Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Transforming the data center


Published on

Slides from the Dell series on data center transformation and cloud computing

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

Transforming the data center

  1. 1. Transforming the data center The impact of clouds on enterprise ITThursday, February 24, 2011Good morning. Today, weʼre going to talk about a huge shift inIT, and how it will change the enterprise data center.
  2. 2. Some background @acroll alistair@bitcurrent.comThursday, February 24, 2011I write, organize, and analyze emerging IT trends at Bitcurrent,and try to share some of these thoughts with enterprises andstartups.
  3. 3. The arrival of utility computing Overnight change, 20 years in the makingThursday, February 24, 2011Iʼm going to start out talking about cloud computing, becausethatʼs whatʼs prompting a major shift in enterprise IT. But mostof this content applies to you whether youʼre running your owndata center or entirely outsourced and whether youʼre a bare-metal shop or completely virtualized.
  4. 4. Thursday, February 24, 2011I need to spend some time explaining things, because cloudsare confusing.
  5. 5., February 24, 2011So here’s a simple, practical way to think about utilitycomputing.
  6. 6., February 24, 2011The step-function nature of dedicated machines doesn’tdistribute workload very efficiently.
  7. 7. Thursday, February 24, 2011 Virtualization lets us put many workloads on a single machine
  8. 8. Virtualization divorces the app from the machine. One on many (or) Many on one Physical machine Virtual machine Virtual Virtual Virtual Physical Physical Physical machine machine machine machine machine machine Virtual Virtual Virtual Physical Physical Physical machine machine machine machine machine machineThursday, February 24, 2011Okay, so these things mean we have applications thatrun “virtually” – that is, they’re divorced from theunderlying hardware. One machine can do ten things;ten machines can do one thing.
  9. 9., February 24, 2011Once workloads are virtualized, several things happen.First, they’re portable
  10. 10., February 24, 2011Second, they’re ephemeral. That is, they’re short-lived:Once people realize that they don’t have to hoardmachines, they spin them up and down a lot more.
  11. 11., February 24, 2011Which inevitably leads to automation and scripting: We neeto spin up and down machines, and move them from placeto place. This is hard, error-prone work for humans, butperfect for automation now that rack-and-stack has beenreplaced by point-and-click
  12. 12., February 24, 2011Automation, once in place, can have a front end put onit. That leads to self service.
  13. 13. Virtualization Automation Self-service Elasticity Usage tracking & billing Service-centric design“Cloudy” tech.Thursday, February 24, 2011These are the foundations on which new IT is being built.Taken together, they’re a big part of the movementtowards cloud computing, whether that’s in house or on-demand.
  14. 14. Two main models A field guide to IaaS and PaaSThursday, February 24, 2011There is, in fact, a good definition of clouds from NIST. Butwhat you need to know, for the purpose of todayʼs content, istwo cloud models: Infrastructure- and platform-as-a-service.
  15. 15. Infrastructure as a Service Amazon EC2, Rackspace Cloud, Terremark, Gogrid, Joyent (and nearly every private cloud built on Xen, KVM, HyperV, or VMWare.)Thursday, February 24, 2011The first is called Infrastructure as a Service, becauseyou’re renting pieces of (virtual) infrastructure.
  16. 16. Machine Web Image server Machine instanceThursday, February 24, 2011In an IaaS model, you’re getting computers as a utility.The unit of the transaction is a virtual machine. It’s stillup to you to install an operating system, and software,or at least to choose it from a list. You don’t really have amachine -- you have an image of one, and when youstop the machine, it vanishes.
  17. 17. DB Machine Storage server Image Machine instance App Machine Server Image Machine instance Web Machine server Image Machine instanceThursday, February 24, 2011Most applications consist of several machines -- web,app, and database, for example. Each is created from animage, and some, like databases, may use other servicesfrom the cloud to store and retrieve data from a disk
  18. 18. DB Storage server Machine instance Bigger App machine instance Server Machine instance Web server Machine instanceThursday, February 24, 2011If you run out of capacity, you can upgrade to a biggermachine (which is called “scaling vertically.”)
  19. 19. DB Storage server Machine instance App Server Machine instance Web server Machine instance Load balancer Machine instanceThursday, February 24, 2011Or you can create several machines at each tier, and usea load balancer to share traffic between them. Thesekinds of scalable, redundant architectures are common-- nay, recommended -- in a cloud computing worldwhere everything is uncertain.
