of you have a mobile
phone? How many know which cell towers and routers
they used in the last month?
The lesson of the answering machine
          Making Steve Wozniak really angry




Thursday, February 24, 2011


Iʼm going to finish with a story about monopolies and
innovation, but with a different point this time.
“This was 1972 and it was
           illegal in the U.S. to use your
          own telephone. It was illegal in
              the U.S. to use your own
           answering machine. Hence it
          also virtually impossible to buy
               or own such devices.”

Thursday, February 24, 2011
$700/month
Thursday, February 24, 2011
Thursday, February 24, 2011
The genie is out of the bottle
          Stop looking for a cork; start deciding what to
          wish for.




Thursday, February 24, 2011


If I have to leave you with one idea, itʼs this.
Thanks!
      @acroll
      alistair@bitcurrent.com




Thursday, February 24, 2011

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Transforming the data center

  • 1. Transforming the data center The impact of clouds on enterprise IT Thursday, February 24, 2011 Good morning. Today, weʼre going to talk about a huge shift in IT, and how it will change the enterprise data center.
  • 2. Some background @acroll alistair@bitcurrent.com Thursday, February 24, 2011 I write, organize, and analyze emerging IT trends at Bitcurrent, and try to share some of these thoughts with enterprises and startups.
  • 3. The arrival of utility computing Overnight change, 20 years in the making Thursday, February 24, 2011 Iʼm going to start out talking about cloud computing, because thatʼs whatʼs prompting a major shift in enterprise IT. But most of this content applies to you whether youʼre running your own data center or entirely outsourced and whether youʼre a bare- metal shop or completely virtualized.
  • 4. Thursday, February 24, 2011 I need to spend some time explaining things, because clouds are confusing.
  • 5. http://img.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2008/04_01/tornadoDM3030a_800x533.jpg Thursday, February 24, 2011 So here’s a simple, practical way to think about utility computing.
  • 6. http://www.flickr.com/photos/mynameisharsha/4092086880 Thursday, February 24, 2011 The step-function nature of dedicated machines doesn’t distribute workload very efficiently.
  • 7. http://www.flickr.com/photos/h4ck/2413562108/ Thursday, February 24, 2011 Virtualization lets us put many workloads on a single machine
  • 8. Virtualization divorces the app from the machine. One on many (or) Many on one Physical machine Virtual machine Virtual Virtual Virtual Physical Physical Physical machine machine machine machine machine machine Virtual Virtual Virtual Physical Physical Physical machine machine machine machine machine machine Thursday, February 24, 2011 Okay, so these things mean we have applications that run “virtually” – that is, they’re divorced from the underlying hardware. One machine can do ten things; ten machines can do one thing.
  • 9. http://www.flickr.com/photos/stawarz/3538910787/ Thursday, February 24, 2011 Once workloads are virtualized, several things happen. First, they’re portable
  • 10. http://www.flickr.com/photos/swimparallel/3391592144/ Thursday, February 24, 2011 Second, they’re ephemeral. That is, they’re short-lived: Once people realize that they don’t have to hoard machines, they spin them up and down a lot more.
  • 11. http://www.flickr.com/photos/genewolf/147722350 Thursday, February 24, 2011 Which inevitably leads to automation and scripting: We nee to spin up and down machines, and move them from place to place. This is hard, error-prone work for humans, but perfect for automation now that rack-and-stack has been replaced by point-and-click
  • 12. http://www.flickr.com/photos/pinkmoose/3278324276/ Thursday, February 24, 2011 Automation, once in place, can have a front end put on it. That leads to self service.
  • 13. Virtualization Automation Self-service Elasticity Usage tracking & billing Service-centric design “Cloudy” tech. Thursday, February 24, 2011 These are the foundations on which new IT is being built. Taken together, they’re a big part of the movement towards cloud computing, whether that’s in house or on- demand.
  • 14. Two main models A field guide to IaaS and PaaS Thursday, February 24, 2011 There is, in fact, a good definition of clouds from NIST. But what you need to know, for the purpose of todayʼs content, is two cloud models: Infrastructure- and platform-as-a-service.
