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  2. 2. Organic Agriculture Movement, State Intervension, Indonesia– A Journal (selected files)Editor: Riza V. TjahjadiLayout and graphic by: XGraphicThanks to Indera Nababan for his financial support to this layoutYayasan Biotani & Bahari IndonesiaBangun Reksa Indah I Blok H No. 24Karang Tengah Ciledug Tangerang 15157Indonesiabiotani@gmail.comhttp://biotaniindonesia.blogspot.comISBN 978-602-19127-0-6No Copyright utilised:Permission is hereby granted for anyone to do anything that they want with this material—you mayfreely reprint it, redistribute it, amend it or do whatever you like with it provided that you includean acknowledgement of the original authorship.2
  3. 3. …one of basic question still remind, to what extent will the ideology and policy agenda ofthese NGOs concern with alternative agriculture and individuals be integrated politically withthe broader new agenda coalition? The answer will largely determine the future potentialrole of organic farming system within the overall food production – both technically andpolitically (the state recognise,at minimum, if it difficult to support the movement; Soeharto regime still very strongoppressed the opposition although local apparatus became lessoppressive to the rice farmers compared to 1980s). But… trust me, one day the state willprobably play important instrumental roles in policies and budget allocation as to boostingthe organic movement. Time will tell.(Alternative Agriculture Movement in Indonesia. A Preliminary Assessment on Organic Farming by:Riza V. Tjahjadi) I said that our development of farming should shift from the Green Revolution where although harvest production is increased there is also the introduction of damage in many sectors of the environment. So we should instead apply methods of increasing theproductivity but at the same time they must be friendly to the environment, in other words, there should be a sustainable agricultural development.… Our petroleum stock, if we do not find new sources, will only last for 20 more years. Our supply of gas will only last for 60 years. Our supply of coal, if we do not economize in itsuse, will only last for 150 years. To avoid this lost of future supply of gas for other uses; the solution is to replace chemical fertilizer with organic fertilizer. (The President’s Speech: SRI Harvest Ceremony in Cianjur, West Java, Indonesia with an Attendance of the President on 30 July 2007. J 3
  4. 4. List of Content Foreword The work of NGOs ASEAN Travelling Workshop on Organic Farming and Community Seed Banking. Brief News in the Dirty Dozen Campaigners PANA Country Towards Alternatives to Pesticides Sustainable Agriculture Network in Southeast Asia A partner of the Indonesians NGOs. Meeting Notes Controlling Magic Bullets through Mix Farming Alternative Agriculture Movement in Indonesia. A Preliminary Assessment on Organic Farming Multiple cropping controls "magic bullet" Multiple Cropping and Biodynamic Agriculture shared to international in East Sussex UK (August 1992) photos Multiple cropping and Biodynamic agriculture shared to Nicaraguans (November 1992) photos Biotani PAN Indonesia 1996-1999; Brief Historical Description Agriculture in general (tables) (simplified) Hierarchy flow of issue and actions Flow of participatory organic farming Project sites of PAN Indonesia (1990-2001)4
  5. 5. The Dream Team PAN Indonesia 1985-2001 (photos, selected)Pesticides Use Day, BhopalThe Dream TeamHighlight Project Activities 1995-1997Lunch with DonorKopi Organis (a flier)Impact of Modern Agriculture and It’s Impacts to Traditional Farmers. Focusto Rice. Organic farming is the key on-farm conservationA Sketch of Organic Development by PAN Indonesia Including preliminarytry-out On-farm Inspection, and organic cottonThe UN-FAO’ World Food Summit (1996), A share the internationalmessage and national responses (photos)Aceh Community Demise Pesticides (photos)Action against pesticides in IndonesiaCropping Pattern or Sequencing of Organic CottonRice Farming Systems Rojolele and High Yield Rice Varieties. AComparison StudyRice Farmers are Still the LoserProject sites of PAN Indonesia (1990-2001) A short description to theSoutheast Asian Liaison Committee (SEALIACOM or LC)Seeds and Farmer’s Knowledge Systems. An empirical learning at aJawanese’ villages in Central LampungNarrative Report: APM on Vegetable ProgramDemand to the new government: It’s a time preparing scheme of incentive orcredit for farmers who want to do rice farming organically (Statement of PANIndonesia Empowerment of farmers should really get more concrete actionswith regard to their Rights)Women and Organic Farming (01) Within the One World Project No Pesticides Use Day, Bhopal Indonesia Advances on Farmers Rights Organic foods (should) within Food Aid INFID Statement on Food AidWomen and Organic Farming (02) Within "The One World Project" Organic Agriculture in Indonesia 1999. A briefing to field workers and 5
  6. 6. partners Women and Organic Agriculture (03) Position of the Indonesian NGOs to TRADE RELATED ASPECTS OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS (TRIPS) NGO seminar urges campaign against unfair biopiracy Developed Nations May Use LoI to Press Indonesia in WTO Transgenic technology draws controversy Deal on transgenic cotton seeds delayed Woman and Pesticide in North Sulawesi Patents, PVP, and GMOs. Some Notes for Strategic Anticipation in the organic agriculture movement More background, Patent Act 2000: Lobby and Responded from the government Communication: PAN Indonesia, the State Minister on Environment and Minister on Law and Regulatory Affair A small team and Pokja on Alternative to IPR of Life forms Letters of two ministers and others Inter-departmental meeting on the Bills on IPR Acts More respond from the Minister on Law and Regulatory Affair Cassiavera: eco-friendly and sustainable Commodity Development of the Organic Agriculture in West Sumatra Campaign against Shiseido Biopiracy (1999-2002) NGO seminar urges campaign against unfair biopiracy Shiseido Biopirating Herbs of the Indonesian Native Names, a front page brochure Shiseido Biopiracy: An interview in sideline of IFOAM Organic World Congress in Basel Switzerland Shiseido Batalkan Paten Rempah Indonesia List of Campaign and lobby on biodiversity piracy (biopiracy) in case of Shiseido October 2002: The Case of Shiseido as quoted by student of Freire Universitat Berlin Protests stop patent (box in Grain, November 2002) 8 Years Later: Biothai Campaign Against Shiseido Indonesia: 140 million farmers and not enough rice GS Khush, one of Medal award recipients of UN-FAO in World Food Summit 1996, Ignoring Padi Huma POLICE Organic, wants MOA ..! Bt Cotton.. Get out..! (photo) Against Bt Cotton. Advocacy and Litigation Plus Organic Cotton with6
  7. 7. Multiple-croppingOrganic Cotton with Multiple-cropping in Kamang West SumateraProgress of Organic Agriculture Movements. Some Asian Countries: A briefnote from Hangzou ChinaHangzhou Declaration. 5th IFOAM-ASIA General AssemblyConventional Agriculture and Organic Farming in the context of SustainableAgriculture in North Sulawesi. A Comparative StudyEU Trade Commissioner Pascal Answer to Questionnaire from IndonesianNGO’s Via PAN IndonesiaPrepCom4 WSSD in Bali: Some Words in Banner, Facilitating IFOAM HQThe World Food Summit, + 5, Rome, June 2002 NGOs workshop (partners of BfdW and EZE) Rome Italy June 2002(photos) Background, PAN Indonesia on Food Security Issues World Food Summit + 5, Rome, June 2002, Dialog on World Food byJohannes Brandstäter and Carsta Neuenroth Brief notes, WFS: fyl, Observation in UN-FAO HQ Rome Italy. PANIndonesia/ Brot f r die WeldBrief note: Quality Rice, Key joined Globalization, Indonesia Have it?sUmMiT-tO-sUmMiT sAvE FAO (tArGeT)?[Free Trade failed in achieving food security, except profit]Stop Organic exports to North[IFOAM-Asia] Food Security Scenario w/out Rome Declaration; Friends ofDB AoA watch IndonesiaAdditional: Clarification Food sovereignty and the right to foodPeople’s Rice Mill (PRM), Alternative for the National Food Security. A postsustainable rice production system. By: Ir. SabirinIndonesia Inspectors, proposing two namesOrganic Agriculture mail from farm@bigtreebali.comAnother Biopiracy STOP BIOPIRACY: Pasak Bumi (Eurycoma fongifolia); A PressStatementby Biotani Indonesia Foundation Seeking Clarification between Tongkat Ali and Pasak Bumi STOP BIOPIRACY: Pasak Bumi (Eurycoma fongifolia. Update Mon,December 1, 2003 23:15 7
  8. 8. A year later: NST denied my Right to Reply (Hak Jawab)? - for Mass Media Organic Agriculture mushrooming, but climate change serious affecting. A sketch of from Indonesia No Patent on Life To All delegates and NGOs/CSOs In negotiating text In the next 3rd Session of IGWG for the Voluntary Guideline On Right to Adequate Food Movement, co-oincidently but outlay subject for discussions; Re: [IFOAM- Asia] 6th IFOAM-Asia Conference and General Assembly [communitygallery] Right2Food: INDONESIA MUST put global hunger ahead than narrow National Interests Hak Atas Pangan or Right to Food in Arab language circulated during IGWG July7, 2004 Statement of Concern On the Case of Scarcity of Fertilisers by Biotani PAN Indonesia Organic Cotton, invest, please..! Biodiversity Standard, IFOAM, My comments 1 Biodiversity Standard, IFOAM, My comments 2 ADB Identifying researchers working on organic agriculture China-ASEAN Expert Group Meeting on OFGF.NET Building, A recommendation China and ASEAN Trade Encouraging Organic Farming Organic Farming in Indonesia. Retro and Reflection of Current Situations Farmers’ Experiences with Agricultural Research 14-20 December 2004 Thailand-Cambodia (photos) Organics in Indonesia Don’t send me transgenic/GMOs in your food aid, please..! (poster) Developing organic farming whilst food sources enrichment in an islet, namely Pulau Tunda, within program: assessing the Right to Food development model for small island (photos) BioTani Indonesia Foundation appeal for donations to support organic Food Aid and seed packets in the disaster relief area. Organic Update March 2005. Organic Federation of Australia8
