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Civil Disobedience and Gandhi

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  1. 1. <ul><li>Do Now </li></ul><ul><li>Is passive resistance a more effective tool than violent resistance? </li></ul><ul><li>When would it be most effective? </li></ul><ul><li>How can people resist passively? Do you have an example? </li></ul>
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Explain India’s role during World War I </li></ul><ul><li>Explain nationalism in India and how it led to resistance of the British </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the effects of non-violent protests and Gandhi’s impact on India’s quest for independence </li></ul><ul><li>Define the Rowlatt Act </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the Amritsar Massacre and it’s effects on India (video clip) </li></ul><ul><li>Examine civil disobedience and some of the repercussions that came of it </li></ul>
  3. 3. Homework <ul><li>Read Chapter 15 Section 5 and complete questions 1, 3 and 4 </li></ul>
  4. 5. Review <ul><li>India was greatly exploited during the Age of Imperialism. </li></ul><ul><li>India was the Jewel in the British Crown and was treated as a place to exploit </li></ul>
  5. 6. World War I: India <ul><li>Contributed to British war effort providing men and resources. </li></ul><ul><li>About 1.3 million Indian soldiers and laborers served in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>Indian government sent large supplies of food, money, and ammunition </li></ul><ul><li>British promised Indians greater self-government </li></ul>
  6. 7. Nationalism after WWI <ul><li>Nationalist activity began in India , Turkey , and some of the Southwest Asian countries </li></ul>
  7. 8. Indian Nationalism Grows <ul><li>Indians applies European views of nationalism and democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Even though Hindus and Muslim were divided, they had the same goal: Independence </li></ul>
  8. 9. Nationalist Activity <ul><li>India wanted self-government </li></ul><ul><li>Joined the British army </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thought they would gain more rights in government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> But NO, still treated poorly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Angered Indians acted violently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British Governments formed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Rowlatt Act ” : protesters in prison without trial. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Educated Indians denied this law, rebelled </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Unhappy <ul><li>After WWI Britain proposed only a few minor reforms </li></ul><ul><li>People in Northern India were unhappy and protests sparked riots and attacks on British residents </li></ul>
  10. 11. GANDHI Mohandas Gandhi, often called the Mahatma or “Great Soul” was born in India on October 2, 1869. His ideas inspired Indians of all religious and ethnic backgrounds. Non-violent protests caught the attention of the British government and the rest of the world
  11. 13. Rowlatt Act <ul><li>Passed by British in colonial India March 1919 in order to control public unrest and root out conspiracy. </li></ul><ul><li>British judge Sir Sidney Rowlatt </li></ul><ul><li>Authorized government to imprison for a max of two years, without trial, any person suspected of terrorism India </li></ul><ul><li>Gave British imperial authorities power to deal with revolutionary activities. </li></ul>
  12. 14. Rowlatt Act (Cont.) <ul><li>Mohandas Gandhi was extremely critical of the Act and argued that not everyone should be punished in response to isolated political crimes. </li></ul><ul><li>Gandhi found that constitutional opposition to the measure was fruitless, so on April 6, a &quot;hartal&quot; was organized where Indians would suspend all business and fast as a sign of their hatred for the legislation. </li></ul><ul><li>Called the Rowlatt satyagraha. </li></ul>
  13. 15. Do Now <ul><li>Would Gandhi’s nonviolent approach work in the United States? Why or why not? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we compare the revolts in Libya and Egypt to the Indian Independence movement? </li></ul><ul><li>Are both countries experiencing similar hardship? </li></ul>
  14. 16. Objectives <ul><li>Explain the Amritsar Massacre and its repercussions </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate nonviolence movements and passive movements </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze movie clip on Amritsar Massacre </li></ul>
  15. 17. Amritsar Massacre April 1919 <ul><li>Hindus and Muslim gather in Amritsar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>angered British </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British government forbid public meetings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British commander told the army to kill them-> 400 died. 1200 wounded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Angered India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loyal Indians  revolutionaries and nationalists </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 18. Amritsar Massacre (cont.) <ul><li>A turning point for many Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Convinced them that India needed to govern itself </li></ul>
  17. 19. Video Clip: Amritsar Massacre Disc 1 chapter 11+12
  18. 20. <ul><li>&quot;if we continue to take an eye for an eye, the whole world will go blind” </li></ul>
  19. 23. Mohandas K. Gandhi <ul><li>Gandhi: Leader of Indian Independence movement </li></ul><ul><li>Politically acted with his religious ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Called Mahatma = “ GREAT SOUL ” </li></ul>
