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   Importance of muscular movement
   Muscles are biological machines.
   Functional characteristics of muscles.
   Muscle organization-skeletal , plain and cardiac muscles –
    comparison
   Skeletal muscle-structure, fibrillar system, contractile
    proteins
   Energy sources of muscle –ATP, CP and glucose.
   Cori’s lactic acid cycle.
   Events of muscle stimulation.
   Molecular events of muscle contraction and relaxation.
   Theories of muscle contraction
   Summary
 Movement is the basic property of
  living systems.
 Animals move by contracting muscles.
 Muscle contraction is one of the key
  processes of animal life.
 Movement of muscle is the prerequisite
  for vital activities like
  digestion, reproduction, excretion and
  circulation.
   Gives shape and structure to the body.
                      Enables animals to maintain erect

Skeletal muscle
                  
                      posture.
                     Brings about movement
                     Helps the animal to secure food and
                      shelter and escape from danger.
                     Helps to communicate its wishes.

                     Assist breathing movements
                     Aids hearing and vision.
Smooth muscle




                     Helps digestion, excretion, reproduction
                      and circulation.
                     Propels digested food, body
                      fluids, glandular secretions and waste
                      products.
                     Pumps blood to all parts of the body.
The function of
    Muscles are        muscle is to convert   The chemical energy
biological machines    chemical energy into     is obtained from
made up of proteins.     mechanical work           ATP and CP
                            and force.
Excitability    • the ability to receive and respond to stimuli.



Conductivity    • The ability to receive a stimulus and transmit a
                  wave of excitation (electrochemical activity)


Contractility   • the ability to shorten forcibly when stimulated.



Extensibility   • the ability to be stretched or extended.



 Elasticity     • The ability to bounce back to original length
Plain
                muscle

                                                        Quick
Slow                                Smooth              Acting
muscle         Un-striped/          Muscle              muscle
                 Non-
                striated
                 muscle

                                              Fast    Striped /
                                                                   Skeletal
                                             moving   Striated
    Visceral                    In-                                muscle
                             voluntary
                                             muscle   muscle
    muscle                    muscle




                                                       Voluntary
                                                        muscle
   Elongated spindle shaped
    muscle fibers with
    thickened central belly and
    two pointed terminals.
   The cytoplasm is granular
    without any cross
    striations.
   A rod like nucleus is placed
    in the center.
   Myofibrils are arranged in
    longitudinal axis.
   Found alimentary
    canal, respiratory
    tract, uterus, urinary
    bladder, arteries and veins.
   Branched and form a net
    work.
   The two adjacent muscle
    cells form tight junctions in
    the form of intercalated
    discs.
   Exhibit faint transverse
    striations.
   Innervated by autonomic
    nerve fibers.
   Nucleus is round or oval in
    shape.
   Fewer myofibrils with
    greater amount of
    sarcoplasm for more
    storage of glycogen.
   Sarcolemma is indistinct.
   Complex, elongated, cylindr
    ical and fast moving
    muscles.
   Each fiber is multinucleated
    with transverse and
    longitudinal striations.
   The cytoplasm is composed
    of myofibrils with many
    myofilaments.
   Large number tubules run
    through sarcoplasm and
    form sarcoplasmic
    reticulum.
   The sarcosomes or
    mitochondria supply ATP to
    the myofibrils..
parameters      striped muscle           Plain muscle              Heart muscle
Occurrence      Associated with          Present in the visceral   Present in the heart
                Skeletal system          organs
Shape           long Cylindrical         Spindle shaped            Short cylindrical

Striations      Longitudinal and         Only longitudinal         Faint Longitudinal and
                transverse stripes       stripes                   transverse stripes

Nucleus         multinucleated           Single centrally placed   Single centrally placed

Sarcolemma      Well defined and tough   Not well defined          Not well defined