  20. 20. Platform as a Service Google App Engine, Salesforce, Heroku, Springsource, (and nearly every enterprise mainframe.)Thursday, February 24, 2011The second kind of cloud is called Platform as a Service.In this model, you don’t think about the individualmachines—instead, you just copy your code to a cloud,and run it. You never see the machines. In a PaaS cloud,things are very different.
  21. 21. Shared components Data Processing platform Storage API Others’ Others’ code code User Auth database API Your Others’ code code Image Image functions API Others’ Others’ code code ... Big Blob Governor Console Schedule objects APIThursday, February 24, 2011- You write your code; often it needs some customization.- That code runs on a share processing platform- Along with other people’s code- The code calls certain functions to do things like authenticate a user, handle a payment,store an object, or move something to a CDN- To keep everything running smoothly (and bill you) the platform has a scheduler (figuringout what to do next) and a governor (ensuring one program doesn’t use up all the resources)as well as a console.
  22. 22., February 24, 2011It’s a true, pure utility because you pay for what you use.Remember this picture; we’ll come back to it.
  23. 23., February 24, 2011PaaS is a very different model from IaaS. On the onehand, it’s more liberating, because you don’t have toworry about managing the machines. On the other hand,it’s more restrictive, because you can only do what thePaaS lets you.
  24. 24., February 24, 2011In the case of Salesforce’s, you have to use anentirely new programming language, called Apex.
  25. 25. Thursday, February 24, 2011PaaS isn’t common today, but it will catch on fast.Consider a recent hackathon we ran: 55 coders, 18 apps,12 hours. Several are live now. I’m betting there arealready a ton of rogue PaaS apps running on,being built for the front office without IT’s involvement.
  26. 26. IaaS and PaaS differences IaaS PaaS Any operating system you Use only selected want languages and built-in APIs Limited by capacity of Limited by governors to virtual machine avoid overloading Scale by adding more Scaling is automatic machines Use built-in storage Many storage options (file (Bigtable, etc.) system, object, key-value, RDBMS)Thursday, February 24, 2011To summarize: two kinds of cloud platforms
  27. 27. Another side to clouds: Clouds as a business modelThursday, February 24, 2011Now let’s talk about the other definition -- the populist,popular one that has everyone believing clouds willmagically fix IT.
  28. 28. Thursday, February 24, 2011All of the things we’ve seen about cloud technologymake it possible to deliver computing as a utility --computing on tap. The virtualization provides a blood/brain barrier between the application the user is running,and the machines on which it runs. Which means it canbe a utility.
  29. 29. Thursday, February 24, 2011 The utility promise is compelling. It means you can focus on the thing your business does that makes you special
  30. 30. Thursday, February 24, 2011 And stop worrying about many of the tasks you really didn’t want to do anyway.
  31. 31. Cloud technology makes a wide range of business relationships possibleThursday, February 24, 2011In other words, all of these cloud technologies, because theyseparate the computing from the computers, make newbusiness relationships—such as outsourcing—possible.
  32. 32., February 24, 2011Consider, for a minute, the number of business modelsavailable to a car user.
  33. 33., February 24, 2011At one extreme, you could be a car manufacturer. Youʼd havecomplete control over every aspect of your car, even thoughthe cost of doing so would be very high. But you could stillbuild cars from parts, and get them road-certified. It wouldnʼtscale very well as demand increased, so this is the domain ofhobbyists (who need high customization) or largemanufacturers (who need economies of scale)
  34. 34., February 24, 2011For most of us, the answer to transportation is to own a car.Youʼre not responsible for design – though you have somechoice of models and features – but you are liable foreverything. You have to finance it, maintain it, and so on.
  35. 35., February 24, 2011If youʼre a traveller, then you rent. This is a different model,with different responsibilities. Youʼre still at fault if you scratchor hit something, and still need to know directions, butsomeone else finances the deal and handles storage,cleaning, and other things. And youʼre paying for what you use,not for the entire asset.
  36. 36., February 24, 2011A car hire service abdicates even more control – you can stilldecide where to go and how to get there, pickup and dropofftimes, etc., but everything else is the driverʼs responsibility. Youhave only marginal control over the car model.
