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Stem Cell Technology


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  • StemEnhance is a patented one-of-a-kind Stem Cell Enhancer that releases 3 to 4 MILLION STEM CELLS from your own bone marrow into your bloodstream, in one dose, within one hour! It re-awakens your body's own ability to renew itself and maintain optimum health, safely and naturally. What is it? StemEnhance is a breakthrough, natural botanical extract that supports wellness by helping your body maintain healthy stem cell physiology. It is the first product on the market from the latest phytoceutical product category called 'stem cell enhancers'. What are stem cell enhancers? Recent scientific development has revealed adult stem cells derived from the bone marrow, travel throughout the body, and act to support optimal organ and tissue function. Stem cell enhancers are products that support the natural role of adult stem cells. Why do I need this product? As you age, the number and quality of adult stem cells that circulate in your body gradually decrease, leaving your body more susceptible to injury and other age-related health challenges. How does it work? When you take StemEnhance, the ingredients help to support the release of adult stem cells from the bone marrow into the bloodstream. Through a natural process, those stem cells travel to areas of the body where they are most needed. 'Helping Your Body Heal Itself'.

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Stem Cell Technology

  1. 1. Stem Cell Technology Dr.B.Victor, St.Xavier's College, Palayamkottai 627002 India Presented by
  2. 2. About the presenter <ul><li>Dr.B.Victor is a highly experienced postgraduate biology teacher, recently retired from the reputed educational institution St. Xavier’ s College, Palayamkottai, India-627001. </li></ul><ul><li>He was the dean of sciences and assistant controller of examinations. </li></ul><ul><li>He has more than 32 years of teaching and research experience </li></ul><ul><li>He taught a diversity of courses ranging from pre- university to post graduate classes. </li></ul><ul><li>Send your comments to : </li></ul>
  3. 3. Presentation outline <ul><li>Stem cell characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Embryonic stem cells (ESC) </li></ul><ul><li>Adult Stem cells (ASC) </li></ul><ul><li>Stem Cell Lines </li></ul><ul><li>Classification of stem cells </li></ul><ul><li>Culture and Stem cell therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Recent Developments </li></ul>
  4. 4. Diversity of Human Cells <ul><li>Adult humans consist of more than 200 kinds of cells. </li></ul><ul><li>They are nerve cells ( neurons ), muscle cells ( myocytes ), skin (epithelial) cells , blood cells (erythrocytes, monocytes , lymphocytes , etc.), bone cells ( osteocytes ), and cartilage cells ( chondrocytes ). </li></ul><ul><li>cells essential for embryonic development but not incorporated into the body of the embryo, include the extra-embryonic tissues , placenta , and umbilical cord. </li></ul><ul><li>All of these cells are generated from a single, totipotent cell, the zygote , or fertilized egg. </li></ul>
  5. 6. What is a stem cell? <ul><li>A stem cell is a &quot;blank&quot; cell/ precursor cell that can give rise to multiple tissue types such as a skin, muscle, or nerve cell. </li></ul><ul><li>A stem cell is essentially the building block of the human body. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Features of Stem Cells <ul><li>Stem Cells are very unique cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Stem Cells have the amazing ability to develop into several distinct cell types in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Stem Cells can be used as a repair system for the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Stem Cells can theoretically divide without limit in a living organism in order to replenish various types of cells. </li></ul><ul><li>When a stem cell divides, each new cell has the potential to either remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function (i.e. a muscle cell, a red blood cell, a brain cell, etc.). </li></ul>
  7. 9. Three unique properties of stem cells <ul><li>Stem cells are capable of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods ; </li></ul><ul><li>They are “ unspecialized” and they can give rise to specialized cell types. </li></ul><ul><li>A stem cell is &quot;uncommitted,&quot; until it receives a signal to develop into a specialized cell. </li></ul>
  8. 10. Asymmetric division of stem cells <ul><li>Stem cells have the ability to divide asymmetrically . </li></ul><ul><li>One portion of the cell division becomes a differentiated cell while the other becomes another stem cell. </li></ul>
  9. 11. 1. Stem cells are unspecialized <ul><li>A stem cell does not have any tissue-specific structures that allow it to perform specialized functions. </li></ul><ul><li>A stem cell cannot work with its neighbors to pump blood through the body ( like a heart muscle cell); </li></ul><ul><li>It cannot carry molecules of oxygen through the bloodstream ( like a red blood cell ); and </li></ul><ul><li>It cannot fire electrochemical signals to other cells that allow the body to move ( like a nerve cell). </li></ul>
  10. 12. 2. Stem cells are capable of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods. <ul><li>Stem cells may replicate many times. </li></ul><ul><li>When cells replicate themselves many times it is called proliferation. </li></ul><ul><li>The stem cells that proliferate for many months in the laboratory can yield millions of cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Stem cells are capable of long-term self-renewal. </li></ul>
  11. 13. 3. Stem cells can give rise to specialized cells <ul><li>When unspecialized stem cells give rise to specialized cells, the process is called differentiation. </li></ul><ul><li>There are signals inside and outside cells that trigger stem cell differentiation. </li></ul><ul><li>The internal signals are controlled by a cell's genes. </li></ul><ul><li>The external signals include chemicals secreted by other cells, physical contact with neighboring cells, and certain molecules in the microenvironment </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>In embryos , stem cells function to generate new organs and tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>In adults , they function to replace cells during the natural course of cell turnover. </li></ul>4.Stem cells exist in both embryos and adults .