Branching       No branching             No branching              branched

Nerve supply    somatic                  autonomic                 autonomic

Rhythmicity     Not present              present                   present

Contractility   Fast                     Slow                      Medium fast

Tetanus         possible                 Partially possible        Not possible
   Muscle displays dark or A
    bands or anisotropic
    bands and light or I bands
    or isotropic bands.
   Each A band has a less
    denser region called H
    band or Hensen’s line.
   In each I band, there is a
    dense cross line called Z
    band.
   The area between two
    adjacent Z lines is called a
    sarcomere.
   The myofilaments
    consists of thick
    myosin filaments and
    thin actin filaments
    and are arranged in
    an overlapping manner.
   The myosin filaments
    bear thick knob like
    projections called cross
    bridges.
    The sarcoplasmic
    reticulum is made up
    of longitudinal system
    of canals between
    myofilaments.
   There is also T system
    of canals.
Water

• Muscle contains about 75-80% of water.
• Water provides a good medium for inorganic and organic compounds.
• Water reduces friction and dehydration of muscles.

Proteins

• Muscle consists 3 types of proteins:- structural proteins, contractile proteins and
  enzymatic proteins

Minerals

• Calcium ions of sarcoplasm initiates muscle contraction.
• Magesium ions are important for muscle contraction.
• sodium and Potassium ions set the action potential.

Organic compounds

• Muscle is a storehouse of glycogen and oxidation of glycogen provides energy.
• The activity of muscle is proportional to the amount of phospholipids.
• ATP is the primary source of energy for muscle contraction.
Structural     •Collagen provides toughness
                 •Elastin offers elasticity to
   proteins       muscles




               •Myosin, actin, tropomyosin, and
Contractile     troponin.
               •Myosin constitutes 35% and actin
 proteins       15% of total proteins.




   Enzymatic      •Adenosine triphosphatase
                  •Creatine phosphatase
    proteins      •Lactic dehydrogenase
Myosin – prime contractile element of muscle.
Have triple helical structure.
Molecular weight is 420,000.
Hydrolysis of myosin with enzyme trypsin yields
two fractions – heavy meromyosin (HMM) and
light meromyosin (LMM).
Hmm acts as an enzyme ATPase for splitting of
ATP into ADP and Pi.
Hydrolysis of HMM with papain yields sub-
fragment 1 and sub-fragment 2.
 Non-contractile and elastic in nature.
 Made up of spherical molecules (G-
  actin). Molecular weight =60,000.
 G-actin polymerizes into double
  stranded helices called fibrous or F-
  actin.
 G-actin +ATP -F-actin +ADP +Pi.
 1 mole of actin +3 mole of myosin -
  actomyosin (super- precipitation).
 Actomyosin +ATP—ca++, mg++actin
  +myosin +ADP
 Non-contractile, fibrous protein.
 It plays important role in in sensitizing
  actin and myosin molecules to calcium
  ions.
 This sensitivity is important in order to
  switch contraction on or off.
                    Tropomyosin
                                  invertebrates
                         A
      Tropomyosin
                    Tropomyosin
                                  vertebrates
                         B
 Troponin occurs at intervals on the
  actin filament.
 Troponin takes up ca++ ions from the
  sarcoplasm to initiate muscle
  contraction.
 In muscle troponin and tropomyosin
  combines to form troponin-
  tropomyosin system.
Molecular    Molecular
Energy     Events of
                         events of    events of
            muscle
Sources                   muscle        muscle
          stimulation
                        contraction   relaxation
• Immediate
Creatine
Phosphate     • Phosphagen
                system



                  • Short term
     Anaerobic
     glycolysis   • Lactic acid
                    system


              • Long term
 Aerobic      • Glucose, fatty
glycolysis      acids, Amino
                acids
Creatine
               phosphate
                  CP
 Adenosine
triphosphate               Glucose
    ATP


