PRESENTED BY:- BIPIN VISHRAM PARAB
STD:- S.Y.B.COM. DIV:- C.
ROLL NO:- 1370
WHAT IS CANCER
Cancer is the name given to a large group of diseases, all of which have
one thing in common: cells that are growing out of control. Normally, the cells
that make up all of the parts of our bodies go through a predictable life cycle --
old cells die, and new cells arise to take their place. Occasionally, this process
goes awry, and cells begin to multiply out of control. The end result is a mass of
cells, called a tumor.
There are several major types of cancers: carcinomas form in the cells
that cover the skin or line the mouth, throat, lungs and organs; sarcomas are
found in the bones, muscles, fibrous tissues and some organs; leukemia is
found in the blood, the bone marrow, and the spleen; and lymphomas are
found in the lymphatic system.
CAUSES OF CANCER
Cancer often takes many years to develop. The process typically begins with
some disruption to the DNA of a cell, the genetic code that directs the life of the
cell. There can be many reasons for disruptions, such as diet, tobacco, sun
exposure, reproductive history or certain chemicals. Some cells will enter a
precancerous phase, known as dysplasia.
SYMPTOMS OF CANCER
Since cancer can arise from such a wide variety of sites and develop with
many differing patterns of spread, there are no clear-cut symptoms. Cancer is
unlike many more specific diseases such as heart disease or arthritic disease.
Many primary tumors cause local swelling or lump if they arise at a
visible or accessible part of the body, such as a skin, breast, testicle or oral
cavity. A typical swelling due to a cancer is initially painless, though
ulceration (skin breakdown) can occur, which may then become painful.
TREATMENT OF CANCER
The aim of cancer treatment is to cure the patient and save life. The cases
where complete cure is not possible, treatment aims to control the disease and
to keep the patient normal and comfortable as long as possible. The treatment of
each patient is designed to suit an individual and depends on the age of the
patient, stage and type of disease. There may be only one treatment or
combination of treatments. There are four main modalities of treatment: Surgery
, Radiation therapy, Chemotherapy, hormone therapy and Immunotherapy.
Radiation is a special kind of energy carried by waves or a stream of
particles originating from radioactive substances and delivered by special
machines. These radioactive x-rays or gamma rays can penetrate the cell wall
and damage the nucleus of the cell which prevents growth and division of cells.
This also affects the normal cells but these cells recover more fully than cancer
TYPES OF CANCER
Primary bone cancer -- cancer that actually starts in bone tissue -- is
relatively rare. Bone cancer can occur in any of the bones of the body, but it
occurs most often in the long bones of the arms and legs.
While it can occur at any age, the most common types occur in children and
The most common symptom of bone cancer is pain, which is caused either
by the spread of the tumor or by the breaking of bone that is weakened by a
tumor. Stiffness or tenderness in the bone may also occur. Sometimes there are
other symptoms, such as fatigue, fever, swelling, and stumbling.
Surgery is used to remove the bone cancer itself. When operating to remove bone
tumors, surgeons remove some of the surrounding bone and muscle to be sure
that they are removing as much cancerous tissue as possible. If the operation is
on an arm or leg, the surgeon will try, as much as possible, to preserve the limb
and maintain its functionality. Sometimes the bone that is removed will be
replaced with bone from another part of the body, bone from the tissue bank or
with an artificial replacement.
Radiation therapy is sometimes given together with surgery, to destroy tumors or to
reduce the size of the tumor. Radiation therapy may also be used to kill remaining
cancer cells after surgery, or treat tumors that cannot be surgically removed --
sometimes in combination with chemotherapy.
Chemotherapy is often used to treat primary bone cancers, in conjunction with
surgery. Chemotherapy is commonly given before surgery to facilitate surgery and
also after surgery to kill any cancer cells that remain in the body after the main
tumor is removed surgically.
Many patients with primary liver cancer have no symptoms. In some instances,
jaundice, malaise, or a general feeling of poor health, loss of appetite, weight loss,
fever, fatigue, bloating, itching, swelling of the legs, or weakness may be present.
Abdominal pain or discomfort may also occur
Most primary liver cancers are best treated by surgery to remove the diseased
portion of the liver. Until the early 1980s, surgery to remove primary liver tumors
was rarely done. But now highly complex liver operations are performed with great
frequency, success, and safety at Tata Memorial Centre.
Radiation therapy is used in selected cases to help control tumors. Radiation
oncologists here use new techniques to focus the radiation beam on the tumor and
spare the normal liver from injury.
More than 90,000 men and 79,000 women are diagnosed each year with cancer of
the lungs and bronchi (the air tubes leading to the lungs). Among men, the
incidence of lung cancer has been declining, but it continues to increase among
women. The number of lung cancer deaths among women surpasses those from
Recent studies indicate that female smokers may be more likely to develop lung
cancer than male smokers.
Depending on the type and stage of the disease, lung cancer can be treated with
surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy
For patients whose tumors are somewhat more advanced, a program of
chemotherapy before surgery increases the cure rate. In some cases, the cancer is
completely eliminated with chemotherapy before the patient has even had surgery.
HEAD & NECK CANCER
The term "head and neck cancer" encompasses a wide range of tumors that occur in
several areas of the head and neck region, including the nasal passages, sinuses,
mouth, throat, larynx (voice box), swallowing passages, salivary glands, and the
thyroid gland. Skin cancers that develop on the scalp, face, or neck may also be
considered head and neck cancers.