  13. 15. Distinguishing Features of Progenitor/Precursor Cells and Stem Cells. <ul><li>A stem cell is an unspecialized cell that develops into a variety of specialized cell types. </li></ul><ul><li>a stem cell divides and gives rise to one additional stem cell and a specialized cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: a hematopoietic stem cell produce a second generation stem cell and a neuron. </li></ul><ul><li>A progenitor cell (a precursor cell ) is unspecialized that is capable of undergoing cell division and yielding two specialized cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: a myeloid progenitor/precursor cell undergoing cell division to yield two specialized cells (a neutrophil and a red blood cell). </li></ul>
  14. 17. Stem cell Classes
  15. 18. Embryonic Type stem cells 1.Embryonic Type Embryonic Stem Cells   Embryonic Germ Cells
  16. 19. Adult type Stem cells 2. Adult Type   Umbilical Cord Stem Cells Placental Stem Cells Adult Stem Cells
  17. 20. Sources of embryonic type stem cells <ul><li>   * Embryos - Embryonic stem cells are obtained by harvesting living embryos which are generally 5-7 days old. The removal of embryonic stem cells invariably results in the destruction of the embryo. </li></ul><ul><li>* Fetuses - Another kind of stem cell, called an embryonic germ cell, can be obtained from either miscarriages or aborted fetuses. </li></ul>
  18. 21. Sources of adult type stem cells <ul><li>Umbilical Cords, Placentas and Amniotic Fluid - Adult type stem cells can be derived from various pregnancy-related tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>Adult Tissues - In adults, stem cells are present within the bone marrow, liver, epidermis, retina, skeletal muscle, intestine, brain, dental pulp and elsewhere. </li></ul><ul><li>Cadavers - Neural stem cells have been removed from specific areas in post-mortem human brains as late as 20 hours following death. </li></ul>
  19. 22. Comparison of embryonic and adult stem cells <ul><li>Advantages of  Embryonic Stem Cell    </li></ul><ul><li>1. Flexible - appear to have the potential to make any cell.    2. Immortal - one embryonic stem cell line can potentially provide an endless supply of cells with defined characteristics.   3. Availability - embryos from in vitro fertilization clinics. </li></ul>
  20. 23. Disadvantages of Embryonic Stem Cell <ul><ul><li>Difficult to differentiate uniformly and homogeneously into a target tissue. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immunogenic - embryonic stem cells from a random embryo donor are likely to be rejected after transplantation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tumorigenic - capable of forming tumors or promoting tumor formation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destruction of developing human life . </li></ul></ul>
  21. 24. Advantages of Adult Stem Cell <ul><ul><li>Adult stem cells from bone marrow and umbilical cords appear to be as flexible as the embryonic type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Somewhat specialized - inducement may be simpler. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not immunogenic - recipients who receive the products of their own stem cells will not experience immune rejection. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative ease of procurement - some adult stem cells are easy to harvest (skin, muscle, marrow, fat) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-tumorigenic- tend not to form tumors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No harm done to the donor. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 25. Disadvantages of Adult stem cells <ul><li>  1. Limited quantity - can sometimes be difficult to obtain in large numbers.   2. Finite - may not live as long as embryonic stem cells in culture.   3. Less flexible - may be more difficult to reprogram to form other tissue types </li></ul>
  23. 26. Why are adult stem cells preferable to embryonic stem cells? <ul><li>Adult stem cells are naturally exist in our bodies, and they provide a natural repair mechanism for many tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>They belong in the microenvironment of an adult body, while embryonic stem cells belong in the microenvironment of the early embryo, where they tend to cause tumors and immune system reactions. </li></ul>
