Integra(ng
Innova(ve
and
Interac(ve
      Methodologies
in
Popular
Extension
       Approaches:
The
Biovision
Farmer
     ...
CONTEXTa.    A
 mix
 of
 historical
 land
 use
 challenges,
 climate
 variability
 and
 ongoing
 climate
      change
 has...
What
is
Extension?
 Advisory
services
‐
to
assist
farmers
to
make
decisions
on
solving
problems
 Extension
educa(on
‐
 e...
Common
Elements
in
Defini(ons
of
Extension
                      Extension:
•  Is
an
interven(on
–
plays
func(on
•  Uses
 c...
Common
Elements
in
Defini(ons
of
Extension
1.
Extension
as
an
Interven0on

  
 It
 is
 a
 goal‐oriented,
 planned,
 progra...
Common
Elements
in
Defini(ons
of
Extension‐
cont’d
4.
Extension
focuses
on
different
target
processes
and
outcomes
 At
 ind...
Evolution of the Agricultural Extension Service  The agricultural extension system in Kenya has evolved through  various s...
b) Post Independence Period extension ApproachesAfter independence, more persuasive and educational approaches andmethods ...
c) Current Popular Extension ApproachesLessons learnt from the previous approaches, have led to more participatory and dem...
Extension
Reform
Principles
and
Interven(ons
o  Par(cipa(on

             o  Staff
mo(va(on
o  Gender‐sensi(vity
        o ...
Biovision
in
Kenya
and
Eastern
Africa
a.    Biovision
Founda(on
for
Ecological
Development
‐
Bridges
the
gap
between
     ...
Farmer Communication Programme (FCP)
 Ini;ated
in
2010
by
icipe
and
Biovision
Founda;on
to
address
 the
 synergies
 betwee...
Goal,
Vision
and
Mission
of
FCP

Goal:
Improve
the
livelihoods
of
small
scale
farmers
in
 Africa
 by
 systema;c
 applica;o...
Objec(ves
of
the
FCP

1.  Enhance
 synergy
 among
 the
 informa;on
    communica;ons
 projects
 and
 link
 them
 to
 other...
FCP Theory of Change                                       Informa(on
                  Produc(ve
and

        Farmer
    ...
Innova(ons
for
Informa(on
Communica(on
A)
Infonet‐biovision
(Infonet)
‐
an
internet‐based
informa;on
plaeorm
  An
online
...
Innova(ons
for
Informa(on
Communica(on
B)
Print:
The
Organic
Farmer
(TOF)

 
 The
 magazine
 is
 produced
 every
 month
 a...
Integra(ng
and
Adap(ng
ICT
Services
•  Farmer
learning
resource
centers/
i‐TOF
Centres:

       
 Community‐anchored
and
...
Farmers
Learning
&
Resource
Centre
in
KARI
Katumani

Extension
Outreach
                Training
Farmers
on
                 the
Use
of
Digital
                Informa;on
Acce...
Integra(ng
and
Adap(ng
ICT
Services
–
Cont’d
•  Interfaces
to
mobile
phones
and
call
centres
–
ASK
TOF
  Taking
 advantag...
Technologies
in
applica(on

Projected
Ingredients
for
FCP
Growth
To
achieve
a
sound
and
sustainable
FCP,
strategic

efforts
and
    partnerships
will
b...
Marke(ng
and
Sustainability
of
the
FCP
Cont’d
      
The
programme
will
be
supported
by:
1.    Biovision
Founda;on
of
Swit...
Biovision
Africa
Trust
(BVAT)
Objec(ves:

1. Fund
 sustainable
 projects
 and
 ini;a;ves
 in
 the
 agro
 sector
 
 that
fo...
FCP
Networking
Na(onally,
Regionally
&
Globally

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Integrating Innovative and Interactive Methodologies in Popular Extension Approaches: The Biovision Farmer Communication Program in Africa