  20. 24. Roots of the Idea <ul><li>Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Led India’s struggle for independence against the British from 1915 to his death in 1948. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advocated non-violent direct action which he called Satyagraha , meaning “clinging to the truth.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-violence a core attribute, not just a tactic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courage, discipline & strength essential </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizes the unity of all living things </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 25. Civil Disobedience <ul><li>Stated principle of satyagraha= “ truth-force, ” “ civil disobedience ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disobeying unfair laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gandhi required “ No Violence ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose: Take the moral high ground; demonstrate the immorality of the British </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>weaken British government and economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Don ’ t do things that will help British. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boycott of British cloth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dropped British cloth sales </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 26. Gandhi’s Satyagraha <ul><li>Different than passive resistance, which is a weapon of the weak. Not the same level of discipline and courage needed as in Satyagraha, and therefore violence is possible. Passive resistance does not require “complete adherence to truth.” </li></ul>
  23. 27. Gandhi’s Satyagraha <ul><li>But if nonviolence is essential, how can the resisters prevail? What type of force do they use? </li></ul>
  24. 28. Gandhi’s Satyagraha <ul><li>Gandhi called it love-force or soul-force ( ahimsa ), a relentless but gentle insistence on truth in dealing with friends as well as enemies, neighbors as well as rulers. </li></ul><ul><li>Not simply a weapon used selectively to achieve a particular change, but an attitude toward one’s entire life. </li></ul>
  25. 29. Gandhi’s Satyagraha <ul><li>What does Gandhi say to those who warn of the threat of anarchy? </li></ul>
  26. 30. Gandhi’s Satyagraha <ul><li>Civil disobedience is an inherent right of a citizen and is never followed by anarchy, unlike criminal disobedience, which must be put down by a state using force. </li></ul><ul><li>The follower of Satyagraha “obeys the laws of society intelligently and of his own free will, because he considers it to be his sacred duty to do so.” Only then is he or she able to judge what laws are just and unjust, and resist the unjust laws in “well-defined circumstances.” </li></ul>
  27. 31. Examples <ul><li>Gandhi </li></ul><ul><li>MLK/Rosa Parks </li></ul><ul><li>Nelson Mandela—South Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Anti War demonstrations and sit ins—Vietnam War </li></ul>
  28. 32. Salt March----March 1930 <ul><li>Indians could only buy salt from British government </li></ul><ul><li>Set out with 78 followers walked 240 miles to the sea coast </li></ul><ul><li>After he got his sea salt he was quickly arrested and jailed </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal villages starting collecting salt, sold salt on streets, thousands of Indians imprisoned </li></ul>
  29. 33. Video Clip: Salt March Disc 1 17-19 Salt March Clip Amritsar Massacre Clip
  30. 34. Step Toward Freedom <ul><li>British reacted harshly </li></ul><ul><li>Peaceful marchers clubbed </li></ul><ul><li>Gandhi’s campaign forced Britain to hand over some power to the Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Britain also met other demands of the Congress party </li></ul>
  31. 35. India Self-Rule <ul><li>Indians gain political power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government of India Act: providing self-government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helped move closer to full independence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslims & Hindus fought for more power </li></ul></ul>
  32. 36. <ul><li>DO NOT: 1. Strike back nor curse if abused. 2. Laugh out. 3. Hold conversations with floor walker. 4. Leave your seat until your leader has given you permission to do so. 5. Block entrances to stores outside nor the aisles inside. DO: 1. Show yourself friendly and courteous at all times. 2. Sit straight; always face the counter. 3. Report all serious incidents to your leader. 4. Refer information seekers to your leader in a polite manner. 5. Remember the teachings of Jesus Christ, Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King. Love and nonviolence is the way. </li></ul>
  33. 37. <ul><li>You must be the change you want to see in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>I object to violence because when it appears to do good, the good is only temporary; the evil it does is permanent. </li></ul><ul><li>The weak can never forgive. Forgiveness is the attribute of the strong. </li></ul>
  34. 38. <ul><li>&quot;There are many causes that I am prepared to die for but no causes that I am prepared to kill for.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>'I do believe,' he wrote, 'that where there is only a choice between cowardice and violence, I would advise violence.'&quot; </li></ul>
  35. 39. <ul><li>Power is of two kinds. One is obtained by the fear of punishment and the other by acts of love. Power based on love is a thousand times more effective and permanent then the one derived from fear of punishment. </li></ul>
  36. 42. India and Ghandi timeline <ul><li>1858-India is almost entirely controlled by Britain—resources </li></ul><ul><li>1869-Ghandi born </li></ul><ul><li>1885-Indian Nation Congress is formed </li></ul><ul><li>1906-Muslim League is founded (25% of Indian pop) </li></ul>
  37. 43. India and Ghandi timeline <ul><li>Calls for peaceful protest-boycott of British cloth—all Indians should make homespun cloths-satyagraha </li></ul><ul><li>1919-Amritsar massacre </li></ul><ul><li>1930-Dandi March— protest salt tax </li></ul><ul><li>1947-creation of India and East and West Pakistan—1 year later, Ghandi assasinated </li></ul>
  38. 44. India and Ghandi timeline <ul><ul><li>Anti-British terrorism erupts with no reform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1918-Rowlett Act—Indians can be jailed without trial and cannot gather in crowds </li></ul></ul>