  24. 27. Superior features of ESCs <ul><li>Embryonic stem cells are easier to identify, isolate and harvest. </li></ul><ul><li>There are more of them. </li></ul><ul><li>They grow more quickly and easily in the lab than adult stem cells. </li></ul><ul><li>They can be more easily manipulated (they are more plastic) </li></ul>
  25. 28. Classification based on level of differentiation <ul><li>T otipotent </li></ul><ul><li>Pluripotent </li></ul><ul><li>Multipotent </li></ul><ul><li>Unipotent stem cells </li></ul>
  26. 29. Types of Stem cells
  27. 30. Totipotent stem cells <ul><li>The fertilized egg is said to be totipotent from the Latin totus, meaning “entire”. . </li></ul><ul><li>It has the potential to generate all the cells and tissues that make up an embryo . </li></ul><ul><li>It supports embryonic development in utero . </li></ul>
  28. 31. Pluripotent stem cells <ul><li>Pluripotent stem cells are descendants of the totipotent stem cells of the embryo. </li></ul><ul><li>These cells develop about four days after fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>They can differentiate into any cell type, except for totipotent stem cells and the cells of the placenta. </li></ul>
  29. 33. Pluripotent stem cells <ul><li>“ Pluri” is derived from the Latin plures means several or many. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, pluripotent cells have the potential to give rise to any type of cell. </li></ul>
  30. 34. Pluripotent stem cells <ul><li>These cells cannot re-create a complete organism but differentiate to a large number of mature tissue types, for example, brain and muscle. </li></ul>
  31. 36. Multipotent stem cells <ul><li>Multipotent stem cells are descendents of pluripotent stem cells and antecedents of specialized cells in particular tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, hematopoietic stem cells, which are found primarily in the bone marrow, give rise to all of the cells found in the blood,including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. </li></ul>
  32. 37. Unipotent stem cell <ul><li>Unipotent stem cell , a term that is usually applied to a cell in adult organisms, means that the cells in question are capable of differentiating along only one lineage. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Uni&quot; is derived from the Latin word unus, which means one. </li></ul>
  33. 38. Progenitor cells <ul><li>Progenitor cells (or unipotent stem cells ) can produce only one cell type. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, erythroid progenitor cells differentiate into only red blood cells. </li></ul>
  34. 39. Blood is made in the Bone Marrow-Blood Cell Development
  35. 40. “ Terminally differentiated&quot; cells <ul><li>At the end of the long chain of cell divisions are &quot;terminally differentiated&quot; cells , such as a liver cell or lung cell, which are permanently committed to specific functions. </li></ul>
  36. 41. Adult stem cells (ASC)
  37. 42. Adult stem cells or somatic stem cells <ul><li>Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells. </li></ul><ul><li>They are found in small numbers in most adult tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>They can also be extracted from umbilical cord blood. </li></ul><ul><li>They are also called “somatic stem cells,” </li></ul><ul><li>They are multipotent in nature. </li></ul><ul><li>They give rise to a closely related family of cells within the tissue . </li></ul><ul><li>An example is hematopoietic stem cells, which form all the various cells in the blood. </li></ul>
  38. 44. Adult stem cell plasticity and transdifferentiation <ul><li>This ability to differentiate into multiple cell types is called plasticity or transdifferentiation . </li></ul>
  39. 45. Differentiation pathways of adult stem cells <ul><li>Neural stem cells in the brain give rise to its three major cell types: nerve cells (neurons) and two categories of non-neuronal cells — astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. </li></ul><ul><li>Epithelial stem cells in the lining of the digestive tract occur in deep crypts and give rise to several cell types: absorptive cells, goblet cells, Paneth cells, and enteroendocrine cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Skin stem cells occur in the basal layer of the epidermis and at the base of hair follicles. </li></ul><ul><li>The epidermal stem cells give rise to keratinocytes, which migrate to the surface of the skin and form a protective layer. </li></ul><ul><li>The follicular stem cells can give rise to both the hair follicle and to the epidermis </li></ul>