  • 15. Infrastructure as a Service Amazon EC2, Rackspace Cloud, Terremark, Gogrid, Joyent (and nearly every private cloud built on Xen, KVM, HyperV, or VMWare.) Thursday, February 24, 2011 The first is called Infrastructure as a Service, because you’re renting pieces of (virtual) infrastructure.
  • 16. Machine Web Image server Machine instance Thursday, February 24, 2011 In an IaaS model, you’re getting computers as a utility. The unit of the transaction is a virtual machine. It’s still up to you to install an operating system, and software, or at least to choose it from a list. You don’t really have a machine -- you have an image of one, and when you stop the machine, it vanishes.
  • 17. DB Machine Storage server Image Machine instance App Machine Server Image Machine instance Web Machine server Image Machine instance Thursday, February 24, 2011 Most applications consist of several machines -- web, app, and database, for example. Each is created from an image, and some, like databases, may use other services from the cloud to store and retrieve data from a disk
  • 18. DB Storage server Machine instance Bigger App machine instance Server Machine instance Web server Machine instance Thursday, February 24, 2011 If you run out of capacity, you can upgrade to a bigger machine (which is called “scaling vertically.”)
  • 19. DB Storage server Machine instance App Server Machine instance Web server Machine instance Load balancer Machine instance Thursday, February 24, 2011 Or you can create several machines at each tier, and use a load balancer to share traffic between them. These kinds of scalable, redundant architectures are common -- nay, recommended -- in a cloud computing world where everything is uncertain.
  • 20. Platform as a Service Google App Engine, Salesforce Force.com, Heroku, Springsource, (and nearly every enterprise mainframe.) Thursday, February 24, 2011 The second kind of cloud is called Platform as a Service. In this model, you don’t think about the individual machines—instead, you just copy your code to a cloud, and run it. You never see the machines. In a PaaS cloud, things are very different.
  • 21. Shared components Data Processing platform Storage API Others’ Others’ code code User Auth database API Your Others’ code code Image Image functions API Others’ Others’ code code ... Big Blob Governor Console Schedule objects API Thursday, February 24, 2011 - You write your code; often it needs some customization. - That code runs on a share processing platform - Along with other people’s code - The code calls certain functions to do things like authenticate a user, handle a payment, store an object, or move something to a CDN - To keep everything running smoothly (and bill you) the platform has a scheduler (figuring out what to do next) and a governor (ensuring one program doesn’t use up all the resources) as well as a console.
  • 22. http://www.computerhok.nl/JSPWiki/attach/GoogleAppEngine/GAEQuota.png Thursday, February 24, 2011 It’s a true, pure utility because you pay for what you use. Remember this picture; we’ll come back to it.
  • 23. http://www.flickr.com/photos/olitaillon/3354855989/ Thursday, February 24, 2011 PaaS is a very different model from IaaS. On the one hand, it’s more liberating, because you don’t have to worry about managing the machines. On the other hand, it’s more restrictive, because you can only do what the PaaS lets you.
  • 24. http://wiki.developerforce.com/index.php/Apex_Code:_The_World%27s_First_On-Demand_Programming_Language Thursday, February 24, 2011 In the case of Salesforce’s Force.com, you have to use an entirely new programming language, called Apex.
  • 25. Thursday, February 24, 2011 PaaS isn’t common today, but it will catch on fast. Consider a recent hackathon we ran: 55 coders, 18 apps, 12 hours. Several are live now. I’m betting there are already a ton of rogue PaaS apps running on Force.com, being built for the front office without IT’s involvement.
  • 26. IaaS and PaaS differences IaaS PaaS Any operating system you Use only selected want languages and built-in APIs Limited by capacity of Limited by governors to virtual machine avoid overloading Scale by adding more Scaling is automatic machines Use built-in storage Many storage options (file (Bigtable, etc.) system, object, key-value, RDBMS) Thursday, February 24, 2011 To summarize: two kinds of cloud platforms
  • 27. Another side to clouds: Clouds as a business model Thursday, February 24, 2011 Now let’s talk about the other definition -- the populist, popular one that has everyone believing clouds will magically fix IT.