  37. 37., February 24, 2011A taxicab takes this to the ultimate extreme: pay-as-you-driveeconomics, and nothingʼs your fault provided youʼre wellbehaved in the back seat. You have almost no control over theplatform.
  38. 38. The abdication of authority (and responsibility.), February 24, 2011These are all degrees of abdication and abstraction.Sometimes a taxi makes sense – for example, when weʼregoing from place to place in a city. Other times, building ourown makes sense – for example, if weʼre landing on the moon.
  39. 39. This challenges a decades- long monopoly on ITThursday, February 24, 2011Models like these are now rushing into enterprise IT,challenging what has long been a monopoly withinorganizations.
  40. 40., February 24, 2011For decades, IT-as-a-monopoly was a good thing.
  41. 41. Two reasons.Thursday, February 24, 2011There were a couple of reasons IT was a monopoly for solong.
  42. 42. (16MB)Thursday, February 24, 2011First, the machines were expensive. That meant theywere a scarce resource, and someone had to controlwhat we could do with them.
  43. 43., February 24, 2011Second, they were complicated. It took a very strangesect of experts to understand them. AVIDAC, Argonnesfirst digital computer, began operation in January 1953.It was built by the Physics Division for $250,000.Pictured is pioneer Argonne computer scientist Jean F.Hall.AVIDAC stands for "Argonne Version of the InstitutesDigital Automatic Computer" and was based on the IASarchitecture developed by John von Neumann.
  44. 44., February 24, 2011This was also a result of scarcity. When computers andhumans interact, they need to meet each other halfway.But it takes a lot of computing power to make somethingthat’s easy to use;
  45. 45., February 24, 2011in the early days of computing, humans were cheap andmachines weren’t
  46. 46., February 24, 2011 So we used punched cards,
  47. 47., February 24, 2011and switches,
  48. 48., February 24, 2011and esoteric programming languages like assembler.
  49. 49., February 24, 2011Think about what a monopoly means.
  50. 50., February 24, 2011A monopoly was once awarded for a big project beyondthe scope of any one organization, but needed for thepublic good.
  51. 51., February 24, 2011Sometimes, nobody wants the monopoly—like buildingthe roads.
  52. 52., February 24, 2011(IT’s been handed many of these thankless tasks overthe years, and the business has never complained.)
  53. 53., February 24, 2011The only time we can charge back for roads are when theresource is specific and billable: a toll highway, a bridge.
  54. 54., February 24, 2011Sometimes, we form a company with a monopoly, orallow one to operate, in order to build something orallow an inventor to recoup investment. This is how wegot the telephone system, or railways.
  55. 55. For much of its history, AT&T and its Bell System functioned as a legally sanctioned, regulated monopoly. The US accepted this principle, initially in a 1913 agreement known as the Kingsbury Commitment. Anti-trust suit filed in 1949 led in 1956 to a consent decree whereby AT&T agreed to restrict its activities to the regulated business of the national telephone system and government work. Changes in telecommunications led to a U.S. government antitrust suit in 1974. In 1982 when AT&T agreed to divest itself of the wholly owned Bell operating companies that provided local exchange service. In 1984 Bell was dead. In its place was a new AT&T and seven regional Bell operating companies (collectively, the RBOCs.), February 24, 2011When monopolies are created with a specific purpose,that’s good. But when they start to stagnate and restrictcompetition, we break them apart.
  56. 56., February 24, 2011In fact, there’s a lot of antitrust regulation that preventscompanies from controlling too much of somethingbecause they can stifle innovation and charge whateverthey want. That’s one of the things the DOJ does.
  57. 57. First: Monopoly good.Thursday, February 24, 2011In other words, early on monopolies are good becausethey let us undertake hugely beneficial, but largelyunbillable, tasks.
  58. 58. Then: Monopoly bad.Thursday, February 24, 2011Later, however, they’re bad because they reduce the levelof creativity and experimentation.
  59. 59. Data center upheaval What utility computing changes for enterprise ITThursday, February 24, 2011So we live in a world where internal IT monopolies areincreasingly seen as bad—inefficient, costly, unable to adapt tochange, and so on.
  60. 60. So now IT is competing with public providers.Thursday, February 24, 2011That means enterprise IT professionals have to competewith external providers. To do so, they need to catch up.