  40. 46. The similarities and differences between embryonic and adult stem cells <ul><li>Embryonic stem cells can become all cell types of the body because they are pluripotent . </li></ul><ul><li>Adult stem cells are generally limited to differentiating into different cell types of their tissue of origin. </li></ul><ul><li>However, some evidence suggests that adult stem cell plasticity may exist, increasing the number of cell types a given adult stem cell can become. </li></ul>
  41. 47. Human embryonic and adult stem cells <ul><li>A potential advantage of using stem cells from an adult is that the patient's own cells could be expanded in culture and then reintroduced into the patient. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of the patient's own adult stem cells would mean that the cells would not be rejected by the immune system. </li></ul><ul><li>Embryonic stem cells from a donor introduced into a patient could cause transplant rejection. </li></ul>
  42. 48. Umbilical cord stem cells <ul><li>Blood from the placenta and umbilical cord that are left over after birth is a rich source of hematopoietic stem cells. </li></ul><ul><li>These so-called umbilical cord stem cells have been shown to be able to differentiate into bone cells and neurons, as well as the cells lining the inside of blood vessels. </li></ul>
  43. 49. Importance of Cord blood stem cells <ul><li>Cord blood stem cells have been used to treat 70 different diseases, including leukemia, lymphoma, and inherited diseases (of red blood cells, the immune system, and certain metabolic abnormalities). </li></ul><ul><li>Cord blood collection is a safe, simple procedure that poses no risk to the mother or newborn baby. </li></ul>
  44. 50. Embryonic Stem Cells (ESC).
  45. 51. Embryonic Stem Cells <ul><li>Embryonic Stem Cells are derived from embryos that develop from eggs that have been fertilized in vitro . </li></ul><ul><li>Embryonic Stem Cells are never derived from eggs fertilized inside of a woman's body. </li></ul><ul><li>The embryos from which Human Embryonic Stem Cells are derived are typically four or five days old and are a hollow microscopic ball of cells called the blastocyst </li></ul>
  46. 52. Embryonic stem cells (ESC) <ul><li>Embryonic stem cells (ESC), as their name suggests, are derived from embryos. </li></ul><ul><li>Specifically, embryonic stem cells are derived from embryos that develop from eggs that have been fertilized in vitro —donated for research purposes with informed consent of the donors. </li></ul><ul><li>They are not derived from eggs fertilized in a woman's body. </li></ul>
  47. 55. Properties of Embryonic Stem Cells <ul><li>a Derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst. </li></ul><ul><li>a Capable of undergoing an unlimited number of symmetrical divisions without differentiating (long-term self-renewal). </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibit and maintain a stable, full (diploid), normal complement of chromosomes (karyotype). </li></ul><ul><li>Pluripotent ES cells can give rise to differentiated cell types that are derived from all three primary germ layers of the embryo (endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm). </li></ul>
  48. 56. Potential sources of stem cells are: <ul><li>fetal tissue that becomes available after an abortion </li></ul><ul><li>excess embryos from assisted reproductive technologies such as commonly used in fertility clinics </li></ul><ul><li>embryos created through in vitro fertilization specifically for research purpose, and </li></ul><ul><li>embryos created asexually as a result of the transfer of a human somatic cell nucleus to an egg with its own nucleus removed. </li></ul><ul><li>Other sources of stem cells are those from umbilical cord blood, and bone marrow. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, neural stem cells, haematopoetic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells can be harvested from fetal blood and fetal tissue. </li></ul>
  49. 58. Cell therapy. <ul><li>Treatment of neural diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington’s disease and Alzheimer's disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Stem cells could be used to repair or replace damaged neurons. </li></ul><ul><li>Repair of damaged organs such as the liver and pancreas. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatments for AIDS. </li></ul>