               Chemical
               Energy
               sources
 ATP is the immediate source of energy for
  muscle contraction.
 The break down of phosphate bond of ATP
  releases maximum energy.
Anaerobic glycolysis:
Glucose - 2 moles of lactic acid +8ATPs.
Aerobic glycolysis coupled with Kreb‘s cycle:
Glucose --6 CO2 + 6H2O +38 ATPs.
 Forms a reservoir of high energy
  phosphate in the muscle
 Cannot be used as a direct source of
  energy.
 Used for regeneration of ATP from ADP.
                    Creatine phosphatase
 Creatine phosphate----------creatine
  + phosphoric acid
 Phosphoric acid +ADP ------- ATP
 Glucose is stored in the muscle in the form of
  glycogen.
 Muscle glycogen is converted into glucose by
  glycogenolysis.
 Glucose is oxidized by glycolysis.
 C6H12O6 + 6O2--------6CO2 +6H2O +38 ATP
Muscle
                                Anaerobic
 glycogenesis    glycogen       glycolysis



           Blood             Blood
          glucose        Lactic acid

Glycogenolysis
                   Liver        Enzymatic
                 glycogen       transformation
   The oxidation of lactic acid to carbon dioxide
    produces energy for the reconversion of ADP to
    ATP.
   The lactic acid produced in the muscle
    contraction passes into blood stream and is
    transported to the liver.
   Within the liver, lactic acid is converted to liver
    glycogen and then to blood glucose.
   The conversion of lactic acid to glycogen requires
    oxygen.
   Muscle glycogen comes only from the glucose of
    the blood.
ATP acts as a central agent
        responsible for

  The actin-
                 The synthesis of
    myosin                          The synthesis of
                 phosphocreatine
interaction to                       glycogen from
                  from creatine
cause muscle                           lactic acid
                 and phosphate.
  shortening
1. Conduction of nerve impulse from CNS to
   neuromuscular junction.
2. Depolarization of sarcolemma – influx of Na+
   ions & efflux of k+ ions.
3. Release of Ca2+ ions from sarcoplasmic
   reticulum.
4. Diffusion of Ca2+ ions to actin filament.
   Binding Ca2+ ions to troponin.
   Troponin – Ca2+ complex removes tropomyosin
    blockage of actin sites.
   Heads of myosin – ATP complex form Cross-
    bridges to actin filament.
   Hydrolysis of ATP induces conformational
    changes in the heads of myosin.
   1 mole of Actin + 3 moles of myosin 
    Actomyosin
 Ca2+ ions sequestered from actin filament by
  sacroplasmic reticulum.
 Ca2+ returns to sacroplasmic reticulum.
 Ca2+ released from troponin – Ca2+ complex.
 Troponin permits tropomyosin return to blocking
  position.
 Myosin-action cross-bridges break.
 ATP – myosin Complex reformed in heads of
  thick filament.
 Heat production -liberation of heat is always
  associated with muscle contraction.
 Electricity generation -small amount of electrical
  energy is released.
 Volume changes –negligible changes in volume
  occur.
 Change in optical properties -changes in the
  birefringence and transparency occur at the
  muscle fiber.
 Sound production -muscle sound noted during
  contraction.
   This theory was evolved independently and more or
    less simultaneously by A.F Huxley and H.E. Huxley
    around 1950s.
   According to this theory, the force of contraction is
    developed by the cross bridges in the overlap region.
   The active shortening is caused by the movement of
    the cross bridges, which causes one filament to slide
    over the other.
   During muscle contraction, the actin filaments alone
    show movement.
   But the myosin filaments remain static.
   The mechanical movement utilizes the energy
    derived from the break down of ATP molecules.
 In the resting state, the cross bridges are in
  slanting position due to negative charges in both
  the basal and tips of cross bridges due to the
  concentration of magnesium ions.
 After the stimulation of muscle, the release of
  calcium ions change the electrical character
  which cause mutual repulsion and shortening of
  the cross bridges.
 The attachment of cross bridges on the actin
  filaments cause sliding of actin filaments while
  myosin filaments remain static.
 According to this scheme, there are flexible
  hinges on myosin: one between S1 heads and
  the long rods and the second between S2 and
  the LMM at the trypsin reaction site.
 When the head piece(S1 )binds to the exposed
  site on actin it is thought to rotate.
 This type of rotation occurs simultaneously at
  numerous locations of actin – myosin filaments
  which cause shortening of the muscle.
 The energy for this process derived from the
  hydrolysis of ATP.
 The muscle are biological motors which
  convert chemical energy into force and
  mechanical work.
 This biological machinery is composed
  of proteins – which is actomyosin and
  the fuel is ATP.
 With the use of muscles we are able
  to act on our environment.
 Dr.B.Victor is a highly experienced
  professor, recently retired(2008) from the
  reputed educational institution- St. Xavier’ s
  College, Palayamkottai, India-627001.
 He was the dean of sciences, IQAC
  coordinator and assistant controller of
  examinations.
 He has more than 32 years of teaching and
  research experience
 He has published 5 research articles in
  international journals and 32 in reputed
  Indian journals and guided 12 PhDs.
 Send your comments to :
  bonfiliusvictor@gmail.com
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Physiology of muscle contraction