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Integrating Innovative and Interactive Methodologies in Popular Extension Approaches: The Biovision Farmer Communication Program in Africa

  1. 1. Integra(ng
Innova(ve
and
Interac(ve
 Methodologies
in
Popular
Extension
 Approaches:
The
Biovision
Farmer
 Communica(on
Program
in
Africa
 David
Amudavi
 Programme
Coordinator,
Biovision
Farmer
Communica(on
Program
Presented
at
The
World
Agroforestry
Centre,

Nairobi,
15
March
2011

  2. 2. CONTEXTa.  A
 mix
 of
 historical
 land
 use
 challenges,
 climate
 variability
 and
 ongoing
 climate
 change
 has
 rendered
 livestock
 and
 crop
 produc;on
 systems
 too
 weak
 to
 prevent
 widespread
and
environmental
degrada;on,
increasing
poverty,
food
insecurity,
poor
 nutri;onal
feeding
prac;ces.

b.  
Further
popula;on
growth
con;nues
to
increase
unabated
–
Kenya’s
popula;on
has
 reached
about
40
million,
supported
by
23%
of
the
land’s
arable
land.
c.  Sustainable
agriculture
(SA)
is
important
for
mee;ng
local
food
requirements
while
 providing
protec;on
and
sustainable
use
of
locally‐available
natural
resources.
d.  SA
 is
 par;cularly
 appropriate
 for
 the
 rural
 communi;es
 that
 are
 currently
 most
 exposed
to
food
shortages.
e.  There
is
need
to
boost
agricultural
produc;vity
and
add
value
in
the
agri‐food
chain
 in
 sustainable
 ways
 that
 will
 reduce
 food
 insecurity
 and
 malnutri;on
 among
 the
 vulnerable
households
living
in
rural
communi;es.
f.  Access
to
informa;on
on
relevant
technologies
and
prac;ces
is
central
–
Extension
is
 cri;cal
to
this
process.

  3. 3. What
is
Extension?
 Advisory
services
‐
to
assist
farmers
to
make
decisions
on
solving
problems
 Extension
educa(on
‐
 educa(onal
ac(vity
which
seeks
to
teach
people
how
to
solve
problems
by
providing
and
extending
informa(on
 Technology
transfer
‐
ac(vity
which
facilitates
the
transfer
of
research
results
for
 scien(sts
 by
 extension
 officers
 into
 agricultural
 knowledge
 and
 then
implementa(on
into
useful
farm
prac(ces,
in
local
condi(ons
 Human
resource
management
‐
ac;vity
for
capacity
building
Extension
can
be
used
to
describe
the
broad
func;on
of
communica;on
of
informa;on
from
all
relevant
sources
to
assist
in
the
process
of
change
and
innova;on
in
different
fields
(agriculture,
health,
coopera;ve,
etc)
including
people’s
capacity
and
self‐sufficiency
in
resolving
problems
and
making
integrated
management
decisions.


  4. 4. Common
Elements
in
Defini(ons
of
Extension
 Extension:
•  Is
an
interven(on
–
plays
func(on
•  Uses
 communica(on
 as
 instrument
 to
 induce
 change

•  Can
be
effec(ve
only
through
voluntary
change

•  Focuses
on
target
processes
and
outcomes
‐
adult
 and
 con(nuing
 educa(on
 of
 men
 and
 women
 producers


•  Deployed
 by
 any
 person
 or
 public
 or
 private
 ins(tu(on
 technically
 qualified
 in
 the
 subject
 of
 extension


  5. 5. Common
Elements
in
Defini(ons
of
Extension
1.
Extension
as
an
Interven0on

  
 It
 is
 a
 goal‐oriented,
 planned,
 programmed,
 and
 systema;cally
 designed,
ac;vity
 
 Intervening
in
terms
of
formula;ng
objec;ves,
designing
and
tes;ng
strategy,
deploying
resources,
implemen;ng
and
evalua;ng.
2.
Extension
uses
communica0on
as
instrument
to
induce
change