  50. 59. Stem cell transplantation (SCT) <ul><li>Stem cell transplantation (SCT) is the term now used in preference to bone marrow transplantation (BMT). </li></ul><ul><li>When a patient's bone marrow fails to produce new blood cells, for whatever reason, he or she will develop anaemia, be prone to frequent, persistent infections and may develop serious bleeding problems. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to restore blood cell production a patient may be given healthy stem cells. </li></ul>
  51. 60. Therapeutic cloning/ somatic cell nuclear transfer <ul><li>Scientists first remove the nucleus from a normal egg cell of a woman . They then extract a nucleus from a somatic cell - that is, any body cell other than an egg or sperm—from a patient who needs an infusion of stem cells to treat a disease or injury, and insert the nucleus into the egg. </li></ul><ul><li>The egg, which now contains the patient's genetic material, is allowed to divide and soon forms a hollow sphere of cells called a blastocyst . </li></ul><ul><li>Cells from the inner cell mass are isolated and used to develop new embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines. </li></ul>
  52. 61. Strategy for therapeutic cloning and tissue engineering
  53. 62. Stem cells and cancer treatment <ul><li>Intense chemotherapy damages a person’s bone marrow, where the stem cells for blood reside. </li></ul><ul><li>Depleted of a fresh supply of blood cells, the patient is left vulnerable to infection, anemia and bleeding. </li></ul><ul><li>These side effects of chemotherapy are often treated with a bone marrow transplant. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Transplanting bone marrow tissue into a chemo-cancer patient may involve hundreds of thousands or millions of cells – of which only two or three may be actual stem cells. </li></ul><ul><li>It would be much more efficient if you could inject a thousand purified stem cells,” </li></ul>
  54. 63. Therapeutic cloning for tissue repair <ul><li>One human organ, skin, is readily cultured to provide replacement tissue for burns victims. </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy skin cells from the patient can be grown rapidly in vitro to provide self-compatible skin grafts. </li></ul>
  55. 64. Is Stem Cell Research Ethical? <ul><li>   * Embryonic Stem Cells - always morally objectionable, because the human embryo must be destroyed in order to harvest its stem cells.   * Embryonic Germ Cells - morally objectionable when utilizing fetal tissue derived from elective abortions, but morally acceptable when utilizing material from spontaneous abortions (miscarriages) if the parents give informed consent.   * Umbilical Cord Stem Cells - morally acceptable, since the umbilical cord is no longer required once the delivery has been completed.    * Placentally-Derived Stem Cells - morally acceptable, since the afterbirth is no longer required after the delivery has been completed.   * Adult Stem Cells - morally acceptable. </li></ul>
  56. 66. Sources Consulted <ul><li>Odorico, J.S., Kaufman, D.S., and Thomson, J.A. (2001). Multilineage differentiation from human embryonic stem cell lines. Stem Cells. 19, 193 -204. </li></ul><ul><li>Smith, A.G. (2001). Origins and properties of mouse embryonic stem cells. Annu. Rev. Cell. Dev. Biol. </li></ul><ul><li>Thomson, J.A. and Marshall, V.S. (1998). Primate embryonic stem cells. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. 38, 133-165. </li></ul><ul><li>Chandross, K.J. and Mezey, E. (2001). Plasticity of adult bone marrow stem cells. Mattson, M.P. and Van Zant, G. eds. (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press). </li></ul><ul><li>Slack, J.M. (2000). Stem cells in epithelial tissues. Science. 287, 1431-1433. </li></ul>
  57. 67. Sources Consulted <ul><li>Dzierzak, E., Medvinsky, A., and de Bruijn, M. (1998). Qualitative and quantitative aspects of haematopoietic cell development in the mammalian embryo. Immunol. Today. 19, 228-236. </li></ul><ul><li>MacKey, M.C. (2001). Cell kinetic status of haematopoietic stem cells. Cell. Prolif. 34, 71-83. </li></ul><ul><li>J. A. Thomson, et al., 'Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts', Science, no. 5391, vol. 282, November 1998, pp. 1145–7. </li></ul><ul><li>B. E. Reubinoff, M. F. Pera, C-Y Fong, A. Trounson and A. Bongso, 'Embryonic stem cell lines from human blastocysts: somatic differentiation in vitro ', Nature Biotechnology, vol. 18, pp. 399–404, 01 April 2000. </li></ul>
  58. 68. Thank you