  9. 9. Support Campaign concerning Another Percy Schmeiser in Indonesia Sixcorn growers put into jailed by Charoen PokphandRevise Logo IFOAM, possible? Watch out_LOGO_IFOAM Directory 2006Organic Agriculture Prime Movers, Speak Loudly…! (Avian Flu, a poster)IntlBioDiversityDay_Re: [Organic-Asia] aViAnFlU_AnimalManureBlamed-Challenge2OrganicPromotersRight-to-Adequate-Food_Indonesia-10YEARS-after-WFS_RomeItalyA statement by BioTani IndonesiaRed and White Rice Thailand and Indonesia varietiesRetro: Critics to IRRI-Los Baňos the Philippines (photos)Right to Food on Islets in Indonesia (photos)Study discovers food problem in remote islandsTerra Madre 2004-2006-2008; flashback (photo)Dimentichiamo circa il paradigma delle isole (arcipelago), ah, ah, ah... Letsforget about the paradigm of islands (archipelago), uh, uh, uh ... lets enjoy thefoods and continental mindset of the presenters (photos)Rice price soar, Organic Rice also rose but slowOrganic Products and its Market in Jakarta. Survey to Consumers andRetailersCoffee Business Meeting. Opening and introductionHybrid rice situationer in Indonesia Interviewed by CNN Friday 26 April2008 (photos)Wrong transplanting Mr. President, minister and governor..! (photos)AGROBIODIVERSITY – The Knowledge Issues by: Riza V. Tjahjadi andShalini BhutaniFlashback:Photos of Training for Lawyers with Farmers participation in South East Asiaon AgbiodiversityandPhotos of Farmers Issues, and Indonesia National-Level meeting Post LegalTraining South East Asia MeetingBiodynamic Farming, Red-n-White rice var, KlatenJaker PO General Assembly 2008 (photos) 9
  10. 10. Farmers... you should keep alert to: We OWN your seeds Lets Transform Products of VOC*) Trade Model What Wrong with Lobby to FAO?; Re: IFOAM Press Release - Fight Poverty with Organic Agriculture! Food for All (FAO) Organic Food for All (BioTani& Bahari Ind) Biotani w/ polyculture farming, now, It was..a scandal: Supertoy Fish... full cycle, from: village toilet, pond, food and consumed by human Keeping (local) Foods in the Hands of Community LAST oNe Regular Metting, SC Jaker PO (photos) I wAnT yOu joint us Organic Agriculture Movement in Indonesia (poster) Brown Plant Hopper infestation to organic rice... Wereng Batang Coklat serang padi organic Comment to Climate Change in Indonesia. Climate Change Guide Making Organic Fertilizers with Indirect FOSSIL FUEL-BASED mechanization Let’s Build Organic Agriculture for Small Family. The struggle portrait without end, by M. Rois A Catholic-Roman services set up Organic Agriculture Movement: SPTN HPS The World Food Day Farmers & Fishermens Movement of Indonesia, by Emmanuel Astokodatu and Paulus Yoko Seed and Village Autonomy in the Indonesian Realities, by Fr. G. Utomo Farmers, Landless, Critical Soils & Its Restorations. A poster Organic Coffee of KSU Baperda Organic, Sumbul North Sumatera, by Oktavianus Zebua Pungli or Extortion in transporting organic coffee - short story in Aceh and North Sumatera State Recapture Interventions (my review, critics and suggestion)10
  11. 11. A configuration situation 2007-2008 (figure)Boosting hybrid rice (for rice self sufficiency) (photos)Seeds, Fertilisers and Foods Subsidy Development 2005-2009 (figure)RI fails to reach additional rice production target, Agri-Revit in a hot seat,hybrid rice comes again?Boosting hybrid rice (for rice self sufficiency) parallel with small subsidy forsoil fertility improvement (posters)Fertilising soil organically, a slow track with turbulence period to CubanModel? IndonesiaAPPO & State SubsidyRice Seeds goes to High Tech, Fertilisers turns Eco-friendlyHighlight Strategic Plan 2010-2014 of a draft Ministry of AgricultureA Cuban Model slower, organic farming – IndonesiaGO Organic 2010 failed, GO Organic 2010 GagalOrganic Farming and IPR in Japan-Indo; IP right in Asia may improveSubsidised Organic Fertilisers 2010 by Province/ Alokasi Pupuk OrganikBersubsidi 2010 menurut ProvinsiOrganic Fertilisers 2010 & Total Ricefields perspective – IndonesiaGo Organic (doank) now, Go Organic 2010 GAME OVER..! pertanianorganicto END of History of (chemical fertilisers), Go Organic 2010 missed itOrganic Farming & Transgenic of the Ministry of Agriculture, a two tracks.Make it Clear Your Position, Guys..!Transgenic crops Development and (possibility transforming) OrganicProduct?How can we feed the world and still save the planet? Keeps the state subsidybut shift into organic, Indonesia has beganOrganic Fertilisers Subsidy 2011, Subsidi Pupuk Organik 2011Global Organic AgricultureCan organic fertiliser subsidy be a model to UN, G20? 11
  12. 12. Organic fertilisers driven by the state: soil fertility improvement versus expensive price, minim absorption, less confidence? Fertilising soil, target: exporting organic rice without yearly action plan Organic fertilisers within the state budget...Guaranteed: rice is not quickly stale The state Budget should shift exporting organic rice into rice not quickly rotten for all; APBN untuk Nasi yang tidak mudah basi Rice and Foot loose Food Sources: Wheat; Padi dan Sumber Makanan bergantung: Gandum Too Much Eat Rice, So... One Day No Rice or...? Terlalu Banyak Makan Nasi, So... Sehari Tanpa Nasi atau...? Organic fertilizers Subsidy, APBN (the state budget) vs Private locals Fertiliser Subsidy Cut due to leakage in Distribution? Organic Farming, the Performance MoA in 2010 Organic Fertilizer Subsidy in 2012 rose, but the degradated soil fertility expands? Draft State Budget 2012 It’s time to grant incentives and farm credit to organic farmers, Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono X (2008) Another State intervention. Minister of Manpower and Transmigration introduced Organic Farming Coaching/Facilitation System within Production Stage// Pembinaan/Fasilitasi dan Pengawasan Pertanian Organik, lewat SK Menaker The People Test… Look, how good my organic soils (Sutarman, Garut, 19 April 2006) Organic Agriculture Development and Market Access within free traders, APEC? Vietnam proposal, what was Indonesia proposal? PPL, the agriculture extension service of Purworejo observing Polyculture farm An idle of a compost house donated by Danamon Peduli (a CSR fund) located behind a market, namely Pasar Srogo Klaten in Cental Jawa12
  13. 13. Durian Anjungan & Sintang @ Pontianak, 16 June 2011. A snapshot photosRice terraces & its agro-biodiversity @ Bumi Ayu Central Jawa, 22 June2011; taken from the express train. A snapshot photosSince 2010 until June 2011 brown planthopper still haunt the harvest of ricefarmers ..!Proposals(selected)Workplan program Biotani Indonesia (3-year period) 2000-2003RE: IOAS meetingOrganic Farming-oriented and Community-based Enterprise Programme(OFCEP) in Garut - Tasikmalaya Region West Java, IndonesiaAsia Joint Proposal on Right to Food Training Workshop - Post Rome’s TheWorld Food Summit, 5ylProposing Right to Food into specific Article within national constitutionSubmitted to Constitution Commission by Biotani Indonesia 19 December2003PGS, introducing adapted Organic Farming model in Small Island and Islets –IndonesiaDeveloping Access of Local Initiatives of Small Islands Communities –Indonesia, a Two-Year Project (April 2008 - Feb 2010) with:# Food For All (poster)# Hak atas Pangan (photo)# Foods flow and Income Security within Islet CommunitiesArtificial coral reef multi-location trials and identification of drought resistantcrop varieties; Enabling Efforts toward Participatory Anticipation of LocalCommunities to Global WarmingURGENT,HELP - Nippon_Support-Enrich-food-aid_Islet Communities-IndonesiaNotification regarding the 2009 Ryutaro Hashimoto APFED AwardsWomen, silent participation in agriculture – Indonesia. A proposed researchto identify potentials to gender equalityFollow up Go-Organic-2010 Indo failed, a proposal Create Initiatives for 13
  14. 14. Increase level of "Playing Field" of Your Partner(s) to assess a framework to build National Agenda Steps toward Sustainability of Organic Farming Field monitoring to the state budget subsidy greening agriculture fields through compost house Community security hut/shelter in the night, outlet/kiosk when harvest season in daytime; Look for individual donation, circulated Thu, Mar 10, 2011 at 7:28 PM Invitation Panel Discussion to Launch the Local Sustainability Certification Initiative The 5th Malaysian Organic & Natural Products Exhibition 2011 Asia & Oceania Slowfood Conference in Korea & 17th IFOAM OWC Organizing Committee Convert, pls, into organic farming by Cikeusik Community Banten Below is selected Content of the this book14
  15. 15. ForewordSlash and burnt… slash, slash, then burnt… This is not traditional rice farming, but it was initialactions carried out by local apparatus whenever they found the local rice grown in paddy fields –mostly in Jawa Island. That was pre-1995 period ... Now discussing or planning an activity oforganic agriculture (even) in the 3-star hotel. As to surviving local rice varieties conservation bylocal NGOs in cooperation with selected member of a community, no other way, except apply theancient Javanese-style lobby, by invite Head of sub-district and head of the village eating enjoyingthe fragrance of local rice variety. It was rescue tips for rice seeds which can still be organic. In the preparation of community seed banking, he made several debates against the head of Regency level of the Agriculture Department, when he exposed the objectives of community seed banking. To solve the debates, they set an informal consensus, that allowed the planting of local rice varieties in several plots as in the back of their backbones, but not in the mass scale. Also he did not allow the formation of farmer group. After a while he met an informal leader in the village… the community seed bank program on-farm around the Penataran Temple areas in the Blitar Regency of East Jawa province since 22 December 1988… But we know that our action program to provide our learning media, namely Pest Buster and its Technical Guidance and book series, poster series etc. sooner or later will face against the government policies on rice self-sufficiency nation-wide. We will not run escape. But we will solve through local- culture Javanese Solution1. Pripun, Pak? Eco, tho lan wangi seganipun. Pak Harto, nggih, nedo sega niki… Mulane, ampun dibakar pari sik kula tanem. What, Sir? Nice, isnt it, and the fragrance of rice as well. Pak Harto, Yes, kindly eating this rice. Therefore, kindly, my rice cropping do not burned) 2 ... Its just an example. Another example, in 1985 PAN Indonesia selecting cadres who came from families that have local influence (informal leader) for on-farm trial in upland vegetable in the West Jawa. In 1992-2001 PAN Indonesia practiced similar things in determining the place for core on-farm trial site for organic farming and seed bank in West Sumatera – a cadre/ animator is derived1 See: Riza V. T. Organic Farming and Community Seed Bank. Proceeding: The ASEAN Travelling Workshop. Reportto CIDA MAF. Walhi – PAN Indonesia. Jakarta, September 1989.2 Oral report & shared information by Andrianto of Puntadewa Malang in Tjahjadi, R. V. 1991. Multiple CroppingTry-out in Java island January - December 1990. Report to Program Keanekaragaman Hayati Wahana LingkunganHidup Indonesia (Walhi). PAN Indonesia. February 1991. 15
