Cancer is Curable if Detected Early


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this presentation is about how to detect cancer and how to take precaution if cancer detected

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Cancer is Curable if Detected Early

  2. 2.  WHAT IS CANCER Cancer is the name given to a large group of diseases, all of which have one thing in common: cells that are growing out of control. Normally, the cells that make up all of the parts of our bodies go through a predictable life cycle -- old cells die, and new cells arise to take their place. Occasionally, this process goes awry, and cells begin to multiply out of control. The end result is a mass of cells, called a tumor. There are several major types of cancers: carcinomas form in the cells that cover the skin or line the mouth, throat, lungs and organs; sarcomas are found in the bones, muscles, fibrous tissues and some organs; leukemia is found in the blood, the bone marrow, and the spleen; and lymphomas are found in the lymphatic system.
  3. 3.  CAUSES OF CANCER Cancer often takes many years to develop. The process typically begins with some disruption to the DNA of a cell, the genetic code that directs the life of the cell. There can be many reasons for disruptions, such as diet, tobacco, sun exposure, reproductive history or certain chemicals. Some cells will enter a precancerous phase, known as dysplasia.  SYMPTOMS OF CANCER Since cancer can arise from such a wide variety of sites and develop with many differing patterns of spread, there are no clear-cut symptoms. Cancer is unlike many more specific diseases such as heart disease or arthritic disease. Many primary tumors cause local swelling or lump if they arise at a visible or accessible part of the body, such as a skin, breast, testicle or oral cavity. A typical swelling due to a cancer is initially painless, though ulceration (skin breakdown) can occur, which may then become painful.
  4. 4.  TREATMENT OF CANCER The aim of cancer treatment is to cure the patient and save life. The cases where complete cure is not possible, treatment aims to control the disease and to keep the patient normal and comfortable as long as possible. The treatment of each patient is designed to suit an individual and depends on the age of the patient, stage and type of disease. There may be only one treatment or combination of treatments. There are four main modalities of treatment: Surgery , Radiation therapy, Chemotherapy, hormone therapy and Immunotherapy. Radiation is a special kind of energy carried by waves or a stream of particles originating from radioactive substances and delivered by special machines. These radioactive x-rays or gamma rays can penetrate the cell wall and damage the nucleus of the cell which prevents growth and division of cells. This also affects the normal cells but these cells recover more fully than cancer cells.
  5. 5.  TYPES OF CANCER  BONE CANCER Primary bone cancer -- cancer that actually starts in bone tissue -- is relatively rare. Bone cancer can occur in any of the bones of the body, but it occurs most often in the long bones of the arms and legs. While it can occur at any age, the most common types occur in children and young adults.  SYMPTOMS The most common symptom of bone cancer is pain, which is caused either by the spread of the tumor or by the breaking of bone that is weakened by a tumor. Stiffness or tenderness in the bone may also occur. Sometimes there are other symptoms, such as fatigue, fever, swelling, and stumbling.
  6. 6.  TREATMENT  SURGERY Surgery is used to remove the bone cancer itself. When operating to remove bone tumors, surgeons remove some of the surrounding bone and muscle to be sure that they are removing as much cancerous tissue as possible. If the operation is on an arm or leg, the surgeon will try, as much as possible, to preserve the limb and maintain its functionality. Sometimes the bone that is removed will be replaced with bone from another part of the body, bone from the tissue bank or with an artificial replacement.  Radiation Therapy Radiation therapy is sometimes given together with surgery, to destroy tumors or to reduce the size of the tumor. Radiation therapy may also be used to kill remaining cancer cells after surgery, or treat tumors that cannot be surgically removed -- sometimes in combination with chemotherapy.
  7. 7.  Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is often used to treat primary bone cancers, in conjunction with surgery. Chemotherapy is commonly given before surgery to facilitate surgery and also after surgery to kill any cancer cells that remain in the body after the main tumor is removed surgically.
  8. 8.  LIVER CANCER Many patients with primary liver cancer have no symptoms. In some instances, jaundice, malaise, or a general feeling of poor health, loss of appetite, weight loss, fever, fatigue, bloating, itching, swelling of the legs, or weakness may be present. Abdominal pain or discomfort may also occur  SYMPTOMS  SURGERY Most primary liver cancers are best treated by surgery to remove the diseased portion of the liver. Until the early 1980s, surgery to remove primary liver tumors was rarely done. But now highly complex liver operations are performed with great frequency, success, and safety at Tata Memorial Centre.
  9. 9.  Radiation Therapy Radiation therapy is used in selected cases to help control tumors. Radiation oncologists here use new techniques to focus the radiation beam on the tumor and spare the normal liver from injury.
  10. 10.  LUNG CANCER More than 90,000 men and 79,000 women are diagnosed each year with cancer of the lungs and bronchi (the air tubes leading to the lungs). Among men, the incidence of lung cancer has been declining, but it continues to increase among women. The number of lung cancer deaths among women surpasses those from breast cancer. Recent studies indicate that female smokers may be more likely to develop lung cancer than male smokers.  TREATMENT Depending on the type and stage of the disease, lung cancer can be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy  Chemotherapy For patients whose tumors are somewhat more advanced, a program of chemotherapy before surgery increases the cure rate. In some cases, the cancer is completely eliminated with chemotherapy before the patient has even had surgery.
  11. 11.  HEAD & NECK CANCER The term "head and neck cancer" encompasses a wide range of tumors that occur in several areas of the head and neck region, including the nasal passages, sinuses, mouth, throat, larynx (voice box), swallowing passages, salivary glands, and the thyroid gland. Skin cancers that develop on the scalp, face, or neck may also be considered head and neck cancers.