 Communica;on
 instrument
 used
 in
 extension
 for
 inducing
 change;
 uses
subsidies
or
regula;ons;

 Communica;on
involves
the
use
of
symbols,
packages
of
maTer/energy
which
can
elicit
meaning.
3.
Extension
can
be
effec0ve
only
through
voluntary
change

 Effec;veness
depends
on
people’s
willingness
to
be
persuaded,
on
the
extent
to
 which
 they
 see
 extension
 as
 serving
 their
 own
 interests
 and
 benefit
 –
purposive
assistance
to
decision‐making
and
opinion
forma;on.

 The
logic
of
extension
requires
that
one
seeks
to
induce
voluntary
change.


  6. 6. Common
Elements
in
Defini(ons
of
Extension‐
cont’d
4.
Extension
focuses
on
different
target
processes
and
outcomes
 At
 individual
 level
 –
 targets
 behaviours,
 aVtudes,
 knowledge,
decision‐making,
opinion
forma;on,
etc.;

 At
social
or
collec;ve
level
‐
adver;sing,
poli;cal
agendas,
publicity,
advocacy,
etc.

 Target
 processes
 –
 e.g.
 cheap
 and
 quality
 food
 for
 consumers,
nature
 conserva;on,
 preven;ng
 health
 hazards,
 reducing
 birthrates,
ensuring
a
sustainable
use
of
the
environment,
emancipa;on,
greater
equity,
energy
conserva;on.
5.
Extension
is
deployed
by
an
ins0tu0on

 Extension
 requires
 finance,
 it
 is
 a
 professional
 ac;vity,
 and
 it
 must
be
paid
for.

 As
 an
 instrument
 extension
 is
 deployed
 by
 ins;tu;ons
 such
 as
government
ins;tu;ons,
voluntary
agencies,
commercial
companies,
member
organiza;ons/associa;ons.


  7. 7. Evolution of the Agricultural Extension Service The agricultural extension system in Kenya has evolved through various stages since colonial and post -independence eras.A) Pre-Independence Period Extension Approaches•  Mainly tailored towards settler and commercial farming systems.•  Well packaged programs that combined extension services with credit and subsidized inputs.•  However, the extension approach used for indigenous Africans, who were mainly engaged in subsistence farming and pastoralism, was coercive in nature and therefore not readily accepted.
  8. 8. b) Post Independence Period extension ApproachesAfter independence, more persuasive and educational approaches andmethods were adopted.• Establishment of Farmer and Pastoralist Training Centres (FTCs &PTCs) in the 1960s and 1970s• Integrated agricultural development (IAD) approach.• Farming Systems (FS) and Training and Visit (T&V) approaches in the1980s and 1990s .• “Commodity specialised approach” used in the large exportcommodity sub-sector spearheaded by commodity boards and privatecompanies Generally, all the approaches were essentially top-down andlacked participation in articulating farmers’ demands.
  9. 9. c) Current Popular Extension ApproachesLessons learnt from the previous approaches, have led to more participatory and demand- driven extension approaches in recent years.These are intended to tap farmer participation and private sector contribution in providing extension services. Examples:•  Focal Area Approach (FAA) – ( Use of common interest groups (CIGs)•  Farmer Field Schools – Farmer to farmer extension•  Commodity-based approach - Commercial enterprises•  Multidisciplinary Mobile Extension Teams especially in ASAL areas Whereas extension has emphasised on increasing production, it is now acknowledged that linking production with processing and marketing is a prerequisite in transforming agriculture from subsistence to commercial enterprise.
  10. 10. Extension
Reform
Principles
and
Interven(ons
o  Par(cipa(on

 o  Staff
mo(va(on
o  Gender‐sensi(vity
 o  Broader
technical
mandate
 of
extension
in
line
with
o  Client‐focus
 global
developments
o  Demand‐driven
 o  Development
and
applica(on
 of
informa(on
o  Pluralism

 communica(on
technology
o  Priva(za(on

 (ICT)
tools
o  Decentraliza(on
 o  Monitoring,
evalua(on
and
 impact
assessment
o  Loca(on‐
 and
 purpose‐ specific
 o  Ins(tu(onal
linkages