  16. 16. from the family of a prominent socialist party as well as political figure who was also former political mentor of three governors in the West Sumatera during the new order. I may add, in the South Sulawesi PAN Indonesia work with a consumer organization; all illustrating: political back-up from local (in)formal leader available3, except in Lampung4 and East Kalimantan5. Other example: Bina Sarana Bhakti in Cisarua Bogor West Jawa uses the term research for organic farming as a camouflage, and also affiliate to PAN Indonesia-WALHI, included to the office of the state ministry of the environment in order to survive in the promotion of organic farming. Roman Catholic priest in Yogyakarta, select the name of World Food Day along with the logos of UN-FAO and named as Sekretariat Pelayanan Tani dan Nelayan Hari Pangan Sedunia (SPTN HPS) or The World Food Day Farmers’ Movement to uplift the poor-resource farmers. Thats just an example of survival in the authoritarian Suharto regime.But, right now? Organizers or the five-star hotel was difficult to serve organic snacks and organicfoods for participants who discuss organic farming6. The important thing projects related to thedevelopment of organic agriculture through the state budget realised. The show must go on…although participant from NGOs’ sector grinning in behind.When reading the title of this book most likely people will make the association in his mind, thisbook contains outlined on a path of social movement in Indonesia that close relation with thetransformation of the old paradigm of agriculture, food, markets, and customers in a systematic,methodical, and accompanied details into a new paradigm, Just another example, is a briefdescription of Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono X (2008) who quoted me (RVT) to initiate discussionon the subject: Paradigm Agriculture Politics Agricultural modernisation over three decades has failed to raise the self-esteem, dignity and well-being of farmers; the majority of the population of Indonesia. Now it is time the Government should recognises the rights of farmers, such as the freedom to sell rice or grain to save seed. It is high time now asserted that allowed farmers to plant paddy type of local. Its about time also thinks about incentives and credits for farmers who farmed organically, not just maintain credit farm (KUT) which in fact is more for the purchase of fertilisers and poison the pests (pesticides). Likewise, farmers should be given the freedom to determine the choice and3 When PAN Indonesia held six monthly general meeting of 23 women as representatives of the all sites of the projecton 22-25 August 1997 was tightly monitored by local apparatus; with reason that days entering period of generalelection campaign in 1997. I said: From Mobilization to Revolution? Oh, Yes, but in agriculture..!4 The Canadian ambassador scheduled to visit project site in East Kalimantan in 1992, but canceled due to preparationthe official visit of the Canadian prime minister. Then, four to five years later, field coordinator has been intimidated bylocal apparatus by classifying field activities of the project was against the government policy.5 Unfortunately an independent evaluator not able to recognise it while only pursuing technical matters included thescale of on-farm trials in November 2000; compare to hard times during oppressive regime in selecting and designingproject sites when project began in 1993; I may say, the donor (BfdW in Stuttgart Germany) has appointing a person(JK) who had lack of sociopolitical perspectives.6 The process of drafting the National Convention of the National Work Competence Standards Indonesia AgricultureOrganic Farming Livestock Sector by the Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration conducted by Extension andAgricultural Human Resources Development Agency of the Ministry of Agriculture with the State Budget 2011;organised in three major cities and held in a three-star hotels.16
  17. 17. form of organisation of farmers needed to fight for the interests of farmers. Through Organic Farming System (SIPO) for example, soil fertility will be restored for agricultural land have been destroyed by farming system that forces farmers use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides that have been specified brand. Losses of farmers due to land degradation exacerbated by policies that ultimately cut the independence of farmers; for example by having the use of certain variety of rice seeds (Tjahjadi, 1998), as written in page:164-1657.Hope the reader to gain an overview as above will be missed. There is no explanation that refers toa grand design and frameworks into a single large program to demonstrate what and how thesesocial movements revolving stage by stage. This is because in the writing of book development oforganic agriculture movements in Indonesia I confine themselves do not refer to understanding it. Ijust tried to coherently in chronological time frame - so similar to a journal of events - in the hopesI can give you an idea, that organic farming is not solely related to cultivation technical, but as theliberation movement in the context of exemption for (a movement which promote "freedom" fromas well as freedom for ") among farmers, particularly women in rural. Besides, organic agriculturemovement has the dimension is contain with a cross-cutting issues analogs of local, national andinternational.Let me give one example. In a meeting of Southeast Asian regional non-profit organisation in Masvillage of Ubud Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia, on 18-22 February 1991, there was the idea to give theword "movement" on behalf of the proponents group. But said motion was rejected, and replaced withthe name of the network8. This because the word "movement" in the context of organic agricultureamong the proponents of agricultural alternatives on regional and international levels, was sensitiveand maybe scaring to the technicians. The word movement was connotative or associate as thehardliner, when compared with the word "network" (the soft-liner).Readers will be able to track the passage of the policy view of organic agriculture applications forthe first time organic farming movement in Indonesia refers to the system multiple cropping/interplant patterns on upland vegetables of the Rodale Institute applied by Bina Sarana Bhakti(BSB) in Cisarua Bogor in the early 1980s. Coincidently with the BSB, PAN Indonesia/ KRAPPthrough the JARI (Jaringan Aksi Riset Indonesia) or the Indonesia Action Research Network(1985-198) developed multiple cropping of upland vegetables with input the combination patternsof the vegetables from the late Professor Kasumbogo Untung from Gajah Mada University Faculty7 Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono X (2008) Merajut Kembali Keindonesiaan Kita, or Knitting Back Our Indonesians.Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Jakartya, 2008, halaman 164-165.8 Day-cha Siripatra, Thailand proposed the name SEASAM Tree, the Southeast Asia Sustainable AgricultureMOVEMENT, but was rejected by a representative of the World neighbor, who suggested the word network(NETWORK), so that it could grow and evolve with the diversity of participants. Finally, meeting participants agreedwith SEASAN name, the Southeast Asia Sustainable Agriculture Network - which includes a diversity of elements:NGOs, academia, and government; the Deputy Minister of agriculture Cambodia attended the meeting. The meetingwas hosted by World Neighbors with assistance from CUSO-Indonesia. For information, the Networks AdvisoryCommittee consisted of Julian Gonzalves (International Institue of Rural Recontruction, IIRR), Oscar Zamora(University of the Philippines, Los Banos, UPLB), Larry Fisher (World Neighbors), Harold Watson (Mindanao BaptistRural Life Center), and Kenneth MacKay (International Development Research centre, IDRC). Funding for the meetingwas provided by the International Development research Centre (IDRC) of Ottawa, Canada. 17
  18. 18. of Agriculture. PAN Indonesia also the developed "pertanian kampungan” or unscientificagricultural practices" and adaptation/ updating trials from tradition and local wisdom withassistance from woman shamans - to show international community that biodynamic agriculture isnot simply synonymous with Rudolf Steiner in Europe, as Indonesia is rich in natural farmingsystems. This view was excavated through action research approach, which embraced liberationtheology which was introduced by Paulo Freire, or in the context of the Asia methodologies asparticipatory action research (PAR) introduced by Rajesh Tandon with Participatory Research inAsia (PRIA) in New Delhi, India, and was in harmony with the adult education ala Boston Schoolprofessing understand Júrgen Habermas of the Frankfurt School.PAR or Action Research development among non-profit (non-governmental organisations),coincident with the spread of a video film, entitled Marga Agung Tanpa Gerbang circulated toNGOs and grassroot community by Pusat Kateketik (Puskat) of Catholic church in Yogyakarta toillustrate No Tilling or Do Nothing by organic agriculture a la Masanabu Fukuoka in the late 1980s.Liberation theology9 is used also by organic agriculture movement among the servants of theRoman Catholic Church called Sekretariat Pelayanan Tani dan Nelayan Hari Pangan Sedunia(SPTN HPS) or The World Food Day Farmers’ Movement of Ganjuran in Yogyakarta since 1990.Its all described, that agriculture organic is the expression of liberation for the oppressed peoples inthe field of agriculture in Indonesia.Examples of basic views/ ideologies mentioned above is quite different if it is associated in thecontext of organic agriculture today (see first paragraph), but ideology does not fade withPragmatism-materialism or merely “transactional market” model, but still embraced by someactivists as defenders of ideology-based organic farming movement. Through this book I describethe process and institute a personal journey to introduce organic farming in a small area ofIndonesia - through the action of field (small scale on-farm trials) and the advocacy that isalternative to the mainstream of agricultural development (Green Revolution) in Indonesia.Without the action field (alternative approaches), then efforts to promote organic farming as analternative, it will quickly die. As being known, doing criticism but without the action field will bebranded as NATO, No Action Talk Only, meanwhile apathies will say: TINA. There is NoAlternative10. With a roomy alternative to a combination of action, including data analysis andadvocacy plus induction rests on a logical approach (the method used in thinking the opposite ofspecial things to the public), then I say aloud TATA, Thousand Are There Alternatives11 to thefarmers who oppressed by the state policy and are still dependent on the production of chemicalproducts Agrochemicals TNCs.9 Liberation theology, which was introduced by Paulo Freire, according to Fr. G. Utomo, moderator SPTN HPSGanjuran was rooted to Dasa Sila Bandung inspired from the participants agreed unanimously by the Asian-AfricanConference in Bandung in 1955. Personal communication 23 October 2005.10 See: Developing Food Security Support Systems Through maintaining and Improvement of AgrobiodiversityFarming System, An NGO response to macro socioeconomic recovery to multidimensional crisis and incoming prolongdrought. A Project Proposal submitted to Brot fŭr die Welt by Biotani PAN Indonesia Foundation. Jakarta, September2000.11 If related to leverage an understanding of social movements, then the PAN Indonesia is not at the level of articulator,but straight into the action level (i.e.: on-farm trial plus advocacy), but will not go into the level of total (total denial ortotally Disobedience) . This movement viewed from organisers/actor perspectives18