  • 1.
  • 2. Importance of muscular movement  Muscles are biological machines.  Functional characteristics of muscles.  Muscle organization-skeletal , plain and cardiac muscles – comparison  Skeletal muscle-structure, fibrillar system, contractile proteins  Energy sources of muscle –ATP, CP and glucose.  Cori’s lactic acid cycle.  Events of muscle stimulation.  Molecular events of muscle contraction and relaxation.  Theories of muscle contraction  Summary
  • 3.  Movement is the basic property of living systems.  Animals move by contracting muscles.  Muscle contraction is one of the key processes of animal life.  Movement of muscle is the prerequisite for vital activities like digestion, reproduction, excretion and circulation.
  • 4. Gives shape and structure to the body. Enables animals to maintain erect Skeletal muscle  posture.  Brings about movement  Helps the animal to secure food and shelter and escape from danger.  Helps to communicate its wishes.  Assist breathing movements  Aids hearing and vision. Smooth muscle  Helps digestion, excretion, reproduction and circulation.  Propels digested food, body fluids, glandular secretions and waste products.  Pumps blood to all parts of the body.
  • 5. The function of Muscles are muscle is to convert The chemical energy biological machines chemical energy into is obtained from made up of proteins. mechanical work ATP and CP and force.
  • 6. Excitability • the ability to receive and respond to stimuli. Conductivity • The ability to receive a stimulus and transmit a wave of excitation (electrochemical activity) Contractility • the ability to shorten forcibly when stimulated. Extensibility • the ability to be stretched or extended. Elasticity • The ability to bounce back to original length
  • 7. Plain muscle Quick Slow Smooth Acting muscle Un-striped/ Muscle muscle Non- striated muscle Fast Striped / Skeletal moving Striated Visceral In- muscle voluntary muscle muscle muscle muscle Voluntary muscle
  • 8. Elongated spindle shaped muscle fibers with thickened central belly and two pointed terminals.  The cytoplasm is granular without any cross striations.  A rod like nucleus is placed in the center.  Myofibrils are arranged in longitudinal axis.  Found alimentary canal, respiratory tract, uterus, urinary bladder, arteries and veins.
  • 9. Branched and form a net work.  The two adjacent muscle cells form tight junctions in the form of intercalated discs.  Exhibit faint transverse striations.  Innervated by autonomic nerve fibers.  Nucleus is round or oval in shape.  Fewer myofibrils with greater amount of sarcoplasm for more storage of glycogen.  Sarcolemma is indistinct.
  • 10. Complex, elongated, cylindr ical and fast moving muscles.  Each fiber is multinucleated with transverse and longitudinal striations.  The cytoplasm is composed of myofibrils with many myofilaments.  Large number tubules run through sarcoplasm and form sarcoplasmic reticulum.  The sarcosomes or mitochondria supply ATP to the myofibrils..
  • 11. parameters striped muscle Plain muscle Heart muscle Occurrence Associated with Present in the visceral Present in the heart Skeletal system organs Shape long Cylindrical Spindle shaped Short cylindrical Striations Longitudinal and Only longitudinal Faint Longitudinal and transverse stripes stripes transverse stripes Nucleus multinucleated Single centrally placed Single centrally placed Sarcolemma Well defined and tough Not well defined Not well defined Branching No branching No branching branched Nerve supply somatic autonomic autonomic Rhythmicity Not present present present Contractility Fast Slow Medium fast Tetanus possible Partially possible Not possible
  • 12. Muscle displays dark or A bands or anisotropic bands and light or I bands or isotropic bands.  Each A band has a less denser region called H band or Hensen’s line.  In each I band, there is a dense cross line called Z band.  The area between two adjacent Z lines is called a sarcomere.