  11. 11. Biovision
in
Kenya
and
Eastern
Africa
a.  Biovision
Founda(on
for
Ecological
Development
‐
Bridges
the
gap
between
 research
and
the
applica(on
and
dissemina(on
of
research
results
through
 environmentally
 sound,
 economically
 viable
 and
 technologically
 appropriate
 agricultural
methods
to
overcome
hunger
and
poverty,
and
also
supports
co‐ opera;on
 stakeholders
 in
 this
 process.
 Its
 strategic
 focus
 lies
 in
 the
 dissemina(on
 of
 natural
 and
 locally
 available
 solu;ons
 in
 the
 4‐H
 areas,
 applied
and
taught
in
model
projects
and
oYen
led
by
partner
organisa;ons.

b.  Biovision
 Ac(vi(es
 in
 Eastern
 Africa
 –
 Diversified
 efforts
 –
 malaria
 control
 and
 preven;on,
 Camel
 programme
 for
 climate
 change,
 Push‐pull
 strategies
 for
 soil
 fer;lity
 improvement
 and
 striga
 control,
 long‐term
 system
 control,
 IPM
against
fruit
flies,
Income
genera;on
ac;vi;es,
Biodiversity
conserva;on
 &
ecosystem
services,

c.  Biovision
Africa
Trust
‐
The
BVAT
was
established
by
the
Biovision
Founda;on
 in
 2009
 to
 focus
 on
 developing
 and
 suppor;ng
 processes
 that
 put
 into
 use
 innova;ons
 that
 can
 lead
 to
 market‐led
 sustainable
 agriculture
 for
 welfare
 improvement
 of
 resource
 poor
 small‐holder
 farmers
 in
 East
 Africa
 and
 beyond.



  12. 12. Farmer Communication Programme (FCP)
 Ini;ated
in
2010
by
icipe
and
Biovision
Founda;on
to
address
 the
 synergies
 between
 the
 different
informa;on
 projects
 to
 ensure
 that
 knowledge,
informa;on
and
findings
are
rolled
out
in
a
prac;cable
format
to
reach
farmers
and
other
users.

  13. 13. Goal,
Vision
and
Mission
of
FCP

Goal:
Improve
the
livelihoods
of
small
scale
farmers
in
 Africa
 by
 systema;c
 applica;on
 of
 scien;fically
 and
 experien;ally
validated
research
and
educa;on.


 Vision:Sustained
 and
 produc;ve
 smallholder
 agriculture
of
the
highest
quality
in
terms
of
enhanced
 food
 produc;on,
 nutri;on,
 incomes,
 as
 well
 as
 sustainability.


 
Mission:
Advance
and
improve
access
to
informa;on
 on
 sustainable
 agriculture
 through
 innova;ons
 that
 improve
profitability,
stewardship
and
quality
of
life.

  14. 14. Objec(ves
of
the
FCP

1.  Enhance
 synergy
 among
 the
 informa;on
 communica;ons
 projects
 and
 link
 them
 to
 other
 informa;on
providers.
2.  Create
 centres
 of
 excellence
 in
 rural
 informa;on
 and
 knowledge
 services
 linked
 to
 livelihood
 improvement
 R&D
programmes/projects.
3.  Support
 building
 of
 technical
 capacity
 of
 informa;on
 change
agents
in
R&D
programmes/projects.

4.  Engage
 strategic
 partners
 to
 scale
 up
 access
 to
 and
 u;liza;on
of
informa;on
on
appropriate
innova;ons
in
 various
sectors
of
sustainable
agriculture.