  19. 19. With the formula, then the first result of my work was the recognition of farmer rights: peasantfarmers has the freedom to choose the type of plant and its cultivation12- as stated in Act No. 12 ofcultivated crops System in 1992 article 6 paragraph 1 – although PAN Indonesia has had proposedbroader scope, mechanism, etc., during close door-type process deliberation of the bill withinauthoritarian regime13. With the formula combined with international networking, then a girl DayakPaser in East Kalimantan - which has never been a formal school but intelligent (smart) – she cancontributed to the article with title: Rice Cultivation by The Dayak Community Paser Adang inEast Kalimantan, in the book entitled Cultural and Spiritual Values of Biodiversity with DarrelAddison Posey as book editor (UNEP and Intermediate Technology, 1999), when her communityhas had been struggling to get legal recognition by the state toward their hutan adat (ancestralforest)14.The Formula is the most specific to Alternative Pest Management project-formatted to plant riceand vegetables in the four ASEAN countries in 1997 and 1998. Through this project the farmershas been working in underground alternative execution against the mainstream of agriculturedevelopment can exchange experiences and expertise (experiences and expertise) with fellowfarmers in the neighboring countries. This project is Riza baby, said Professor emeritus OscarZamora of the University of the Philippines Los Bańos (UPLB), when passing keywords (keynotespeech) in the opening of a training workshop on Alternative Pest Management (APM) on Rice inPhilippines (1997) 15. More than that, I actually really surprise when I heard from one of the seniorresearchers of agricultural and rural in 2000 gave the predicate as the protagonist to me – which heperceived I have a lot of errands alternative cross-cutting issues of the international dimension andrelevance were related to agriculture and food issues in Indonesia.I may add, with the formula, then, the Shiseido also had to cancel the filing patents (involuntaryredrawn patent application) of a plant name, Java or the name of Indonesia in February 2002. TheFormula of the test results, in particular the cultivation local cotton organically in West Sumatera Iutilised as well as one of the arguments and counter discourse to fight the cultivation of Bt cotton12 For Further explanation; see: Tjahjadi, RV (1997) Seeds, PGR and its Regulations in Indonesia. TerompetNo.11/IV/1997; page 4-9. Bahasa Indonesia version, a news magazine published by PAN Indonesia. This was one ofmy analyses toward Law. 12 of Crop Cultivation System of 1992.13 To obtain a copy of the draft Act (originally titled) Plant Cultivation System of the Law makers in the era ofauthoritarian regimes, then as a consequence of PAN Indonesia should not name the MPs who gave secretly copy thetext of the bill to the PAN Indonesia. Further, PAN Indonesia with supported by 5 NGOs (L3ES, Walhi, YLBHI,YLKI, dan ZPG; Bina Desa refused to sign-on petition) have successful revising the bill which, then, right of farmers,although only inserted into a sub-article on the law.14 See: Tjahjadi, RV (1993) The Pasir Adang star calender system : an indigenous vision in East Kalimantan fromDutch colonialism to logging concession development; Some questions applied for agriculture project (Circa-situ) inSepan Village; in Tjahjadi, R,V, DAndrea C (1993) Nature and farming : biodynamic agriculture and communalresources adaptation systems : selected case in Indonesia. PAN Indonesia. Jakarta.15 APM Training Workshop has had been proposed by myself (RVT) in the Regional Organising Board of theSoutheast Asia on Sustainable Agriculture (ROB SEASAN) in Bangkok, Thailand 1991, then several years later beenfund raised by PAN Asia and the Pacific. Result of the training workshop was a resource manual, entitled Keepings theBalance. Alternative Pest Management on Rice, and Keepings the Balance: Alternative Pest Management onVegetable. PAN Asia and the Pacific. 2000. 19
  20. 20. by Monsanto in South Sulawesi, in 200116 – with a note: even though the PAN UK reputable inorganic cotton cultivation project in Africa but not I used as an argument, because no localempirical in Indonesia.Other examples formula TATA presented elsewhere in this book. The latest example is the TATAformula when I suggested to the UN Special Rapartuer on the Right to Food in order in advocatingthe elimination of agricultural subsidies both in developed and developing countries should exploreapproaches that substituting organic fertilizer subsidy on chemical fertilizer subsidy in Indonesia.In summary, I suggest that he listened to model organic fertilizer subsidy in Indonesia - althoughorganic fertiliser subsidy schemes in Indonesia are still many shortcomings including the lack oflegal policy and legality of organic agriculture (organic farming until now no law) in Indonesia. Myproposal to the UN Special Rapartuer on the Right to Food is based on the results of the study (deskstudy) of the State policy (Budget) of organic fertilizer subsidies and procurement of equipmentand means of making organic compost for soil restoration of critical/infertile land.In fact, as observed, with environmental aspects the ministry identifying: Because of the use ofchemical fertilisers, agricultural land has degradated or widespread damage soil fertility. The latestdata the Ministry of Agriculture, the area of damaged rice fields had more than 4 million hectares,4.7 million hectares rather scattered in eight provinces rice production centers. Details, 2.8 millionhectares (50%) are the fields that are heavy degradated, 1.8 million hectares (38%) mediumdegradated, and the rest low degradated (8%), and not gradated (4%). Restoration of soil fertilityrecovery period will about three years. But the recovery is dependent on budgetary allocations,says Head of Research and Development of the Ministry of Agriculture, Haryono was quoted assaying by the Kontan (12 August 2011). Ministry of Agriculture is very fast and precise whenidentifying the vast amount of damaged rice fields. It is a past mistake.. See what has had said byProfessor Emil Salim more than decade ago. Professor Emil Salim critic that agricultural commodity prices determined with wrong method, therefore the standard of measurement is undervalued, while PDB are bias due to overvalued. Indeed, it needs a bold step to increase the commodity prices. Then market mechanism will fix the price. He added that in the process of determination to product of agriculture practices by the department of agriculture did not include the costs of environment degradation. Natural resources, like soil and water are merely consider as free of charge. Therefore these resources have been exploited17.16 Results of on-farm trial of organically grown cotton by PAN Indonesia, then, circulated in IFOAM Asia Congress inSouth Korea, also in: Farmers’ Experiences with Agricultural Research 14-20 December 2004 Thailand-Cambodia.Report of the Workshop. BIOTHAI (Biodiversity and Community Right Action Thailand), AAN (AlternativeAgriculture Network-Thailand) and CEDAC (Cambodia Center for the Study and Development of Agriculture) onbehalf of BASA Asia (Biodiversity in Action for Sustainable Agriculture Asia) and SANFEC (South Asia Network forFood Ecology & Culture). No date.17 Prof Emil Salim: Harga Produk Pertanian Terlalu Rendah, Tapi PDB Terlalu Tinggi. Kompas, 26 Januari 1995; see,also Tjahjadi PAN Ind/Country Report/DRAFT/Jul-1996.20
  21. 21. Then, my concern.. So, logically, with such serious soil fertility degradation it still able maintainrice self-sufficiency, but a matter of simply relying on paddy soil fertility with fertiliser subsidies(as small part of nondiscretionary spending), and procurement tools and home composting. Do notask more than that. For example, the end of 2008 was how many thousands of hectares of rice fieldsoil fertility recovered slightly, the end of 2009 was how many thousands of hectares of rice fieldsoil fertility is restored completely (completely recovered its soil fertility)? And so on ... Logically,let alone the public will never know exactly about: what is the broad fields that have been restoredsoil fertility, since the allocation of organic fertilizer subsidy in 2008 budget (though only a smallpart of nondiscretionary spending allocations), and the provision of composters (since 2006 ) aswell as home composting (since 2008 until today) through the social assistance scheme (again asmall portion of the allocation of discretionary spending) in Budget 2012.With regard to the subtitle of this book, namely the State intervention, meaning the emergences ofconsciousness to act - in the form of policies, regulations and standards and also funds projects andequipment procurement of agricultural machinery that is relevant to organic farming - by the Statethrough the State budget revenue and expenditure (budget). Ministry of agriculture began tointervene into the organic farming movement in the manufacture of organic farming standards -assisted by BSN, the national standardization Agency - in the year 2000-2002. Then the statethrough the state budget began the intervention through the provision of APPO and homecomposting (within DAK, special allocation fund scheme) since 2007, and organic fertiliserssubsidy since 2008. I may say the ministry of agriculture has recaptured its authorities, acts andfunctioning as the key actor within recent organic agriculture movement.State intervention allocating a small amount of funds in the state budget, but already Ive seen(vision) of the importance of the role of the State twenty years ago in the organic farmingmovement in Indonesia (read: Organic Agriculture Movement, 1991). In the context of todaysState intervention is the coincidence to increase national rice production to reach self-sufficiencymeanwhile rice price in the international world market when shaken due to rising food prices(global food crisis), and began the collapse of the capitalism in the United States - todays emergingmovement against Wall Street. Could all of that is the momentum coincidence?That is the question that will be answered at a future time. However, clearly indicated that grantdonor agencies began to decrease their grant funds since 2009 for NGOs in Indonesia, and evensome donors do not operate anymore, or “office door-closed” with unlimited timeframe. Theimpact is clear, many organic agriculture activists work with self-support financing and began todevelop fund raising strategy to domestic funds. Some other groups may “lucky” with continuitymedium-term external funding support, and I do hope their struggle, for example by pursuing abreakthrough solution from the ministry level of the government concerning problems face bysmall scale organic rice farmers towards certification costs, will be achieved in the near future…Or, in contra argument, I may assume if the NGOs perceives the national structure, conditions andregulation are not fit anymore to their ideological basis, so, let them aware and ready to transforminto suitable formats and mindset to follow it… I may wrong, but let them transform into merelybusiness-like or organic agriculture trading enterprises may be suitable choice, if they do not have 21
