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Superconductivity

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Superconductivity

  1. 1. Superconductivity in Electric Power SectorSubmitted by- Submitted to-Ashish Soreng Dr. Abhimanyu Mohapatra7th Sem, 0901106140 Dr. Ranjan Kumar JenaElectrical Engg.
  2. 2. CONTENTSIntroductionTypes Of SCLTS vs HTSProperties Of SCEnergy ApplicationsConclusion
  3. 3. Introduction Superconductors are broadly viewed as materials which have negligible resistance to the flow of electricity under low temperature conditions . The phenomenon of superconductivity was first observed in mercury by the Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes in 1911 Discovery of High Temperature superconductors in 1986 reignited interest in superconducting Power application because of lower cooling costs.
  4. 4. What is Superconductivity?Superconductivity is a phenomenon observed in several metals and ceramic materials. When these materials are cooled to temperatures ranging from near absolute zero ( 0 K, -2730 C) to liquid nitrogen temperatures ( 77 K, -1960 C), their electrical resistance drops with a jump down to zero.The temperature at which electrical resistance is zero is called the critical temperature (Tc)
  5. 5. Types of Superconductors Used Low Temperature Superconductors (LTS) Ex- Nb3Sn, Nb3Ge High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) Ex- YBCO
  6. 6. Shortcomings of LTSCritical Temperatures are Very lowCost of cooling is very high using Liquid HeliumFor LTS TC < 20KAdvent of HTS Comparatively higher critical Temperatures HTS show superconductivity at or above −196 °C(77 K) i.e. Temperature of Liquid NitrogenLiquid Nitrogen is 15 times cheaper than liquid . Helium
  7. 7. Properties required for practical superconductors
  8. 8. ApplicationsSuperconducting Magnetic Energy StoragePower Transmission CableTransformersFault Current LimiterRotating Machines
  9. 9. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES)SMES is a device for storing and instantaneously discharging large quantities of power.It stores electric energy in the magnetic field generated by DC current flowing through a coiled wire.The SMES recharges within minutes and can repeat the charge/dischargesequence thousands of times withoutany degradation of the magnet.
  10. 10. Components Of SMES SystemSuperconductor CoilsPower Conditioning SystemCryogenically Cooled RefrigeratorVacuum Vessel
  11. 11. How Does It Work?Stores Electric Energy in Magnetic Field•Superconductors have zero resistance to DC electrical current at low temperaturesVery low Ohmic heat dissipationEnergy stored within the coil is given by
  12. 12. E= 5kJ E= 200kJ
  13. 13. Operation Of SMES SystemTransmission Voltage is reduced to several hundred VoltsAC is converted into DCDC Voltage charges the Superconducting CoilThe coil discharges and acts as a source of energy when AC Network requires power boost
  14. 14. Advantages Of SMES• Time Delay during charge and discharge is quite short• Very High Power is available almost instantaneously• Loss of power is less than other storage method• High Reliability.• Environmental friendly and highly efficient
  15. 15. Power Transmission CablesSince 10% to 15% of generated electricity is dissipated in resistive losses in transmission lines, the prospect of zero loss superconducting transmission lines is appealing In prototype superconducting transmission lines at Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1000 MW of power can be transported within an enclosure of diameter 40 cm.
  16. 16. TransformersHTS Transformer have low lossesSize and Weight are reduced by half.HTS Transformer are cooled by Cryo Coolers rather than dielectric flammable oil =>No Threat Of Fire hazards
  17. 17. Fault Current LimitersHTS Current Limiters Protects against disturbances such as Power Surges due to Lightning or Accidents.HTS coils absorb excess energy due to large pulse of current within MillisecondsHTS Current Limiters can effectively Limit the Current spikes Circuit Breaker must handle.
  18. 18. Rotating MachinesEfficiency improvements near 1%Decreased size and weight for equivalent ratingsImproved steady state and transient system performanceReduced life-cycle costs
  19. 19. ConclusionFurther R&D is in progress to synthesize new materials which might attain superconductivity at even room temperaturesSuch an invention can truly revolutionize the modern world of electronics, power & transportation
  20. 20. References http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superconducting_magnetic_energy_storage http://www.ornl.gov/ http://www.superconductorweek.com/
  21. 21. Thank you

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