High energy and capacity cathode material for li ion battries


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Recent development in cathode materials for li-ion batteries drag the industries view towards it due to their high discharge rate compare to older ones.

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High energy and capacity cathode material for li ion battries

  1. 1. VISVESVARAYA TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY centre for post graduate studies, Bangalore seminar on High Capacity and High Energy Density Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Battery By Under the Guidance of Natraj USN: 1VW12INT12 Dr. Dinesh R Special officer, VTU CPGSB
  2. 2. INDEX Introduction to Battery – Timeline Lithium ion battery Cathode materials Advantages and Disadvantages of LI-Ion Batteries Advances in cathode materials Promising cathode materials Methodologies References
  3. 3. Battery A battery is a transducer that converts chemical energy into electrical energy and vice versa. It contains An anode - source A cathode - sink An electrolyte - the separation of ionic transport and electronic transport Types: Primary and secondary
  4. 4. Timeline for the major events in the history of batteries
  5. 5. Introduction to Li-Ion Battery The name of “lithium ion battery” was given by T. Nagaura and K. Tozawa The concept of “lithium ion battery” was firstly introduced by Asahi Kasei Co. Ltd Lithium ion batteries were first proposed by M. S. Whittingham in the 1970’s. Whittingham used TiS2 as the cathode and Lithium metal as the anode. The 1991 first commercial lithium-ion battery was released by Sony in
  6. 6. Why Li-Ion Battery? Li is lightest metal one of the highest standard reduction potentials (-3.0 V)  Theoretical specific capacity of 3860 Ah/kg in comparison with 820 Ah/kg for Zn and 260 Ah/kg for Pb performance is related not only capacity but also to how fast current can be drawn from it: specific energy (Wh/Kg), energy density (Wh/cm3) and power density (W/Kg)
  7. 7. Schematic representation of a Lithium-ion cell
  8. 8. Advantages of Lithium-ion batteries  POWER – High energy density means greater power in a smaller package. ◦ 160% greater than NiMH ◦ 220% greater than NiCd  HIGHER VOLTAGE – a strong current allows it to power complex mechanical devices.  LONG SHELF-LIFE – only 5% discharge loss per month. 10% for NiMH, 20% for NiCd
  9. 9. Disadvantages of Lithium-ion batteries  EXPENSIVE  DELICATE  REGULATIONS
  10. 10. Cathode materials A cathode is the electrode of an electrochemical cell at which reduction occurs Common cathode materials of Lithium-ion batteries are the transition metal oxide based compounds such as LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, LiNiO2, LiFePO4
  11. 11. characteristics of cathode materials A high discharge voltage A high energy capacity A long cycle life A high power density Light weight Low self-discharge
  12. 12. Parameters effecting Cathode behavior Method of Particle preparation size Morphology Temperature
  13. 13. CATHODE MATERIALS Material Structur Potential vs. e Li/Li+, average v Specific capacity, mAh/g Specific energy, Wh/kg LiCoO2 Layered 3.9 140 546 LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) Layered 3.8 180-200 680-760 LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NMC) Layered 3.8 160-170 610-650 LiMn2O4 Spinel 4.1 100-120 410-492 LiFePO4 olivine 3.45 150-170 518-587
  14. 14. Ways to Improve Cathode Performance • Increasing Energy Density • Thin nano-plate materials • 30 nm LiFePO4 nano-plates performed better than thick material • Surface Coating of cathodes with either ionically or electronically conductive material • AlF3 coating on oxide materials is shown to improve performance
  15. 15. Problems in the usage of Cathode materials  Raw material cost  Environmental impact of large-scale cells and mass production  Production cost of solid-state synthesis using high and long heating process  Heat generation from the cathode in a fully charged state  Sensitivity of safety for charge cutoff voltages  Low practical capacity of the cathode being half that of a carbonaceous anode
  16. 16. Methodologies There are several methods to synthesize the cathode materials of average particle size and good crystallinity. Hydrothermal process Solvothermal process Supercritical fluid process Spray pyrolysis process
  17. 17. Conclusions and what does the future hold  In present day common Lithium transition compounds such as LiCoO2, LiNiO2, LiMn2O4 and LiFePO4 are used as cathode material in battery cell production, and they have shown a good performance during charge and discharge cycling  For the future there are still a number of actions of interest to further develop the performance of derived LiFePO4/C cathode material  We expect upcoming researches on this new framework will lead to better cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries
  18. 18. References •Directed growth of nanoarchitectured LiFePO4 electrode by solvothermal synthesis and their cathode properties Authors: Dinesh Rangappa, Koji Sone, Tetsuichi Kudo, Itaru Honma •Synthesis of LiMn2O4 nanoparticles made by flame spray pyrolysis Authors: T. J. Patey,ab R. Bu¨ chel,c M. Nakayamab and P. Nova´k*a •Monodisperse Porous LiFePO4 Microspheres for a High Power Li-Ion Battery Cathode by Solvothermal process Authors: Chunwen Sun, Shreyas Rajasekhara, John B. Goodenough,* and Feng Zhou •Flame spray-pyrolyzed vanadium oxide nanoparticles for lithium battery cathodes Authors: See-How Ng, Timothy J. Patey et.al •Rapid one-pot synthesis of LiMPO4 (M = Fe, Mn) colloidal nanocrystals by supercritical ethanol process Authors: Dinesh Rangappa,* Koji Sone, Masaki Ichihara, Tetsuichi Kudob and Itaru Honma* •Recent developments in cathode materials for lithium ion batteries Author: Jeffrey W. Fergus more ……. and many