Biocompatible Polymers


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Biocompatible Polymers

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  3. 3. CONTENTS Introduction to Polymers Classification of polymers Biocompatible polymersRequirements for polymersBiocompatibility of polymers Biocompatibility testing Applications Summary References 3
  4. 4. What are polymers?Polymers: Macromolecules formed by joining of repeatingstructural units called as monomers .(“Poly”-many, “mer” -unit or part). Covalent bond Monomer Monomer “Mono”- one Two monomers “mer”- part Dimer “Di”- two Repeat “mer”- part attachment of monomers Polymer 4
  5. 5. Classification of Polymers Based on molecular forces Based onsusceptibility Based onof backbone source Classification of polymers Based on Based on mode of structure polymeriza tion 5
  6. 6. Cont...... 6
  7. 7. Cont........Classification based on Structure of polymers1. Linear polymers e.g. P.V.C., High density Polythene2. Branched polymers e.g. Low density Polythene3. Cross linked or Network polymers e.g. Bakelite 7
  8. 8. Cont.......Classification based on mode of polymerization Addition polymers Condensation polymers e.g. Polythene, Buna-S etc. e.g. Terylene, Nylon 6 etc. 8
  9. 9. Cont….. Elastomers e.g. Buna- S, Buna-NThermosetting Classification Fibres polymers based on e.g. Nylon6,6, e.g. Bakelite molecular Terylene forces Thermoplastic polymers e.g. Polythene 9
  10. 10. Cont…Classification based on susceptibility of backbone Degradable Non-degradable polymers polymers e.g. Polylactide, Polyglycolid e.g. Polypropylene, Polyethylene 10
  11. 11. What are biocompatible polymers?Biocompatible polymers are synthetic or natural polymersused to replace part of a living system or to function inintimate contact with living tissue.Biocompatible polymers are intended to interface withbiological systems to evaluate, treat, augment or replace anytissue, organ or function of the body. 11
  12. 12. Requirements for biocompatible polymers 12
  13. 13. Biocompatibility of polymersBiocompatibility term is used to describe the suitabilityof a polymer for exposure to the body or bodily fluids.A polymer will be considered biocompatible, if itallows the body to function without any complicationssuch as allergic reactions or other adverse side effects. 13
  14. 14. Complications of use of Non-biocompatible polymers Extended chronic inflammation at the contact point. Cytotoxicity. Cell disruption. Skin irritation. Thrombosis. Corrosion of an implant (if used). 14
  15. 15. Biocompatibility testing of polymers Biocompatibility testing answers two fundamental questions: Is the polymer safe? Does it have necessary physical and chemical properties? This consist of in vitro and in vivo assessments that are relevant to theapplications of polymers.A variety of tests are necessary to determinebiocompatibility, depending on the type and application of polymer.Generally ISO 10993 series have been followed across the globe tostandardize the biocompatible testing scheme. 15
  16. 16. APPLICATIONSTissue cultureTissue scaffoldsImplantable controlled drug delivery systems Catheters and dialysis tubingArtificial graftsTo fabricate wound closure devicesEnvelopes for the implantation of cardiac devicesStents such as biliary stents, esophageal stents, vaginal stents, lung,Trachea/bronchus stentsCoating on medical devices such as vascular grafts, wound dressingsand surgical sealants to improve blood compatibility Wildlife vaccination 16
  17. 17. Examples of Biocompatible polymer applications1. Tissue culture2. Tissue scaffolds3. Wildlife vaccination 17
  18. 18. Biocompatible polymer for tissue culture Poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) “PIPA” PIPA changes properties at different temperatures 370 320 Collapsed Expanded structure structureHow could this property be used for medical applications? 18
  19. 19. Growing cell sheets using PIPA PIPA Polymer 1. Coat surface 2. Apply live cells with polymer Reduce temp.4. Harvest cells 3. Allow cells to grow Cell can be grown outside the body 19
  20. 20. Examples of cell sheets Cardiac cells Skin (epitheliall )cells Cell sheets have great potential to treat many injuries/diseasesSkin cell graft on patient 20
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  23. 23. Vaccine delivery to animals Biobullets (Sugar bullets) Solid hydrogels of vaccine Bullet penetratesHydrogels can be formed in biobullets target, degrade and releases Air rifle delivery content 23
  24. 24. Examples & applications of some polymersName of polymer Typical applicationsPolyvinylchloride Blood tubing, as blood bags.(PVC)Polytetrafluoroethylene Tubing, endoscopes, cannulas, catheter(PTFE) linings, Synthetic blood vessels, Surgical sutures.Polyethersulfone (PES) Tubing, cathetersPolyethylene Orthopedic sutures, artificial tendons(PE)Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) Dentistry products, rigid tubingPolysulfone Surgical and medical devices, clamps,(PS) artificial Heart components, heart valvesPolypropylene (PP) Heart valves 24
  25. 25. SUMMARY 25
  26. 26. REFERENCES1. V. Prasad Shastri, “Non-Degradable Biocompatible Polymers in Medicine: Past, Present and Future”, School of Medicine and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.2. ISO 7405 (1984): International Organization For Standardization, Technical Report 7’405, Biological Evaluation of Dental Materials.3. R. James Christie, “Biocompatible polymers: design, function and applications”, Utsunomiya girl’s high school, USA.4. polymers. 26
  27. 27. Cont........5. Bhola R., Bhola S.M., Liang H., Mishra B., “Biocompatible Denture Polymers – A Review” Department of Metallurgical & Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401.6. Quansah J.K., “Synthetic polymers for biocompatible biomaterials”, Materials Literature seminar, September 23, 2004.7. polymers.8. Hiemenz P.C., Marcel Dekker, “Polymer Chemistry- The Basic Concepts”, Inc. Publication. Page no. 03. 27
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