  61. 61. Cycle time from years to days Developers, not accountants, decide when the infrastructure needs to change.Thursday, February 24, 2011Once, IT used to buy a machine and run it for three years,because thatʼs how long accountants told us it took todepreciate. Today, machines live for as long as fickledevelopers need them—and their requirements changeconstantly, because of iterative development approaches likeAgile and rapid-fire front-office initiatives.
  62. 62. Extreme horizontal scaling Loads are tied to variable demand from a connected market; developers code in parallel.Thursday, February 24, 2011Today, we donʼt buy one big machine; we have many smallones, able to adapt to demand as it changes, and resilient.Think RAID, but for entire application stacks.
  63. 63. Portability matters Workloads move between public & private platforms according to price, governance.Thursday, February 24, 2011Today, a workload that runs in-house for cost, capacity orcompliance reasons may run elsewhere when those change.
  64. 64. Service levels shift radically A shared resource means competition for capacity; utility models mean you can pay for faster.Thursday, February 24, 2011Today, we can no longer determine how much traffic an apphandles or how fast it will respond. It depends on theresources available—and those resources are elastic. You canhandle a ton of users; but itʼll cost you. Old SLAs donʼt makesense.
  65. 65. The end of perimeters Topology thinking about security won’t last when workloads move around.Thursday, February 24, 2011We used to think things on one side of a firewall were safe. Weeven had terms like the “Demilitarized zone.” No more; whenapps move, they have to take their permissions and controlswith them.
  66. 66. From machines to services Seeing the sausage being made doesn’t benefit anyone; VMs are a nice metaphor but a damned nuisance.Thursday, February 24, 2011While we still think in terms of virtual machines, thatʼs just aconvenient unit of measure for computing. Managing thoseunderlying components has less and less value, and givingusers too much control limits the operatorʼs ability to optimizethings.
  67. 67. Getting there from here Practical migration strategiesThursday, February 24, 2011So how do we get there? Here are some practical strategies.
  68. 68. Thursday, February 24, 2011First of all, recognize that itʼs not a big switch. While that mightbe a good book title, itʼs not a sudden change from one thing toanother.
  69. 69. A spectrum of architectures <script> </script> Bare Virtual Private Virtual IaaS PaaS Cloud metal machines cloud private services cloud (i.e. storage)Thursday, February 24, 2011Ultimately, cloud computing is about a significantbroadening of the available architectures -- there’s no“big switch”, just a series of new options.
  70. 70. What makes a workload suitable to move? Benefit Examples Can be broken into component parts (storage, network, Componentable billing) separated by SOA-like, RESTful interfaces Encapsulatable Easily encapsulated into virtual machine format Won’t suffer from performance issues if WAN latency Performance increases tolerant Architecturally Doesn’t have an “architectural opinion”—in other words, agnostic it’s network and hardware agnostic Is free of legislative or compliance problems that restrict Compliant how and where it’s deployedThursday, February 24, 2011In the coming year, youʼre going to have to decide whichworkloads are suitable to move into an on-demandenvironment, whether thatʼs a private or public cloud. First, youneed to look at applications and see which ones can move.
  71. 71. What makes a workload beneficial to move? Benefit Examples Vary in demand (because of seasonality, usage spikes, Cost and so on) Can be divided into chunks and performed in parallel Time (such as data analysis) Requires high levels of redundancy that aren’t Risk economically feasible to deliver on dedicated equipment Has an experimentation benefit because of trial-and-error Experimentation development or a continuous deployment process The line of business can service itself, rather than relying Agility on central IT and human involvementThursday, February 24, 2011Then, you have to decide which workloads are beneficial to thebusiness. These benefits come from a number of places.
  72. 72. High Virtualize, Move first. Use ensure, to showcase Technical suitability for migration portability. cloud benefits Monitor cost and ROI. and pricing. Don’t move. Hybridize, make Optimize bare portable, seek metal, vertical acceleration, “community” virtualization. clouds. Low Low Business case for migration HighThursday, February 24, 2011Put these together and you have a good model for decidingwhat to do with each application.