  22. 22. sustainable way to build strong and clear alternatives examples toward the government and thepublic at large.From the results of my study of organic fertiliser subsidies and procurement of equipment andmeans of making organic compost in the state budget, I see a lot of important things that I considerfundamental structural and situational for the near future direction of organic agriculture movementthat I am trying to do a little things but very important as to mainstreaming the state toward theorganic agriculture development in Indonesia. Unfortunately I am unable to get project fundingfrom the grant donor agencies. Although it failed but I’m exposing some of the proposals - which Ihave ever been asked to grant donor agencies - at end part of this book. My point is that the publicunderstand the framework including strategic measures should be taken by the state which is mirrorof my ideas in the process and progress to development of organic agriculture in Indonesia.Then I would say the reason I write this book. This because it was stimulated by the invitationdated June 7, 2011 to fill a museum of organic farming in South Korea. The invitation I received afew days after I got the information, that I had the opportunity deliver oral presentations in onesession in the World Organic Conference in South Korea in late September 201118. I thought thedocumentation that I have in the form of this book I will put and granted to the museum, as one ofIndonesias participation and contribution of NGOs to the international community - as promoter oforganic farming as well as observers of the organic farming movement in Indonesia.This book I wrote with the sheer use of a limited archive at the computer in the form of soft copy,and also a hard copy of some publications PAN Indonesia/ Biotani PAN Indonesia period 1988-2011. From another source I am trying to find relevant material. However, I failed to get a softcopy of the original version as uploaded in Kompas Cyber Media (KCM) about my statement:Failed Raising Farmers Agricultural Modernization (1998), quoted by Sri SultanHamengkubuwono X (Sultan of Yogyakarta) in a book titled Merajut Kembali Keindonesian Kitaor Knitting Back Our Indonesians (2008); I experienced this when access to the KompasInformation Center (PIK) and Kompas Cyber Media (KCM or Kompas. com)19.Above all, with limited documentation of the material20 I attempt to describe the perspective of thejourney of organic farming as a small movement in the social movements in Indonesia against themainstream: the development (mainstreaming development process by the state).18 E-mail circulated by Organic World Congress paper with subject: We are looking for any stuff of OrganicAgriculture. 17th IFOAM Organic World Congress Korea Organizing Committee. Date: Tue, Jun 7, 2011 at 3:02 PM.19 PIK officer advised me to find a soft copy to the division Kompas.com, but the secretary of the Managing Editor ofKompass.com, namely Ms. Widi, said that uploading material stored for 7 days only when I met on Thursday,September 8, 2011. That answered was strange and illogical arguments for me. If available for 7 days, then, why theSultan Hamengkubuwono’ book which published in 2008 can access my paper - uploaded and released on 23 June1998? When Sultan Hamengkubuwono X to download, while printed out in 2008? Other than that I do not know whouploaded my paper to www.kompas.com. Where is my honor as one of contributors to that site?20 Many of the materials stored in the floppy disks are not readable/ conversions because todays PC hardwarenowadays is available for different storage system: CD and flash disk. However, some printed materials (hard copy)that is relevant to of organic agriculture movement, was re-typed and scanned.22
  23. 23. The last word, this book is commemorating 20 years of my paper on organic agriculture movementin Indonesia - which I had written date 16 October 1991. By and large this book will encouragereaders to obtain the meaning of the organic farming movement in the development process inIndonesia. I imagine this book took a drop of water in the middle of the movement of thought andpractices organic agriculture today. I fully realised would be imperfections in the writing of thisbook, because I realise a lot of shortcomings, and the limited scope and time. However, critics andsuggestion are welcome. Above all please note, I just relied on a small number of private funds inthe process of writing this book.Ciledug, Tangerang, 16 October, 2011Riza V, Tjahjadi 23
  24. 24. The NGOs Works24
  25. 25. Cover of a comic strip: Pest Buster Edited by Riza V. TjahjadiIndonesia and English versions, Jakarta, 1989 25
  26. 26. ASEAN Travelling Workshop on Organic FarmingOn a unique tour held in Java, Indonesia, participants from four Asian Countries visited organicfarms and seed banks and shared their countries experiences with organic farming techniques. Heldon 3-10 April 1989, the ASEAN Travelling Workshop on Organic Farming and Community SeedBanking was organized by PAN Indonesia and Wahana Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia (WALHI).Workshop participants agreed that farmers are aware of the negative effects of chemical fertilizersand pesticides on farm environment. Other observations by the ASEAN group included the criticalrole played by NGOs in providing resources to farmers and changing crop production to sustainablemethods, the importance of demonstrating the economic viability organic farming, thecommonality of many cultural practices and botanicals used for pest control the ASEAN countries,and the importance of expanding “South-South” exchange of people, information, and genetic ingenetic material. For more information contact: Widjanarka, PAN Indonesia, Jl. Penjernihan !/15,Komplex Keuangan, Pejompongan, Jakarta 10210, Indonesia.Source: Dirty Dozen Campaigner, September 1989.Note: 1. A news report above is re-type from additional Attachment of the Report to CIDA MAF and CUSO in Riza V.T. (1989) The Proceeding: The ASEAN traveling workshop on Organic Farming and Community Seed Bank. WALHI – PAN Indonesia. Jakarta, July 1989. 2. This travelling workshop is a serried activities post the international conference on genetic resource held in Malang East Jawa in 1987. The first activity was the Organic Work camp for Better Environment between Indonesia (PAN Indonesia and farmer) and Malaysia organised by CETDEM (Central Environment, Technology and Development of Malaysia) at Kampung Paya Jaras Dalam Sungai Buloh Selangor Malaysia 17-21 December 1988. 3. Dirty Dozen Campaigner published by PAN North America (PAN NA). San Francisco. The United States. 4. List of Participants, below.26
  27. 27. List of ParticipantsASEAN Participants 1. SIBAT Philippibes: Rene Clemente. 2. LTK Philippines: Julieta G. Geronimo. 3. ATA Bangkok: Day-cha Siripatra. 4. CETDEM Malaysia: Tan Siew Luang.Indonesian Particpnats 1. Walhi: Ms. Dina Erwina Damayanti, Triyanto 2. PAN Indonesia: Widjanarka E.S., Riza V. Tjahjadi, Program Coordinator, Sugeng Supriadi. 3. Tirta Karang Sari: Indra Tata Purwita, Satia, Mian, Haryadi. 4. Bina Sarana Bhakti: Fr. Agatho Elsener, LP Sudaryanto, and other staffs. 5. Bhakti Anom Group (PAN Indonesia’ cadre): Opan Supandi, 27
  28. 28. Achmad Sungkawa, Engkan Karsono. 6. CRAD Foundation: El Budi Prayoga and staffs, Local rice and potato farmer groups (13 persons). 7. Dian Desa and villagers of Wonolelo: Krisbandono, The village head of Wonolelo, Farmer Groups of Wonolelo. 8. Sido Makmur Foundation: Ngatmin and other staffs and local farmer. 9. Daya Pertiwi Foundation: Made Dharsana Polak and staff, Prawoto and Plumbangan villagers.28
  29. 29. 1
  30. 30. Sustainable Agriculture Network in Southeast Asia A partner of the Indonesians NGOs MEETING NOTES May 31-June 2, 1991 in Jakarta Convenor: Riza V. Tjahjadi Minutes by: KusnadiIntroduction SEASANThe basic question of what SEASAN?● Who are they?● How attitudes and its commitment?SEASAN (the Southeast Asia Sustainable Agriculture Network) is a SustainableAgriculture South-East Asia Network includes countries in Southeast Asia, amongothers: the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Laos, Viet Nam, Cambodia andMyanmar. SEASAN is a practical forum on sustainable agriculture which promotes theexperience of a farm that uses natural resources rationally, while putting the emphasis onservice of resource poor farmers in different areas of agroecology.1