  15. 15. FCP Theory of Change Informa(on
 Produc(ve
and

 Farmer
 Deficient
&
 Sustainable
Farming
Communica(on
Programme
 underperforming

 System
 Farming
System ‐ Enhanced access to information, findings, • Limited information about   Higher yields knowledge on innovations technologies, practices,   Higher incomes (technologies, practices, systems   Improved and stable systems, etc) • Poor decision making food security Efficient information delivery • Low technology adoption   Improved nutrition infrastructure • Low technology adaptation   Stable environment Enhanced access to inputs & • Poor livelihoods   Improved welfare outputs markets STRATEGIC

R&D
PARTNERS

  16. 16. Innova(ons
for
Informa(on
Communica(on
A)
Infonet‐biovision
(Infonet)
‐
an
internet‐based
informa;on
plaeorm
  An
online
and
also
offline
system
built
with
the
aid
of
experts
from
reputable
 na;onal
and
interna;onal
research

organiza;ons.
  The
applica;ons
offer
trainers,
extension
workers
and
farmers
quick
access
to
 up‐to‐date
and
locally
relevant
informa;on.
  The
plaeorm
contains
detail
on
PLANT,
HUMAN,
ANIMAL
and
ENVIRONMENT
 HEALTH.
For
example,
it
covers
more
than
40
crops
and
a
range
of
issues
such
 as
environmental
management,
malaria
control,
and
nutri;onal
illnesses.

  The
programme
envisages
to
have
the
website
linked
to
market
applica;ons
to
 inform/update
 farmers
 on
 latest
 market
 condi;ons
 and
 the
 buyers
 (the
 market)
on
what
is
available.
  Contributes
to
one
of
the
Na;onal
Agricultural
Sector
Extension
Policy
(NASEP)
 objec;ves
 of
 encouraging
 and
 strengthening
 use
 of
 informa;on
 and
 communica;on
technology
(ICT)
in
extension
delivery.

  17. 17. Innova(ons
for
Informa(on
Communica(on
B)
Print:
The
Organic
Farmer
(TOF)

 
 The
 magazine
 is
 produced
 every
 month
 and
 distributed
 to
 a
 readership
 of
 over
 200,000
 receiving
 concrete
 guidance
 and
 prac;cal
 ;ps
 on
 how
 to
 use
 simple,
 cost‐effec;ve
 and
 environmentally
friendly
prac;ces.

C)
Radio:
TOF
Radio

 A
 weekly
 radio
 show
 in
 Swahili
 trea;ng
 relevant
 topics
in
coordina;on
with
TOF
Magazines.

 TOF
 Radio
 is
 received
 in
 Kenya
 and
 Tanzania
 and
 has
up
to
5
million
listeners.

  18. 18. Integra(ng
and
Adap(ng
ICT
Services
•  Farmer
learning
resource
centers/
i‐TOF
Centres:

  
 Community‐anchored
and
run
informa;on
service
  Equipped
 with
 computers
 and
 laptops
 (OLPC)
 that
 use
 solar
 panels
 –
 to
 overcome
 problems
of
ICT
infrastructure
landscape

  Facilitate
 processes
 of
 learning
 and
 acquiring
 technical
 knowledge
 on
 certain
 agricultural
prac;ces
as
well
as
business
management
skills
  Provide
entry
points
for
farm‐to‐market‐chain‐links
(FMCL)
–
 
ICTs
in
the
centre
could
 be
used
in
the
short
to
mid
term
in
improving
access
to
markets.
  Such
 centres
 could
 easily
 graduate
 to
 offer
 services
 such
 as
 fax,
 internet,
 typing,
 prin;ng,
scanning,
and
they
are
informa;on
centres,
more
like
a
research
library.


  Through
 this
 market‐farmer‐extension
 service
 interac;on,
 high
 yielding
 input
 and
 innova;ve
prac;ces
can
be
communicated
to
farmers,
and
major
agricultural
markets
 can
inform
farmers
on
required
product
specifica;ons.