  • 13. The myofilaments consists of thick myosin filaments and thin actin filaments and are arranged in an overlapping manner.  The myosin filaments bear thick knob like projections called cross bridges.  The sarcoplasmic reticulum is made up of longitudinal system of canals between myofilaments.  There is also T system of canals.
  • 14. Water • Muscle contains about 75-80% of water. • Water provides a good medium for inorganic and organic compounds. • Water reduces friction and dehydration of muscles. Proteins • Muscle consists 3 types of proteins:- structural proteins, contractile proteins and enzymatic proteins Minerals • Calcium ions of sarcoplasm initiates muscle contraction. • Magesium ions are important for muscle contraction. • sodium and Potassium ions set the action potential. Organic compounds • Muscle is a storehouse of glycogen and oxidation of glycogen provides energy. • The activity of muscle is proportional to the amount of phospholipids. • ATP is the primary source of energy for muscle contraction.
  • 15. Structural •Collagen provides toughness •Elastin offers elasticity to proteins muscles •Myosin, actin, tropomyosin, and Contractile troponin. •Myosin constitutes 35% and actin proteins 15% of total proteins. Enzymatic •Adenosine triphosphatase •Creatine phosphatase proteins •Lactic dehydrogenase
  • 16. Myosin – prime contractile element of muscle. Have triple helical structure. Molecular weight is 420,000. Hydrolysis of myosin with enzyme trypsin yields two fractions – heavy meromyosin (HMM) and light meromyosin (LMM). Hmm acts as an enzyme ATPase for splitting of ATP into ADP and Pi. Hydrolysis of HMM with papain yields sub- fragment 1 and sub-fragment 2.
  • 17.  Non-contractile and elastic in nature.  Made up of spherical molecules (G- actin). Molecular weight =60,000.  G-actin polymerizes into double stranded helices called fibrous or F- actin.  G-actin +ATP -F-actin +ADP +Pi.
  • 18.  1 mole of actin +3 mole of myosin - actomyosin (super- precipitation).  Actomyosin +ATP—ca++, mg++actin +myosin +ADP
  • 19.  Non-contractile, fibrous protein.  It plays important role in in sensitizing actin and myosin molecules to calcium ions.  This sensitivity is important in order to switch contraction on or off. Tropomyosin invertebrates A Tropomyosin Tropomyosin vertebrates B
  • 20.  Troponin occurs at intervals on the actin filament.  Troponin takes up ca++ ions from the sarcoplasm to initiate muscle contraction.  In muscle troponin and tropomyosin combines to form troponin- tropomyosin system.
  • 21. Molecular Molecular Energy Events of events of events of muscle Sources muscle muscle stimulation contraction relaxation
  • 22. • Immediate Creatine Phosphate • Phosphagen system • Short term Anaerobic glycolysis • Lactic acid system • Long term Aerobic • Glucose, fatty glycolysis acids, Amino acids
  • 23. Creatine phosphate CP Adenosine triphosphate Glucose ATP Chemical Energy sources
  • 24.  ATP is the immediate source of energy for muscle contraction.  The break down of phosphate bond of ATP releases maximum energy. Anaerobic glycolysis: Glucose - 2 moles of lactic acid +8ATPs. Aerobic glycolysis coupled with Kreb‘s cycle: Glucose --6 CO2 + 6H2O +38 ATPs.
  • 25.  Forms a reservoir of high energy phosphate in the muscle  Cannot be used as a direct source of energy.  Used for regeneration of ATP from ADP. Creatine phosphatase  Creatine phosphate----------creatine + phosphoric acid  Phosphoric acid +ADP ------- ATP
  • 26.  Glucose is stored in the muscle in the form of glycogen.  Muscle glycogen is converted into glucose by glycogenolysis.  Glucose is oxidized by glycolysis.  C6H12O6 + 6O2--------6CO2 +6H2O +38 ATP
  • 27.
  • 28. Muscle Anaerobic glycogenesis glycogen glycolysis Blood Blood glucose Lactic acid Glycogenolysis Liver Enzymatic glycogen transformation