  73. 73. How to think about migration What you Model What it offers Best for move Content and Commodity tools (mail, Turnkey software collaboration, word processing) SaaS business functionality and simple forms (order entry, processes CRM) A platform that runs New, relatively simple applications Your source where you don’t need control over PaaS your code, with code network topology, OS, or data APIs location Virtual infrastructure Variable workloads, testing and IaaS Your OS or VM QA, massively parallel tasks rented by the hourThursday, February 24, 2011Once you know whatʼs moving, figure out whether itʼs movingto Infrastructure, Platform, or third-party SaaS environments.
  74. 74. People, processes, technology (Only three tiny things to worry about.)Thursday, February 24, 2011
  75. 75. People The changing role of enterprise IT professionalsThursday, February 24, 2011Let’s face it: tomorrow’s IT team will look a lot differentfrom today’s.
  76. 76. Less of some things, more of others Less of More of Fire and forget Adapt and adjust Business case first Ongoing analytics Configuration Adaptive policies Procurement Terms & relationships Fishing Teaching people to fishThursday, February 24, 2011You’ll spend your time doing a lot less of some things,and a lot more of others.
  77. 77. Not everyone will surviveThursday, February 24, 2011And not everyone will make it.
  78. 78. Poor Ada.Thursday, February 24, 2011Let me tell you a story about ADA. This was an early object-oriented language, named for the Ada Lovelace, the first realprogrammer and muse to early computer inventors.
  79. 79. OO promised so much Object oriented (OOD) techniques and Ada (1985-95) Increased NASA code reuse by 300 percent Reduced all systems costs by 40 percent Shortened development cycle time by 25 percent Slashed error rates by 62 percentThursday, February 24, 2011Remember Object-Oriented Programming?Object oriented design (OOD) techniques and ADA (1985-95)
  80. 80. But fell so short Only 15-20% of FDD software written in Ada Naysayers resisted the language change Wanted to stay with what they knew (FORTRAN) Had reusable components maintained by others Evangelists didn’t help Promised too much too soon Avoided root issue: Lack of environmentThursday, February 24, 2011Only a certain percentage of NASAʼs coders could make thatjump. With sharded, shared-nothing, distributed data, that mayhappen again.
  81. 81. Processes Retooling the way you work: two simple testsThursday, February 24, 2011Okay, what about processes. How will they change? I cangive you two simple tests.
  82. 82. The first test What if you had to do it a thousand times?Thursday, February 24, 2011First, it’s all about large numbers. You’ll be measured on operating efficiency—things like theratio of people to servers. Metrics like cost per visitor-second. So everything you do, askyourself, how would you do it if it had to be done a thousand times?
  83. 83. The second test Can you throw a random thing from a tenth story window?Thursday, February 24, 2011Second, itʼs all about architectures. We donʼt buy one bigmachine we hope wonʼt break—we buy a thousand we knowwill break, just not all at once, and design for failure.
  84. 84. Technology A return to centralization, with services and portabilityThursday, February 24, 2011And the technology will change too.
  85. 85. Once upon a time: mainframes Computers expensive, humans cheap. IT Mainframes controlled CentralizedThursday, February 24, 2011In the early days of IT, computers were complicated andexpensive. Not a lot of people knew how to use them, and theywere precious. So humans bent to their will: we wrote inlanguages they understood, like assembler. We shared time,waiting until late at night to run batch jobs.
  86. 86. Client-server shares the load Computers cheaper, distance expensive, user tasks varied, UI changes IT Mainframes Client-server controlled Centralized DistributedThursday, February 24, 2011As computers became more affordable, we decided that some computing could happen at theedge of the network, in the client-server model.
  87. 87. The web puts developers on top Computers cheap, IT democratized, complexity expensive, WAN slow Web stack Developer (LAMP) controlled IT Mainframes Client-server controlled Centralized DistributedThursday, February 24, 2011Then the web – and with it an explosion of creativity – made iteasy for developers to build atop software stacks like LAMP.Developers were in charge, and while browsers wereeverywhere, this was a return to centralization: huge farms ofweb, app, and database servers in data centers handled theload.
  88. 88. Rich clients spread out again Users smarter, demanding better experiences, mobile, disconnected uses. Rich clients (AJAX, Web stack Developer Silverlight, tablet (LAMP) apps, Flash, Java) controlled IT Mainframes Client-server controlled Centralized DistributedThursday, February 24, 2011The rich client explosion – first in the browser, and now ontablets and mobile devices – is a second wave of distributedcomputing, this time, with the consumer and developer incharge.