  • 28. Thursday, February 24, 2011 All of the things we’ve seen about cloud technology make it possible to deliver computing as a utility -- computing on tap. The virtualization provides a blood/ brain barrier between the application the user is running, and the machines on which it runs. Which means it can be a utility.
  • 29. Thursday, February 24, 2011 The utility promise is compelling. It means you can focus on the thing your business does that makes you special
  • 30. Thursday, February 24, 2011 And stop worrying about many of the tasks you really didn’t want to do anyway.
  • 31. Cloud technology makes a wide range of business relationships possible Thursday, February 24, 2011 In other words, all of these cloud technologies, because they separate the computing from the computers, make new business relationships—such as outsourcing—possible.
  • 32. http://www.flickr.com/photos/hugo90/4154329689/ Thursday, February 24, 2011 Consider, for a minute, the number of business models available to a car user.
  • 33. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hyundai_car_assembly_line.jpg Thursday, February 24, 2011 At one extreme, you could be a car manufacturer. Youʼd have complete control over every aspect of your car, even though the cost of doing so would be very high. But you could still build cars from parts, and get them road-certified. It wouldnʼt scale very well as demand increased, so this is the domain of hobbyists (who need high customization) or large manufacturers (who need economies of scale)
  • 34. http://www.flickr.com/photos/stevoarnold/2789464563/ Thursday, February 24, 2011 For most of us, the answer to transportation is to own a car. Youʼre not responsible for design – though you have some choice of models and features – but you are liable for everything. You have to finance it, maintain it, and so on.
  • 35. http://www.flickr.com/photos/mpk/50046296/ Thursday, February 24, 2011 If youʼre a traveller, then you rent. This is a different model, with different responsibilities. Youʼre still at fault if you scratch or hit something, and still need to know directions, but someone else finances the deal and handles storage, cleaning, and other things. And youʼre paying for what you use, not for the entire asset.
  • 36. http://www.flickr.com/photos/uggboy/4594493429/ Thursday, February 24, 2011 A car hire service abdicates even more control – you can still decide where to go and how to get there, pickup and dropoff times, etc., but everything else is the driverʼs responsibility. You have only marginal control over the car model.
  • 37. http://www.flickr.com/photos/xjrlokix/4379281690/ Thursday, February 24, 2011 A taxicab takes this to the ultimate extreme: pay-as-you-drive economics, and nothingʼs your fault provided youʼre well behaved in the back seat. You have almost no control over the platform.
  • 38. The abdication of authority (and responsibility.) http://www.flickr.com/photos/abulic_monkey/130899453/ Thursday, February 24, 2011 These are all degrees of abdication and abstraction. Sometimes a taxi makes sense – for example, when weʼre going from place to place in a city. Other times, building our own makes sense – for example, if weʼre landing on the moon.
  • 39. This challenges a decades- long monopoly on IT Thursday, February 24, 2011 Models like these are now rushing into enterprise IT, challenging what has long been a monopoly within organizations.
  • 40. http://www.flickr.com/photos/harshlight/3235469361 Thursday, February 24, 2011 For decades, IT-as-a-monopoly was a good thing.
  • 41. Two reasons. Thursday, February 24, 2011 There were a couple of reasons IT was a monopoly for so long.
  • 42. http://www.flickr.com/photos/brewbooks/3319730327/ (16MB) Thursday, February 24, 2011 First, the machines were expensive. That meant they were a scarce resource, and someone had to control what we could do with them.
  • 43. http://www.flickr.com/photos/argonne/4563394851/ Thursday, February 24, 2011 Second, they were complicated. It took a very strange sect of experts to understand them. AVIDAC, Argonne's first digital computer, began operation in January 1953. It was built by the Physics Division for $250,000. Pictured is pioneer Argonne computer scientist Jean F. Hall. AVIDAC stands for "Argonne Version of the Institute's Digital Automatic Computer" and was based on the IAS architecture developed by John von Neumann.