  31. 31. The exchange of experiences through SEASAN includes:● Workshops, cross-visits,● Information sheet and news about network development activities,● Documentation, development and dissemination of educational materials relatedappropriate technology,● Practical Sustainable agriculture training,● The research field (action research) in the direction of sustainable agriculture.A more complete summary is attached (annex 1); briefing by Larry Fisher, the WorldNeighbor.Some of the reactions of participantsMeth K. USC Canada YogyakartaI saw a trend of sustainable agricultural activities increased in Indonesia, even though Imyself do not understand about the ins and outs so agriculture. What has been revealedby Larry, basically I agree. However, we need to consider the direction, and how theactual mechanism of action of a network that will be discussed at this meeting.Abd. S. Lubis KALIMASADAI support and agree on initiatives and ideas to form a network of environmentally soundagriculture. But there is one thought on my own experience against some of the existingnetwork. I fear this will be a network of networks that are only concerned with theinterests of managers only. While the network participants are left screaming and neverignored. One example that is often seen, that the existing networks would most enjoyalone at the secretariat level, but less to the form of concrete in terms of strengtheningthe participants. Networking should serve participants in the true sense, and this meansthat the mechanism of action networks must be made jointly.Kusnadi REKARISome experience shows that the network must have at least an assertive stance, in thesense that want to serve its participants who exhibit show-good work. Because, and areusually found on the body of work consists of a network of small and large NGOs. Thegreat spirits and optimism at this time raise the network. But after the network wasformed, which appear as their participation are big NGOs, small fact had trampled, thenshouts and abandoned. If weve managed to rise to the top of the mountain, the roadswere Yes, down again, to bring friends that havent had a chance to enjoy the beauty ofthe breathtaking mountain peaks. Do not dwell upon! Later that fall nonetheless smallNGOs that were involved. This needs to be remembered by all of us before its too late.Abd. S. LubisNeeds to be reaffirmed the view that the network as a movement that will affect a policywhich is not an insightful environment-as SEASAN measures later.Meth Kusumahadi 2
  32. 32. Foundations of orientation and voluntary need relationships in drawing up the spirit andthe body of the work network SA.Putra Suardika TANANUANetwork need to emphasize the attention on the practice field, through mastery ofexisting technologies and appropriate and in accordance with the development of theinstitution with a group of participants in the field.E. Irman CRAD GarutIn influencing policy, I am more inclined to this review from the point-of view amongthe top which makes our experience in policy-CRAD teaches.ILya Moeliono STUDIO DRIYA MEDIACan be summed up, is how to put the strategy, and what it is advocacy. Advocacy iscarried out substantially.Kusnadi,Based on the experience of doing advocacy may be preceded in preparing at the level ofexisting groups. Local level advocacy for grassroot level, the context is determined localstrategy itself.L. Samboligi WALDAOur movement, right along with the group, then this network should be strengthened atthe group level. Thats it first. If you can walk, yes, it is sufficient to work up morecoverage.Riza VTI think we need to recall that SEASAN is a forum of three parties, namely NGOs,researchers, and government. I remembered that WALDA already have a model of threeparties in the agroforestry program in the past. Might be worthwhile to review, andenhanced inter-party interaction mechanisms, and functions of the party, so no collision.With a review thats likely we will be able to develop this network is based on practicalfunctions (form follow function)Larry Fisher WORLD NEIGHBORSSEASAN have characters that NGO forum-researcher-Government. SEASAN inIndonesia who will we make it should use those characters. Sustainable AgricultureNetwork SEASAN GOAL of Southeast Asia [The Southeast Asia SustainableAgriculture Network-SEASAN] is a forum for the exchange of experiences insustainable agriculture that promotes the use of natural resources it rationally. The mainpressures on the effort the service to the poor farmers in different areas of agroecologyresources is to establish certainty of fulfillment of the needs of food, income and theirwell-being in General. SEASAN has a commitment to efforts to influence the actionsand policies in terms of development/sustainable development and participatoryapproaches. SEASAN centered on Southeast Asia (Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia,Indonesia, Laos, Viet Nam, Cambodia and Myanmar).3
  33. 33. SEASAN concentrated in Southeast Asia (Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia,Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia and Myanmar). SEASAN will seek a balanced representationand includes a wide range of organizations, institutions and community groups.Participation in SEASAN based on individual faith and the spirit of volunteerism is high.SEASAN also committed to a balance between men and women in representation,decision making and activities.SEASAN support and promote the exchange of experiences, through:a. Workshops, cross-visits, sheets, news and development activities of other tissues,b. Documentation, development and dissemination of educational materials right-to-use,c. Sustainable agriculture training is practical,d. Field research (action research) in terms of sustainable agriculture.[Quoted from Report of Proceeding: SOUTHEAST ASIA SUSTAINABLEAGRICULTURE NETWORK, Regional Planning Meeting. Ubud, Bali Indonesia 18-22February 1991. World Neighbors]What is Sustainable agriculture?● Maintain soil fertility,● Utilizing existing resources without damaging the ecosystem,● Efforts in agriculture to improve quality and productivity,● Involvement of the Environmental Community● Technically the scope broader: Economy ] Ecology > ---> Conditional needed to judge SA. Socio-cultural ]● Energy on = Energy out ----> the scope of SA,● Sustainable in the economy and ecology,● Reduce reliance on agro-chemical,● Processing of land on an ongoing basis by taking into account the local socialeconomy,Some terminology on sustainable agriculture:* Biodynamic farming until ecofarming,* Alternative agriculture,* LISA (low input sustainable agriculture),* LEISA (low external input sustainable agriculture),* Conservation farming,* Diversified biodiversity. 4
  34. 34. All of that is basically the same; it is precisely that we aspire to economic and ecologicalfarming, according to the climate, the local socio-cultural context, micro economicenvironment.CONSTRAINTSWhat are the obstacles in promoting/ doing sustainable farming?1. Government policies, CBOs/ NGOs colleges, about the assistance: Panca Usaha Tani(the five farming formula), saprodi or production means, KUT or farm credit scheme,Supra-Insus.2. Farmers dependence on external inputs such as agricultural (seeds, fertilizers andpesticides).3. Weakness of executive officer, who responsible is unclear.4. Lack/absence of social arrangements.5. PPL or the agriculture extension services = Distributor in the field.6. Lack of information and dissemination.7. Selling poison (promotion of pesticides) struck the university/college.8. A very urgent need for the economy, the Government-farmers.9. The policy less common to public (written policies keep on the table not disseminatedto public, especially to farmers).10. The perception about SA: considered the new stuff.11. The lack of study of SA; most studies on directional conventional agriculture.12. The College Curriculum.13. The lack of documented information that promoted.14. The lack of real evidence/examples, only small scale---> it should be extended?15. The NGO Approach merely to demplot (demonstration plot).16. The mindset of farmers only on the green revolution.17. The transition between conventional farmers to SA.18. Much doing research from universities as orders from the agro-company.19. Some NGOs still promote agriculture with a green revolution.20. Limitation on interest to managed the land, because big company have had beenresponsive to the ownership of land.21. Transition on land rights, the new owner does not sound SA.22. KUD as a means of making peoples land. Agriculture23. The government policy over the rice fields, less to the mountain.24. The expensive cost of improvements to the land that was already critical.25. The lack of trust/interest of young people towards agriculture, i,e. non-economicalaspects. 26. The work of non-agricultural/peasants directly receives payment-> whetherfarm is economically?27. The nature of the prestige (working with soils is a dirty work, is not a white collarstatus).28. Narrowing economic perspective (cash economic?)29. The price aspect of Marketing.30. The entrepreneurship traits at the level of market speculation.5
  35. 35. ActionProposals of the participants that the action to be undertaken include:1. Do concrete Examples: an inventory of existing experience, the experience of the fieldto be copied: Documentation, information. 2. Research: Towards models applied to the agricultural system that is consideredadvanced, documentation and dissemination of research results.3. Information systems (information service) the involvement of farmers in thedocumentation of the research (process all actions) with using the joint-secretariat,4. Advocacy work, information devices, the role of Advocacy, the shape of what?Implementation should be done at this time, as a shared commitment:What should be doing as basic commitment?1. SA indeed as people arena for realizing care and start it,2. Working mechanism and resources,3. Movement strategy.4. Local and national Leveling,5. A form of network,6. Basic cooperation,7. Similarity to terminology of the Movement.To obtain a more concrete description of the ACTIONS within the framework ofSEASAN in Indonesia are stimulated with a question:WHAT WE WILL BE DOING?Table 1: Realistic proposal from participant for SEASAN in Indonesia.=================================================================NO : Institution : A c t i o n-----------------------------------------------------------------1. : USC Canada Yogya : Dissemination Information Proceeding-----------------------------------------------------------------2. : WALDA Tana Toraja : Agroforestry, Social Transformation-----------------------------------------------------------------3. : YTK Jakarta : Organic vegetables via group.-----------------------------------------------------------------4. : CRAD Garut : Idem and rice, Internship, Training-----------------------------------------------------------------5. : TATANUA Ende : Conservation, Terassering, Family- Forest, and Media----------------------------------------------------------------- 6