  89. 89. Now: virtual architectures Virtualization & Separation of Workload clouds (adaptive compute, storage costly; controlled infrastructure) retooling the platforms Rich clients (AJAX, Web stack Developer Silverlight, tablet (LAMP) apps, Flash, Java) controlled IT Mainframes Client-server controlled Centralized DistributedThursday, February 24, 2011Now weʼre seeing the pendulum swing back to centralization,for several reasons.
  90. 90. Hairy, smoking golf balls., February 24, 2011The extraordinary Jim Gray of Microsodft described the CPU oftomorrow as a “smoking, hairy golf ball” – a tiny computerbristling with wires and generating a lot of heat. He also saidthat, compared to the cost of moving bytes around, everythingelse is basically free.
  91. 91. Thursday, February 24, 2011This means a return to centralized machines—but adaptiveones that can be re-tooled to handle different workloads, andthat are able to move applications from place to placeaccording to cost, compliance, and capacity policies.
  92. 92. What can IT do to prepare? Some practical steps.Thursday, February 24, 2011Yikes. So what can you do to prepare?
  93. 93. Cycle time from years to days Figure out how Developers, not to retool the accountants, data center on decide when the the fly with infrastructure virtualization, needs to centralized change. storage, automation.Thursday, February 24, 2011First, get ready for this adaptive, always-being-redesigned datacenter.
  94. 94. Extreme horizontal scaling Loads are tied to Resilient, elastic variable demand architectures from a and fast connected backplanes market; replace large developers code vertical boxes. in parallel.Thursday, February 24, 2011Second, focus on the kinds of architectures that let you passthe two tests we alluded to.
  95. 95. Portability matters Workloads move Look at between public portability & & private compatibility; platforms check out according to private cloud price, stacks. governance.Thursday, February 24, 2011Third, pay a lot of attention to cloud stacks like,Openstack, Redhat Makara, Xen, VMWare, Eucalyptus, andso on. You need to know that your workloads can movebetween them, which means you need standard virtualmachine formats and standard APIs and controls to managethem.
  96. 96. Service levels shift radically Performance A shared matters a lot; resource means learn to define competition for and negotiate capacity; utility service models mean contracts with you can pay for good faster. monitoring.Thursday, February 24, 2011Reconsider what performance and cost means. Thereʼs a hugechange coming here.
  97. 97. The end of perimeters Topology Focus on thinking about application- security won’t centric security last when and policies that workloads move survive around. relocation.Thursday, February 24, 2011Get ready to throw out your firewalls too.
  98. 98. From machines to services Seeing the sausage being made doesn’t Get ready for benefit anyone; PaaS and a set VMs are a nice of services. metaphor but a damned nuisance.Thursday, February 24, 2011And while you need to deliver comfortable, familiar models likevirtual machines today, figure out how PaaS offerings will getdeployed. Are you running a private storage service for largeobjects? a key-value store? Plenty of tools, public and private—Cassandra, Hadoop, Ceph, CouchDB, MongoDB,Hypertable, and more—are ready for you to play with.
  99. 99., February 24, 2011Remember this screen? Assume that in two years, this iswhat your business users will expect from you. And theywon’t want any more confusing details. They won’t carewhich machines they ran stuff on—just how many CPU-hours they consumed.Don’t believe me? How many of you have a mobilephone? How many know which cell towers and routersthey used in the last month?
  100. 100. The lesson of the answering machine Making Steve Wozniak really angryThursday, February 24, 2011Iʼm going to finish with a story about monopolies andinnovation, but with a different point this time.
  101. 101. “This was 1972 and it was illegal in the U.S. to use your own telephone. It was illegal in the U.S. to use your own answering machine. Hence it also virtually impossible to buy or own such devices.”Thursday, February 24, 2011
  102. 102. $700/monthThursday, February 24, 2011
  103. 103. Thursday, February 24, 2011
  104. 104. The genie is out of the bottle Stop looking for a cork; start deciding what to wish for.Thursday, February 24, 2011If I have to leave you with one idea, itʼs this.
  105. 105. Thanks! @acroll alistair@bitcurrent.comThursday, February 24, 2011