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Oracle SQL- The Practice and Praxis


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A Pragmatic Guide to Developing Applications Using Oracle SQL for Beginners.

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Oracle SQL- The Practice and Praxis

  1. 1. 0 Oracle SQL-The Practice and PraxisLearn Oracle SQL | Digital Experts.
  2. 2. ORACLE SQL – THE PRACTICE AN PRAXIS Author: Adebisi Haruna E. Published by: Digital Experts Center 1 All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in reviews. © 2011 by Digital Experts Oracle SQL – The Practice and Praxis
  3. 3. CONTENTS AT A GLANCE 1. Introduction 2. Installation and Configuration 3. The SQL SELECT Statement 2 4 Restricting and Sorting Data 5 Using Single Row Functions to Customize Output 6. Reporting Aggregated Data Using Group Output 7. Displaying Data from Multiple Tables 8. Using Sub-Queries to Solve Queries 9. Using Set Operators 10. Data Manipulation Language 11. Using Data Definition Language to Create and Manage Tables 12. Creating Other Schema Objects Oracle SQL – The Practice and Praxis
  4. 4. 13. Managing Schema Objects 14. Managing Schema Objects Using the Dictionary View 3 Oracle SQL – The Practice and Praxis
  5. 5. WARNING AND DISCLAIMER This 299 page book is designed to be your step by step tutorial in developing applications using Oracle SQL. With the use of numerous worked examples and accompanying screen shoots, every effort has been made to make this book as complete and accurate as possible, but no warranty or fitness is implied. 4 Digital Experts is an independent entity from ORACLE Corporation. This publication may be used to prepare for the Oracle SQL Certification Exams but neither Digital Experts nor Oracle Corporation warrants that, the use of this publication will ensure passing the relevant Exam. The information in this book is provided on an “as is” basis and Digital Experts shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the use of this information or the accompanying disc. Oracle SQL – The Practice and Praxis
  6. 6. TRADEMARK ACKNOWLEDGMENTS All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. Oracle and the Oracle Logo are either trademarks or registered trademarks of ORACLE Corporation. 5 Oracle SQL – The Practice and Praxis
  7. 7. ABOUT THE AUTHOR Adebisi Haruna is a software developer, teacher, author and business executive. She has an educational background in computer science and holds a few computer industry certifications. She lives in Nigeria with her immediate family and a large screen computer. 6 THE DIGITAL EXPERTS TEAM • • • • • • Job Atabor Tosyn Nick John Okoro Cynthia Chia Nathan Oluchukwu Amaka Nwafor Oracle SQL – The Practice and Praxis
  8. 8. WHO SHOULD READ THIS BOOK? 7 Oracle SQL (The Practice and Praxis1) is a study material for the beginner who intends to have a strong hold on database applications development using Structured Query Language, it is also a quick reference material for the professional developer who may just need to confirm some codes from time to time and a preparation tool for the student who intends to sit for the Oracle SQL Certification Exam IZO 147. This series is not intended to be a single source for the amateur developer or student. However, we are confident that this book will exceed the demanding standard of the market place and help you in your day to day use of Oracle SQL. Oracle SQL – The Practice and Praxis
  9. 9. HOW THIS BOOK HELPS YOU. Oracle SQL (The Practice and Praxis1) helps you get a full understanding of the SQL syntax through the use of many real life examples, explanations and screen photo’s. Before starting to study, use the accompanying disc to install Oracle SQL on your Personal Computer and then run the examples life on your PC. 8 If a syntax error is displayed, check for smelling mistakes on you lines of code. PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE While no previous knowledge is compulsory, it is advisable that students have a fair knowledge of the use of computers, considerable typing skills and familiar with the windows work environment. Oracle SQL – The Practice and Praxis
  10. 10. FEED BACK The staffs of Digital Experts are committed to bringing you the best in computer and educational resources. Each book we publish is a result of long periods of hard work by our authors and staff, who have researched and refined the information contained therein. 9 As part of our commitment to you, we invite your input. Please let us know if you found this book resourceful or you have trouble with the information/examples presented. You can send a mail to: Or Call: 23481-71171017 Good Luck in your pursuit. Oracle SQL – The Practice and Praxis
  11. 11. 10 1. INTRODUCTION TO ORACLE SQL Oracle SQL – The Practice and Praxis
  12. 12. OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, you should be able to: 1. Know what data is and what a database is. 2. Understand Database Management Systems and Relational Databases. 3. Understand the use of SQL and Oracle SQL. 11 Oracle SQL – The Practice and Praxis
  13. 13. INTRODUCTION TO ORACLE SQL In this lesson, let us ask ourselves the big question is WHAT IS ORACLE? ORACLE is relational database management software. is a collection of facts, such as values, numbers, words, measurements, observations or the descriptions of things. DATA 12 A DATABASE refers to an organized mechanism for storing, managing and retrieving information. A database performs this typical function through the use of tables. If you are familiar with spreadsheets, like Microsoft Excel, you’re probably already accustomed to storing data in tabular form. You would just move further, from spreadsheets to databases. A customer database for example, contain the customer's ID, first name, last name, and email address, and each row contains an individual customer’s data. Database Management System (DBMS), also called a database manager, is a program that lets one or more computer users, create and access data in a database. The DBMS manages user requests so that users and other programs are free from having to understand where the data is physically located. A A DBMS is a software package with computer programs that control the creation, maintenance, and the use of database, allowing organizations to conveniently develop databases for various uses. A DBMS would also allow different user programs to concurrently access the same database. Database Applications are used in banks, schools, airlines, hospitals, cooperate offices etc. When we make flight reservations online, we are providing information that is entered into a Oracle SQL – The Practice and Praxis
  14. 14. database management system. When we buy at the supermarket and get a receipt, that sale is recorded in a database. On a more personal level, our personal computer can have its own database management system. We may have Microsoft Excel sheets that contain mountains of data. Any time we fill up a sheet with data and run queries to find and analyze data in different ways, we are accessing a database management system. 13 A Relational Database Management System stores up all its information in tables but it also stores information about the relationship between its tables. In a relational database management system, data can be accessed or reassembled in many different ways without having to change the table forms. To communicate with the RDBMS, we need a language. which we call SQL is an international standard language for communicating with relational databases. STRUCTURED QUERY LANGUAGE SQL can create, delete, and change data in tables. It can also input data into tables and remove data. It is a data handling language. Just like any other language, SQL has dialects and ORACLE SQL is the dialect that communicates with the Oracle Database. Oracle SQL – The Practice and Praxis
  15. 15. REVISION QUESTIONS 14 1. Explain the use of data 2. . What are databases and how are they used in today’s society. 3. What do the following abbreviations stand for: a. DBMS. b. RDBMS. c. SQL. 4. Compare a Microsoft Excel spread sheet with a Database.. Oracle SQL – The Practice and Praxis
  16. 16. 15 2. INSTALLATION CONFIGURATION AND Oracle SQL – The Practice and Praxis