  36. 36. 6. : Save The Children : WID, SA, Community Health, Economic Aceh Dev, (training to NGOs), Media.----------------------------------------------------------------7. : ESP Solo : Dryland agri, vegetables, Media.----------------------------------------------------------------8. : KALIMASADA Jakarta : Socialisation, (applied models for Urban agri and CD), Advocacy.---------------------------------------------------------------9. : World Neighbors : Upland technical, Media, Support to Agroforestry, extension.---------------------------------------------------------------10.: YBSB Cisarua : Internship on applies model (organic).---------------------------------------------------------------11.: Bina Guna Lestari : Internship on applied model(Organis Pangalengan & IPM)---------------------------------------------------------------12.: Studio Driya Media : Identification, documentation, issue, Bandung Information (Media, Technology, Extension to Community), Training on Media concept.---------------------------------------------------------------13.: REKARI Balikpapan : Genetic resource conservation, CD & Forest Monitoring.-----------------------------------------------------------------14.: CUSO Canada Jakarta : Volunteer, small fund, information Dissemination on SA.---------------------------------------------------------------15.: KPSLH Surabaya : Inventarisation SA in E. Jawa, SA Campaign, Media focus to rural.---------------------------------------------------------------16.: PAN Indonesia : Training Kit, Books, Facilitators, Documentation.===============================================================In addition to some program participants more emphasis on a more concrete proposal inthe form of activities that can be done together. Few examples will be: through fieldvisits, workshops, internships and information dissemination.Table 2: Proposals with practical contents==========================================================================NO : Institution : Offering----------------------------------------------------------------------7
  37. 37. 1. : PAN Indonesia Jakarta : Multiple cropping on vegetable workshop----------------------------------------------------------------------2. : World Neighbors NTT : Upland workshop[(2x per year) NTT----------------------------------------------------------------------3. : Larry Fisher *) : Workshop on vegetables----------------------------------------------------------------------4. : Balittan Sukamandi : "Learning" Mina-padi----------------------------------------------------------------------5. : World Neighbors Cs NTT : Agri extension workshop----------------------------------------------------------------------6. : WALDA Tana Toraja : Agroforestry, Transpastoral----------------------------------------------------------------------7. : USC Canada Yogyakarta : Teraserring, Internship for farmers----------------------------------------------------------------------8. : Studio Driya Media : Media Katalog on SA.----------------------------------------------------------------------9. : YBSB Cisarua : Organic vegetables(Prod -> marketing)----------------------------------------------------------------------10.: BGL Pengalengan : Organic seeds development----------------------------------------------------------------------11.: Save The Children Aceh : IPM workshop in Aceh, Diversification of the off-farm, Agroforestry.----------------------------------------------------------------------11.: CRAD Garut : Local rice cultivation======================================================================*) Needs confirmation, this record not completed..!These proposals can be classified into:1. Agroforestry,2. Mina-padi, and Gora (gogo-rancah) untuk lowland,3. Traditional working group (?),4. Media development among farmers,5. Advocacy Sharing,Perception on SEASAN in the eyes of Indonesians1. Not an expansion of the network model of PAN Indonesia.2. Character: collaboration of NGOs - researchers/ university - Government.3. It should be practical with reference to the mission of SEASAN.4. Form a network will give priority to practical function (form follow function).The name of a network of environmentally sustainable farming Indonesia, the proposalof the participants:* ISAN (Indonesia Sustainable Agriculture Network)* INDOSAN (Indonesia Sustainable Agriculture Network)* JPLI (Jaringan Pertanian Lestari Indonesia)* SEASAN-INDONESIA (SOUTHEAST ASIA SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURENETWORK-INDONESIA. 8
  38. 38. Some participants suggested that the existing name attached to this network, is to bettercharacterize a network of sustainable agriculture in Indonesia, which is part of a networkof SA-South East Asia including the Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam,Indonesia, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos. Generally serve multiple networks at the local-regional level, and is a forum for various agencies and individuals who want and start toSA.Top of some participants, the meeting agreed to give the name of the network ofsustainable agriculture: SEASAN-Indonesia (the Southeast Asia Sustainable AgricultureNetwork-Indonesia). Please be aware that today there is also a network of agriculturalwork in other environmental circle named WAPELI (Wahana Pertanian LestariIndonesia or The Sustainable Agriculture Indonesia). Thid network viewed as not a rival,but partner; similarly, if later appeared another similar network. As for the form, and themechanism of action SEASAN-Indonesia will emerge by itself decisive processes. Theurgent question is seen at the moment is: who is going to manage the waste(administration and manage to emerging issues) that already enter?Therefore it is necessary:[] Selecting first person, while the forms and mechanisms SEASAN-Indonesia will beseen in the process.[] Person who called was selected by the Committee while the job function covers:* As a representative of Indonesia in the ROB Meeting in Thailand July 6 to 18, 1991,* Prepare everything for the implementation of a national workshop.[] select the person in advance, whereas the form and mechanism of SEASAN-Indonesiawill be visible in the process.[] A Person who was called by the Committee While with his functions as therepresentative of Indonesia:* ROB Meeting in Thailand in a 6-18 July 1991,* Preparing everything for organizing a national workshop.Guide in drawing up the Governing Board of the garbage, (administration and networkdevelopment) as follows[] An election for setting Committee/ Governance[] Terms ----> Interest willingness, ----> Voluntarily, ----> Insight experience, ----> ability.[] Scope of work ----> Represents, ----> Enabling activities, ----> Popularize SA, ----> Coordination, ----> Network Service, ----> Prepare national meeting.9
  39. 39. A few considerations to strengthen these things above, on the basis of a proposal thatgoes, then unloaded:* Gender balance.* The bearded and bearded.* Practical considerations (domicile).* Institutional Considerations.On the basis of proposals of the participants of the meeting, get some names into thefollowing matrix./==================================================================| Name/ | | | | | | | | | || Qualifica-| LSM | Pemh | PT | L | P | M2 | DJ | LJ | P2 || tion | | | | | | | | | ||==================================================================|| | | | | | | | | | || RIZA V.T. | v | | | v | | v | v | | v || PAN Ind. | | | | | | | | | ||------------------------------------------------------------------|| | | | | | | | | | || INDRA T. | v | | | v | | v | v | | v || Y T K | | | | | | | | | ||------------------------------------------------------------------|| | | | | | | | | | || IIS S. | | v | | | v | v | v | | v || Balittan | | | | | | | | | || Sukamandi | | | | | | | | | ||------------------------------------------------------------------|| | | | | | | | | | || ILYA M. | v | | | v | | v | v | | v || S D M | | | | | | | | | ||------------------------------------------------------------------|| | | | | | | | | | || PUTU S./ | v | | | v | | v | | v | v ||PATRIS DG*)| | | | | | | | | || Tananua | | | | | | | | | |==================================================================/Description: Non-Governmental Organizations (LSM). Government (Pemh). HigherEducation (PT), male (L), Women (P), Able-Qualify (M2), the Java (DJ), Outside Java(LJ), Consideration of Experience (2). *) Will require the consent of the personconcerned.Note: the results of the meeting 3 members of the Temporary Committee (Riza V. T,Indra Tata, Ilya Moeliono), and Larry Fisher and Martin McCann CUSO offices onSunday evening of 2 June 1991 stipulates that Riza V.T. and Ilya Moeliono will beattending the meeting included discussion of the draft SEASAN ROB proposal of media 10
  40. 40. development programs in Bangkok and Chieng Thailand 6-18 July 1991 - as SEASAN-Indonesia.Jakarta, June 13, 1991.● English translation by RVT.Note: Administratively the Secretariat SEASAN-Indonesia I manage for 1 year at a smallroom in CUSO office in Jakarta, but what can I say ... There no more meeting nationally.One donor (USC Canada) has a hard felling to the case of Wapeli. SEASAN-Indonesiahas died prematurely. Meanwhile the last of SEASAN gathering was SustainableAgriculture Roving Workshop, Silang Cavite, and other both upland and lowland fieldareas of the Philippines, 14 – 29 April 1994. Attachment 1The Southeast Asia Sustainable Agriculture Network (SEASAN) has evolved out of arecognized need for more systematic sharing and exchange on issues concerningsustainability of agricultural production system within the region. To this end, anintroductory meeting was convened in September 1988 which attempted to bring togetherrepresentaves from key government, NGO, research and education institutions. This firstmeeting helped define an agenda for common action between these diverse, and oftenisolated (geographically or politically) agencies. Based on discussions during this meeting,the SEASAN network turned its attention toward issues of agricultural and environmentalsustainability, with an emphasis on largely neglected, marginal agro-ecosystems; the groupresolved to encourage institutional sharing, information exchange, and to conduct jointtrainings and workshops.Follow-up workshop addressing development of the rainfed uplands (September 1989,Philippines), and marginal lowlands (September 1990, Thailand) have facilitated thissharing, and have created a momentum for more long-term regional cooperation.At the same time, the SoutheastAsia Sustainable Agriculture Newsletter (SAN) has nowpublished 7 issues on diverse themes relating to sustainable agricultural development. Thenewsletter is now distributed to a network of almost 1,000 readers in 54 countries, and with11