  • 44. http://www.flickr.com/photos/ebeam/3586287989/ Thursday, February 24, 2011 This was also a result of scarcity. When computers and humans interact, they need to meet each other halfway. But it takes a lot of computing power to make something that’s easy to use;
  • 45. http://www.flickr.com/photos/ecastro/3053916892/ Thursday, February 24, 2011 in the early days of computing, humans were cheap and machines weren’t
  • 48. http://honeynet.onofri.org/scans/scan22/sol/submission/reverse.jpg Thursday, February 24, 2011 and esoteric programming languages like assembler.
  • 50. http://www.flickr.com/photos/caveman_92223/3531128799/ Thursday, February 24, 2011 A monopoly was once awarded for a big project beyond the scope of any one organization, but needed for the public good.
  • 51. http://www.flickr.com/photos/athomeinscottsdale/2850893998/ Thursday, February 24, 2011 Sometimes, nobody wants the monopoly—like building the roads.
  • 52. http://www.flickr.com/photos/leokoivulehto/2257818167/ Thursday, February 24, 2011 (IT’s been handed many of these thankless tasks over the years, and the business has never complained.)
  • 53. http://www.flickr.com/photos/crobj/4148482980/ Thursday, February 24, 2011 The only time we can charge back for roads are when the resource is specific and billable: a toll highway, a bridge.
  • 54. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bell_System_hires_1900_logo.PNG Thursday, February 24, 2011 Sometimes, we form a company with a monopoly, or allow one to operate, in order to build something or allow an inventor to recoup investment. This is how we got the telephone system, or railways.
  • 55. For much of its history, AT&T and its Bell System functioned as a legally sanctioned, regulated monopoly. The US accepted this principle, initially in a 1913 agreement known as the Kingsbury Commitment. Anti-trust suit filed in 1949 led in 1956 to a consent decree whereby AT&T agreed to restrict its activities to the regulated business of the national telephone system and government work. Changes in telecommunications led to a U.S. government antitrust suit in 1974. In 1982 when AT&T agreed to divest itself of the wholly owned Bell operating companies that provided local exchange service. In 1984 Bell was dead. In its place was a new AT&T and seven regional Bell operating companies (collectively, the RBOCs.) http://www.corp.att.com/history/history3.html Thursday, February 24, 2011 When monopolies are created with a specific purpose, that’s good. But when they start to stagnate and restrict competition, we break them apart.
  • 56. http://www.flickr.com/photos/ktylerconk/4096965228/ Thursday, February 24, 2011 In fact, there’s a lot of antitrust regulation that prevents companies from controlling too much of something because they can stifle innovation and charge whatever they want. That’s one of the things the DOJ does.
  • 57. First: Monopoly good. Thursday, February 24, 2011 In other words, early on monopolies are good because they let us undertake hugely beneficial, but largely unbillable, tasks.
  • 58. Then: Monopoly bad. Thursday, February 24, 2011 Later, however, they’re bad because they reduce the level of creativity and experimentation.
  • 59. Data center upheaval What utility computing changes for enterprise IT Thursday, February 24, 2011 So we live in a world where internal IT monopolies are increasingly seen as bad—inefficient, costly, unable to adapt to change, and so on.
  • 60. So now IT is competing with public providers. Thursday, February 24, 2011 That means enterprise IT professionals have to compete with external providers. To do so, they need to catch up.
  • 61. Cycle time from years to days Developers, not accountants, decide when the infrastructure needs to change. Thursday, February 24, 2011 Once, IT used to buy a machine and run it for three years, because thatʼs how long accountants told us it took to depreciate. Today, machines live for as long as fickle developers need them—and their requirements change constantly, because of iterative development approaches like Agile and rapid-fire front-office initiatives.
  • 62. Extreme horizontal scaling Loads are tied to variable demand from a connected market; developers code in parallel. Thursday, February 24, 2011 Today, we donʼt buy one big machine; we have many small ones, able to adapt to demand as it changes, and resilient. Think RAID, but for entire application stacks.