  19. 19. Farmers
Learning
&
Resource
Centre
in
KARI
Katumani

  20. 20. Extension
Outreach
 Training
Farmers
on
 the
Use
of
Digital
 Informa;on
Access

  21. 21. Integra(ng
and
Adap(ng
ICT
Services
–
Cont’d
•  Interfaces
to
mobile
phones
and
call
centres
–
ASK
TOF
  Taking
 advantage
 of
 the
 provision
 of
 very
 affordable
 mobile
 phone
 services
 that
 are
 widespread,
 the
 FCP
 programme
 has
 established
 a
 call‐in
system
for
addressing
FAQs.
  Undertakes
 capacity
 building
 to
 other
 projects
 to
 use
 best
 available
 technology
 (e.g.
 Safaricom)
 thereby
 scaling
 up
 its
 impact
 beyond
 its
 own
reach
  Envisages
 to
 partners
 with
 others
 involved
 in
 enhancing
 marker
 access
 to
 link
 farmers
 to
 markets
 by
 providing
 informa;on
 on
 product/service
price,
quan;ty,
quality,
and
loca;on
•  Through
partners
 
Currently
several
outreach
ac;vi;es,
using
Infonet
as
an
informa;on
 base,
 take
 place
 through
 a
 range
 of
 different
 partners
 –
 NALEP,
 KENFAP,
NGOs,
CBOS,
etc.

  22. 22. Technologies
in
applica(on

  23. 23. Projected
Ingredients
for
FCP
Growth
To
achieve
a
sound
and
sustainable
FCP,
strategic

efforts
and
 partnerships
will
be
needed
in
terms
of:
1.  Content
development
and
quality
control
processes
–
 (Solid
Research)
2.  Outreach
ac;vi;es
to
enhance
farmers’
access
to
informa;on
 and
communica;on
tools
(e.g.
Farmers’
resource
centres,
 informa;on
hubs,
call
centres)
–
(Strong
Farmer
 Par(cipa(on)
3.  Technical
capacity
building
in
informa;on
sourcing,
packaging
 and
dissemina;on
–
(Competent
Change
Intermediaries)
4.  Resource
mobiliza;on
of
both
technical
and
financial
 resources
‐
advocacy,
networking
and
mul;‐sectoral
 collabora;on
–
(Commided
Support
from
Donors
and
 Policy
makers)

  24. 24. Marke(ng
and
Sustainability
of
the
FCP
Cont’d
 
The
programme
will
be
supported
by:
1.  Biovision
Founda;on
of
Switzerland
2.  Icipe
3.  Biovision
Africa
Trust
4.  Founda;ons
and
Ins;tu;ons
5.  Research
&
Development
Ins;tu;ons
6.  Member
donors
(individuals)
7.  Back
donors

  25. 25. Biovision
Africa
Trust
(BVAT)
Objec(ves:

1. Fund
 sustainable
 projects
 and
 ini;a;ves
 in
 the
 agro
 sector
 
 that
focus
on
genera;on
and
dissemina;on
of
informa;on
on
ecologically
sound
 and
 useful
 methods
 to
 improve
 human,
 animal,
 plant
 and
environmental
health;

2. Undertake
 research
 into
 the
 special
 problems
 facing
 small‐holder
farmers
 in
 Kenya
 and
 other
 countries
 in
 Africa
 in
 order
 to
 provide
useful
and
prac;cal
solu;ons
thereby
allevia;ng
poverty;
3. Undertake
educa;onal
programs
amongst
the
targeted
small‐holder
communi;es
 either
 individually
 or
 in
 partnership
 with
 other
 players
(public,
private,
civil
society);
4. Provide
leverage
(Grants,
assistance,
etc)
to
other
public
charitable
trusts
or
ins;tu;ons
established
for
similar
objec;ves.

  26. 26. FCP
Networking
Na(onally,
Regionally
&
Globally


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