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  1. 1. HepatitisWas prepared by:Bisan Rjoub
  2. 2. Introduction• defined by the inflammation of the liver.• The condition can be self-limiting (healing on its own)• or can progress to fibrosis (scarring) and cirrhosis. cirrhosis
  3. 3. • Hepatitis is acute when it lasts less than six months and chronic when it persists longer.• A group of viruses known as the hepatitis viruses cause most cases.• but it can also be due to toxins (e.g: alcohol), certain medications, some industrial organic solvents and autoimmune diseases.
  4. 4. • Introduction• Signs and symptoms• Diagnosis• Treatment
  5. 5. Introduction• caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) Originally known as "serum hepatitis"• About a third of the world population has been infected at one point in their lives• The virus is transmitted by exposure to infectious blood or body fluids such as semen and vaginal fluids
  6. 6. • while viral DNA has been detected in the saliva, tears, and urine of chronic carriers.• cannot be spread by holding hands, sharing eating utensils or drinking glasses, coughing, sneezing, or
  7. 7. Signs and symptoms• The acute illness causes liver inflammation, vomiting , jaundice and, rarely, death.• Chronic hepatitis B may eventually cause cirrhosis and liver cancer hepatoma
  8. 8. • Ground glass hepatocytes as seen in a chronic hepatitis B. Liver biopsy. H&E stain.
  9. 9. DiagnosisI. Blood tests to detect hepatitis B infection, include:1. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) test:positive for this antigenmeans have an active hepatitis B infection and can easily pass the virus to others.
  10. 10. 2. The antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) test: positive: means cant infect others or become infected because patientre protected by the vaccine or own natural immunity.3. The antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) test: positive: may have a chronic infection that can transmit to others.
  11. 11. II. Additional tests to gauge liver health and infection severity ,include:1. The E antigen blood test: positive: means have high levels of the virus in the blood and can easily infect others.2. The hepatitis B DNA test: indicating how much virus is present (viral load).
  12. 12. 3. Liver function tests: may gauge the amount of damage that has occurred in the liver cells.III.Removing a sample of liver tissue for testing : During a liver biopsy, doctor inserts a thin needle through the skin and into the liver . show the extent of any liver damage.
  13. 13. Liver biopsy
  14. 14. TreatmentI. Treatment to prevent hepatitis B infection after exposure : Receiving an injection of hepatitis B immune globulin within 24 hours of coming in contact with the virus may help protect from developing hepatitis B.
  15. 15. II. Treatment for acute hepatitis B infection : not need treatment. Instead, doctor will work to reduce any signs and symptoms you experience while your body fights the infection.III.Treatment for chronic hepatitis B infection :1. Antiviral medications
  16. 16. 1. Liver transplant.