  • 29. The oxidation of lactic acid to carbon dioxide produces energy for the reconversion of ADP to ATP.  The lactic acid produced in the muscle contraction passes into blood stream and is transported to the liver.  Within the liver, lactic acid is converted to liver glycogen and then to blood glucose.  The conversion of lactic acid to glycogen requires oxygen.  Muscle glycogen comes only from the glucose of the blood.
  • 30. ATP acts as a central agent responsible for The actin- The synthesis of myosin The synthesis of phosphocreatine interaction to glycogen from from creatine cause muscle lactic acid and phosphate. shortening
  • 31. 1. Conduction of nerve impulse from CNS to neuromuscular junction. 2. Depolarization of sarcolemma – influx of Na+ ions & efflux of k+ ions. 3. Release of Ca2+ ions from sarcoplasmic reticulum. 4. Diffusion of Ca2+ ions to actin filament.
  • 32. Binding Ca2+ ions to troponin.  Troponin – Ca2+ complex removes tropomyosin blockage of actin sites.  Heads of myosin – ATP complex form Cross- bridges to actin filament.  Hydrolysis of ATP induces conformational changes in the heads of myosin.  1 mole of Actin + 3 moles of myosin  Actomyosin
  • 33.  Ca2+ ions sequestered from actin filament by sacroplasmic reticulum.  Ca2+ returns to sacroplasmic reticulum.  Ca2+ released from troponin – Ca2+ complex.  Troponin permits tropomyosin return to blocking position.  Myosin-action cross-bridges break.  ATP – myosin Complex reformed in heads of thick filament.
  • 34.  Heat production -liberation of heat is always associated with muscle contraction.  Electricity generation -small amount of electrical energy is released.  Volume changes –negligible changes in volume occur.  Change in optical properties -changes in the birefringence and transparency occur at the muscle fiber.  Sound production -muscle sound noted during contraction.
  • 35. This theory was evolved independently and more or less simultaneously by A.F Huxley and H.E. Huxley around 1950s.  According to this theory, the force of contraction is developed by the cross bridges in the overlap region.  The active shortening is caused by the movement of the cross bridges, which causes one filament to slide over the other.  During muscle contraction, the actin filaments alone show movement.  But the myosin filaments remain static.  The mechanical movement utilizes the energy derived from the break down of ATP molecules.
  • 36.  In the resting state, the cross bridges are in slanting position due to negative charges in both the basal and tips of cross bridges due to the concentration of magnesium ions.  After the stimulation of muscle, the release of calcium ions change the electrical character which cause mutual repulsion and shortening of the cross bridges.  The attachment of cross bridges on the actin filaments cause sliding of actin filaments while myosin filaments remain static.
  • 37.  According to this scheme, there are flexible hinges on myosin: one between S1 heads and the long rods and the second between S2 and the LMM at the trypsin reaction site.  When the head piece(S1 )binds to the exposed site on actin it is thought to rotate.  This type of rotation occurs simultaneously at numerous locations of actin – myosin filaments which cause shortening of the muscle.  The energy for this process derived from the hydrolysis of ATP.
  • 38.  The muscle are biological motors which convert chemical energy into force and mechanical work.  This biological machinery is composed of proteins – which is actomyosin and the fuel is ATP.  With the use of muscles we are able to act on our environment.
  • 39.  Dr.B.Victor is a highly experienced professor, recently retired(2008) from the reputed educational institution- St. Xavier’ s College, Palayamkottai, India-627001.  He was the dean of sciences, IQAC coordinator and assistant controller of examinations.  He has more than 32 years of teaching and research experience  He has published 5 research articles in international journals and 32 in reputed Indian journals and guided 12 PhDs.  Send your comments to : bonfiliusvictor@gmail.com