  • 63. Portability matters Workloads move between public & private platforms according to price, governance. Thursday, February 24, 2011 Today, a workload that runs in-house for cost, capacity or compliance reasons may run elsewhere when those change.
  • 64. Service levels shift radically A shared resource means competition for capacity; utility models mean you can pay for faster. Thursday, February 24, 2011 Today, we can no longer determine how much traffic an app handles or how fast it will respond. It depends on the resources available—and those resources are elastic. You can handle a ton of users; but itʼll cost you. Old SLAs donʼt make sense.
  • 65. The end of perimeters Topology thinking about security won’t last when workloads move around. Thursday, February 24, 2011 We used to think things on one side of a firewall were safe. We even had terms like the “Demilitarized zone.” No more; when apps move, they have to take their permissions and controls with them.
  • 66. From machines to services Seeing the sausage being made doesn’t benefit anyone; VMs are a nice metaphor but a damned nuisance. Thursday, February 24, 2011 While we still think in terms of virtual machines, thatʼs just a convenient unit of measure for computing. Managing those underlying components has less and less value, and giving users too much control limits the operatorʼs ability to optimize things.
  • 67. Getting there from here Practical migration strategies Thursday, February 24, 2011 So how do we get there? Here are some practical strategies.
  • 68. Thursday, February 24, 2011 First of all, recognize that itʼs not a big switch. While that might be a good book title, itʼs not a sudden change from one thing to another.
  • 69. A spectrum of architectures <script> </script> Bare Virtual Private Virtual IaaS PaaS Cloud metal machines cloud private services cloud (i.e. storage) Thursday, February 24, 2011 Ultimately, cloud computing is about a significant broadening of the available architectures -- there’s no “big switch”, just a series of new options.
  • 70. What makes a workload suitable to move? Benefit Examples Can be broken into component parts (storage, network, Componentable billing) separated by SOA-like, RESTful interfaces Encapsulatable Easily encapsulated into virtual machine format Won’t suffer from performance issues if WAN latency Performance increases tolerant Architecturally Doesn’t have an “architectural opinion”—in other words, agnostic it’s network and hardware agnostic Is free of legislative or compliance problems that restrict Compliant how and where it’s deployed Thursday, February 24, 2011 In the coming year, youʼre going to have to decide which workloads are suitable to move into an on-demand environment, whether thatʼs a private or public cloud. First, you need to look at applications and see which ones can move.
  • 71. What makes a workload beneficial to move? Benefit Examples Vary in demand (because of seasonality, usage spikes, Cost and so on) Can be divided into chunks and performed in parallel Time (such as data analysis) Requires high levels of redundancy that aren’t Risk economically feasible to deliver on dedicated equipment Has an experimentation benefit because of trial-and-error Experimentation development or a continuous deployment process The line of business can service itself, rather than relying Agility on central IT and human involvement Thursday, February 24, 2011 Then, you have to decide which workloads are beneficial to the business. These benefits come from a number of places.
  • 72. High Virtualize, Move first. Use ensure, to showcase Technical suitability for migration portability. cloud benefits Monitor cost and ROI. and pricing. Don’t move. Hybridize, make Optimize bare portable, seek metal, vertical acceleration, “community” virtualization. clouds. Low Low Business case for migration High Thursday, February 24, 2011 Put these together and you have a good model for deciding what to do with each application.
  • 73. How to think about migration What you Model What it offers Best for move Content and Commodity tools (mail, Turnkey software collaboration, word processing) SaaS business functionality and simple forms (order entry, processes CRM) A platform that runs New, relatively simple applications Your source where you don’t need control over PaaS your code, with code network topology, OS, or data APIs location Virtual infrastructure Variable workloads, testing and IaaS Your OS or VM QA, massively parallel tasks rented by the hour Thursday, February 24, 2011 Once you know whatʼs moving, figure out whether itʼs moving to Infrastructure, Platform, or third-party SaaS environments.
