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# Chapter iii

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### Chapter iii

1. 1. CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH A. Time and Setting The writer did research at SMAN 1 Pegandon Kendal in the second semester of the academic year of 2011/2012. She conducted this research in second semester for about half mount began 21 May up to 29 May 2012. B. Population and Sample 1. Population Population is “the whole subset of research”. Population is generally areas which consist of object/subject which has certain quality and characteristic which decided by the researcher to study and then collected the summary.1 Population of this research was eleventh grade students of SMAN N 1 Pegandon Kendal in the academic year 2011/2012 second semester. The eleventh grade student of SMA N 1 Pegandon was divided into eight clases. There were class XI IPA 1, IPA 2, IPA 3, IPA 4, 1PS 1,IPS 2, IPS 3 and IPS 4. 2. Sample “Sample is a subset of individuals from a given population”. 2 Sample is taking of a part population using certain procedure. So, that can be expected to represent its population. In this case, sample must be representative with the true example (population) in the field. In this research, the researcher used cluster random sampling technique to choose which class to be the sample. Cluster random sampling is a technique to choose sample by random each class (population) and it is based on lottery. In this case, the researcher took sample from eleventh grade students ( XI IPS 4 as an experimental class and XI IPS 1 as a control class) of SMAN 1 Pegandon Kendal in the academic year 2011/2012. C. Variable of the Research Variable can be defined as an object of research. In this study there are two variables. They are Independent Variable (x) and (y). 1. Independent Variable (x) 1 Sugiyono, Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif Kualitatif dan R & D, ( Bandung: Alfabeta, 2008), p. 117 2 David Nunan, Research Methods in Language Learning, (New; York: Cambridge University Press , 1992), p.27.