  • 74. People, processes, technology (Only three tiny things to worry about.) Thursday, February 24, 2011
  • 75. People The changing role of enterprise IT professionals Thursday, February 24, 2011 Let’s face it: tomorrow’s IT team will look a lot different from today’s.
  • 76. Less of some things, more of others Less of More of Fire and forget Adapt and adjust Business case first Ongoing analytics Configuration Adaptive policies Procurement Terms & relationships Fishing Teaching people to fish Thursday, February 24, 2011 You’ll spend your time doing a lot less of some things, and a lot more of others.
  • 77. Not everyone will survive Thursday, February 24, 2011 And not everyone will make it.
  • 78. Poor Ada. Thursday, February 24, 2011 Let me tell you a story about ADA. This was an early object- oriented language, named for the Ada Lovelace, the first real programmer and muse to early computer inventors.
  • 79. OO promised so much Object oriented (OOD) techniques and Ada (1985-95) Increased NASA code reuse by 300 percent Reduced all systems costs by 40 percent Shortened development cycle time by 25 percent Slashed error rates by 62 percent Thursday, February 24, 2011 Remember Object-Oriented Programming? Object oriented design (OOD) techniques and ADA (1985-95)
  • 80. But fell so short Only 15-20% of FDD software written in Ada Naysayers resisted the language change Wanted to stay with what they knew (FORTRAN) Had reusable components maintained by others Evangelists didn’t help Promised too much too soon Avoided root issue: Lack of environment Thursday, February 24, 2011 Only a certain percentage of NASAʼs coders could make that jump. With sharded, shared-nothing, distributed data, that may happen again.
  • 81. Processes Retooling the way you work: two simple tests Thursday, February 24, 2011 Okay, what about processes. How will they change? I can give you two simple tests.
  • 82. The first test What if you had to do it a thousand times? Thursday, February 24, 2011 First, it’s all about large numbers. You’ll be measured on operating efficiency—things like the ratio of people to servers. Metrics like cost per visitor-second. So everything you do, ask yourself, how would you do it if it had to be done a thousand times?
  • 83. The second test Can you throw a random thing from a tenth story window? Thursday, February 24, 2011 Second, itʼs all about architectures. We donʼt buy one big machine we hope wonʼt break—we buy a thousand we know will break, just not all at once, and design for failure.
  • 84. Technology A return to centralization, with services and portability Thursday, February 24, 2011 And the technology will change too.
  • 85. Once upon a time: mainframes Computers expensive, humans cheap. IT Mainframes controlled Centralized Thursday, February 24, 2011 In the early days of IT, computers were complicated and expensive. Not a lot of people knew how to use them, and they were precious. So humans bent to their will: we wrote in languages they understood, like assembler. We shared time, waiting until late at night to run batch jobs.
  • 86. Client-server shares the load Computers cheaper, distance expensive, user tasks varied, UI changes IT Mainframes Client-server controlled Centralized Distributed Thursday, February 24, 2011 As computers became more affordable, we decided that some computing could happen at the edge of the network, in the client-server model.
  • 87. The web puts developers on top Computers cheap, IT democratized, complexity expensive, WAN slow Web stack Developer (LAMP) controlled IT Mainframes Client-server controlled Centralized Distributed Thursday, February 24, 2011 Then the web – and with it an explosion of creativity – made it easy for developers to build atop software stacks like LAMP. Developers were in charge, and while browsers were everywhere, this was a return to centralization: huge farms of web, app, and database servers in data centers handled the load.
  • 88. Rich clients spread out again Users smarter, demanding better experiences, mobile, disconnected uses. Rich clients (AJAX, Web stack Developer Silverlight, tablet (LAMP) apps, Flash, Java) controlled IT Mainframes Client-server controlled Centralized Distributed Thursday, February 24, 2011 The rich client explosion – first in the browser, and now on tablets and mobile devices – is a second wave of distributed computing, this time, with the consumer and developer in charge.
  • 89. Now: virtual architectures Virtualization & Separation of Workload clouds (adaptive compute, storage costly; controlled infrastructure) retooling the platforms Rich clients (AJAX, Web stack Developer Silverlight, tablet (LAMP) apps, Flash, Java) controlled IT Mainframes Client-server controlled Centralized Distributed Thursday, February 24, 2011 Now weʼre seeing the pendulum swing back to centralization, for several reasons.
  • 90. Hairy, smoking golf balls. http://www.flickr.com/photos/onigiri_chang/4791909127/ Thursday, February 24, 2011 The extraordinary Jim Gray of Microsodft described the CPU of tomorrow as a “smoking, hairy golf ball” – a tiny computer bristling with wires and generating a lot of heat. He also said that, compared to the cost of moving bytes around, everything else is basically free.
  • 91. Thursday, February 24, 2011 This means a return to centralized machines—but adaptive ones that can be re-tooled to handle different workloads, and that are able to move applications from place to place according to cost, compliance, and capacity policies.
  • 92. What can IT do to prepare? Some practical steps. Thursday, February 24, 2011 Yikes. So what can you do to prepare?
  • 93. Cycle time from years to days Figure out how Developers, not to retool the accountants, data center on decide when the the fly with infrastructure virtualization, needs to centralized change. storage, automation. Thursday, February 24, 2011 First, get ready for this adaptive, always-being-redesigned data center.
  • 94. Extreme horizontal scaling Loads are tied to Resilient, elastic variable demand architectures from a and fast connected backplanes market; replace large developers code vertical boxes. in parallel. Thursday, February 24, 2011 Second, focus on the kinds of architectures that let you pass the two tests we alluded to.
  • 95. Portability matters Workloads move Look at between public portability & & private compatibility; platforms check out according to private cloud price, stacks. governance. Thursday, February 24, 2011 Third, pay a lot of attention to cloud stacks like Cloud.com, Openstack, Redhat Makara, Xen, VMWare, Eucalyptus, and so on. You need to know that your workloads can move between them, which means you need standard virtual machine formats and standard APIs and controls to manage them.
  • 96. Service levels shift radically Performance A shared matters a lot; resource means learn to define competition for and negotiate capacity; utility service models mean contracts with you can pay for good faster. monitoring. Thursday, February 24, 2011 Reconsider what performance and cost means. Thereʼs a huge change coming here.
  • 97. The end of perimeters Topology Focus on thinking about application- security won’t centric security last when and policies that workloads move survive around. relocation. Thursday, February 24, 2011 Get ready to throw out your firewalls too.
  • 98. From machines to services Seeing the sausage being made doesn’t Get ready for benefit anyone; PaaS and a set VMs are a nice of services. metaphor but a damned nuisance. Thursday, February 24, 2011 And while you need to deliver comfortable, familiar models like virtual machines today, figure out how PaaS offerings will get deployed. Are you running a private storage service for large objects? a key-value store? Plenty of tools, public and private —Cassandra, Hadoop, Ceph, CouchDB, MongoDB, Hypertable, and more—are ready for you to play with.
  • 99. http://www.computerhok.nl/JSPWiki/attach/GoogleAppEngine/GAEQuota.png Thursday, February 24, 2011 Remember this screen? Assume that in two years, this is what your business users will expect from you. And they won’t want any more confusing details. They won’t care which machines they ran stuff on—just how many CPU- hours they consumed. Don’t believe me? How many of you have a mobile phone? How many know which cell towers and routers they used in the last month?
  • 100. The lesson of the answering machine Making Steve Wozniak really angry Thursday, February 24, 2011 Iʼm going to finish with a story about monopolies and innovation, but with a different point this time.
  • 101. “This was 1972 and it was illegal in the U.S. to use your own telephone. It was illegal in the U.S. to use your own answering machine. Hence it also virtually impossible to buy or own such devices.” Thursday, February 24, 2011
  • 104. The genie is out of the bottle Stop looking for a cork; start deciding what to wish for. Thursday, February 24, 2011 If I have to leave you with one idea, itʼs this.
  • 105. Thanks! @acroll alistair@bitcurrent.com Thursday, February 24, 2011