  41. 41. editorial supervision recently moved to the Philippines, is currently produced by an editorialboard comprised of a consortium of local organizations.During this formative period, the Southeast Asia Sustainable Agriculture Network hasremained, by design, an informal coalition of organization which has encouragedparticipation from goverment, research academic, and private institutions. The Networkalso holds a decidedly practical, field orientation which emphasezes the sharing anddocumenting of field experience. While key regional institutions have been identified forinclusion, participation has been based on personal commitment; there is no designatedsecretariat, and decision-making has been decentralized, guided by an informal AdvisoryCommittee. This Committee has thus far consisted of Julian Gonzalves (InternationalInstitue of Rural Recontruction, IIRR), Oscar Zamora (University of the Philippines, LosBanos, UPLB), Larry Fisher (World Neighbors), Harold Watson (Mindanao Baptist RuralLife Center), and Kenneth MacKay (International Development Research centre, IDRC).The Advistory Committee has provided an essential coordinating and backstopping role,but has felt constrained in conducting wider planning and in representing the very diversemembership of the Network as a whole.It was therefore proposed that this network convene a second regional planning meeting, inorder to asses the results of collaboration thus far, define a broader long-term agenda, anddetermine an appropriate organizational structure for the future.This meeting was held in Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia, on 18 - 22 February 1991, hosted byWorld Neighbors with assistance from CUSO-Indonesia, and supervised by the NetworksAdvisory Committe. Funding for the meeting was provided by the InternationalDevelopment research Centre (IDRC) of Ottawa, Canada.Specific objectives of the meetingDuring the three days of formal meetings, participants were expected to : 1. Further regional exchange between a coalition of leaders from Indonesia, Thailand,Philippines, Malaysia, and other nations, who are involved in sustainable agriculturaldevelopment. 2. Assess the results of regional collaboration during the past two days. 3. Complete a long-range plan of objectives and activites for the SEASAN. 4. Review issues conserning the content and administration of the SustainableAgriculture Newsletter. 5. Determine an appropriate organizational structure for the Network which enablesbroader and more active repsentation of membership.Expected outputs 1. A comprehensive action plan drawn from the proceedings of the meeting, withemphasis on: a. Evaluation of network activies, 1988 to present. 12
  42. 42. b. Long-range development plans with specific objectives. c. Proposed organization structure for the network.ParticipantsEighteen participants from a diverse repsentation of government, NGO, and educationalinstitutions were invited to attend. The meeting hosted participants from Indonesia,Thailand, Philippines, Singapore, Cambodia, the Lao Peoples Democratic Republic. Inaddition, five full-time rapporteurs provided assistance in documenting these proceedings.- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -[Quoted from: Report of Proceedings, SOUTHEAST ASIA SUSTAINABLEAGRICULTURE NETWORK, Regional Planning Meeting. Mas, Bali 18-22 February1991. World Neighbors]13
  43. 43. 1
  44. 44. 2
  45. 45. Attachment 2Notes:Some records impressions and messages participants recorded in a small sheet. However, someparticipants did not get recorded. The original records of the record sheet and the impression of amessage as follows:1. Hendri Nurcahyo KPSLH Friends of Nature Surabaya[] Since the main topic on the establishment of a network, then what matters is his FOLLOW UP.[] My experience, such models are often born-drowning.[] But then, there have been attempts to exist. Thanks efforts. Hope continues.A few notes and impressions are recorded in a message to participants in small sheets. But someparticipants have not had time to record. The original note from note messages and impression asfollows:2. E. Irman Crad Garut[] this meeting shall be based on the spirit of togetherness to fulfill a need for a continuation orquadrant concerns informing the NGO presence on the network level.[] The presence of a very positive with full volunteerism will be to deal with various problemsonce faced.[] This Meeting was quite productive as well as participatory and efficient in terms of time.[] Next steps, hopefully well.3. Nunik ESP Solo[] there are inputs for Sustainable Agriculture knowledge and technical of sharing experience.[] A lot of the information obtained regarding Sustainable Agriculture, as well as form a networkof work ranging from local to regional level in Southeast Asia.4. Abdulah S. Lubis P2K Kalimasada.[] Do best.5. Putra Suardika Tatanua Ende Flores[] very unfortunate people who have ever been involved did not come again.[] Institutional delegates none from the College, government and farmers.[] Personal issues should not be the institution/considerations in the invite people. BecauseSEASAN are open, interested, willingness and experience.[] The process of discussion went well, relax, work, just a pity the talks dominated by a particularperson. The facilitators role needs to be here so that participants can communicate.[] Service during the meeting, for her willingness CUSO in regard to this Martin McCCan andRiza v. T as the Organizer. Okay ... good work.6. T. Bahtiar Save The Children of AcehMeetings like this are very helpful [] trying to dig out a container, so that information aboutagricultural development can be doled out to friends, especially in the area.[] shows a view of the community of agricultural development efforts.[] unable to view the constraints faced. More…? See last page 3
  46. 46. October 2002The Case of Shiseido as quoted by student ofFreire Universitat BerlinRusgiarto, Sascha (2002) "Biopiratie" versus traditionelles Wissen - Ist ein Interessenaughleichzwischen transnationallen Unternehmen und Entwicklungslandern möglich. Diplomarbeit. FreireUniversitat Berlin. Otto-Sulu Institut f őr Politikwissenschaft. Oktober 2002.(...)3.3 Lempuyang, kayu rapet u.a - community knowledge" aus IndonesienEinen kleinen konnte 2002 die Indonesien NGO Pesticide Action Network (PAN) feiern, denndas welweit viertgroBe Kosmetickunternnehmen Shiseido Corporation sah sich nachBoykottaufrufen dazu geswungen, einige seiner Patente in Japan Offizieil zuruckzuziehen(Kompas 17.7.2002).Zur Vorgeschicte: Sey 1995 hat die Shiseido Corp. Patente in Japan und Europa auf wirkstoffeangelmeldet, die aus Ptlanzen isoliert worden, die nur in Indonesien, konkret auf Java,verkommen, Die Forschung basierte auf traditionellen javanishen Kosmetikprodukten. die imzuge der nationalled Verbreitung von Jamu mittlereile in ganz Indonesien erhältlich sind (vgl.Kap. II.2.1) Shiseido meldete mehrfach Teilpatente an (JP10029924A, JP0916938A u.a.), diedurch das japanische Patentant (JPO) und das Europaische Patentant (EPA) erteilt wurden. In denPatentantragen wurden sogar die traditonallen Indonesischen un javanishen Namen aufgefurhyund die Indonesischen Herkunftsregionen benanmt. Ein klarer Hinweis auf Biopirateri.Im jahre 1999 brachte Shiseido die kommerzielle Anwendung des Patents auf den Lempuyang-Wirkstoff unter dem Namen "UV White Range" bzw. der "Skin Whittening Formula" auf denMarkt. PAN erachtet den Boykott dieser Produkte fur gerechtfertigt, denn Konsumenten w rdenmit den 150 US$, die sie f r diese Produkte zahlen, den "corporate theft" unwissentlichunterst tzen (vgl, PAN 2001a).Im selben Jahr rief PAN zu einem Boykott von Shiseido Produkten auf und fordete einenRuckzug der Patente durch Shiseido bzw. einen Entzug durch das JPO und EPA Dabei wurdePAN von aderen NGOs unterstutzt. z.B. durch die Indonesische Konsumentenverenegung. DerenVorstandsmitglied Tini Hadad kristisierte besonders das TRIPS-Ankommen: "People arent readyto use patents, and developed countries are abusing this for their own interest" (Jakarta Post20.3.2000). Auch von Regierungsseite fand der Protest Zustimmung. Der damaligeUmweltminister Sony Keraf sah in der Biopiraterie eine neue Form von Imperialismus und bezogsich suf die patentierung Indonesiachen traditionallen Wissens und biologishen materials. als ersagte: "Its ridiculous if we have to pay to use herbs growing in our landwhich were use sinceancient times" (ebd,).4
  47. 47. Die breite Protestfront ist sicherlich auch zu einem wesentlichen Teil auf die stetig wachsendeJamu-Industrie zur ckzufőhren, die die Patente Shiseidos im Hinblick auf zuk nftigeExportmarkte sehr kritisch einordnen musste. Laut FAO betrug 1995 das jahrliche Volumen desnationalen Jamu-marktes 350 millionen US$. W hrend sich die Exporte lediglich auf 9 millionenUS$ beliefen (FAO 1995), wird der Markt f r Jamu trotz der Asienkrise 1998 als zukunftsträchtigeigenschätzt. Der Indonesische Jamu-Markt ist grundsätzlich nicht duch Patente aufgeteilt,vielmehr opereren die Unternehmen anhand gut eingefurhrter Handelmarken (Trademarks). Iminterview mit dem Autor kundigte Riza V. Tjahjadi, der sprecher von PAN, ebenfalls masivenProtest an, solte ein nationales Unternehmen von diesem Grundsatz abweichen. Denn hinschtlicheines Patente ware lediglich die industrille Anwemdung anzuerkennen, ansosten beruhe Jamu aufLeistungen der traditionallen Gemmeinschaften. Im Falle von Shiseido sei gerade diese Tatsacheausgeblender worden. Riza erklärte, dass Shiseido einen Vertrag mit dem Königshaus vonYogyakarta, dem Kraton, abgeschlossen hatte, dessen Bedingungen aber nicht offentlich gemachtwurden. Zwar sei Jamu traditionell such am Hof produziert worden, aber die Wissensbest nde desKraton hätten sich aus dem Wissen der indigenen Gemeinschaften und lokalen Gruppen derRegion gespeist. Daher sei dieser vertrag nich gerechtfertigt (interview Tjahjadi 2002).Wie die Verbindung der Universit t von Simbabwe mit Pythera zeige, agieren TNCs heute nichtlänger ohne Partner und Vertr ge. Auch Shiseido schloss zwar einen Vertrag mit dem Kraton ab,aber wieder einmal wurden die Interessen und Rechte der local community nicht berőksichtigt.Troz des vorläufigen Erfolges bleibt PAN skeptisch gegenőber dem zukunftigenGeschäftsgebaren von Shiseido, zumal die Patente in Europa bestehen bleiben. "Theyve stolenwhat belongs to our traditional healer. [...] We call farmers cropsour traditional seeds, we say these are community intellectual right", verdeutlichte Riza in einerErkl rung zum j ngsten Patentrukz g die Position PANs, und die Position der Bauernbezeichnete er als von "Steward to earth" (ISIS 2002).p.32-34(...) Darin wurden verschiendene Falle von Biopiraterie dargestellt und es wurde auf dieUnzul nglichkeiten der bestehenden Patentregelungen hinsichtlich des Schutzes vontraditionellem Wissen hingeweissen. Das Unverständnis der USA fur diese Problematic wurdespäter im WTO Bulletin zusammengefasst: "Whilst there where often disputes about whethersomething was patent-worthy, the US noted that examples in India paper had been successfullyaddressed. The US was not sure it accept that there was a phenomenon that could be termed "bio-piracy" (zitiert nach PAN 2001b: 23).p. 36(...)(...) Unterschiedliche Einschätzungen, wann Kenntnis őber eine Sachlage besteht und wer allesseine Zustimmung geben muss, bergen weiteres Konfliktpotenzial, wie die obigen 5
  48. 48. Biopirateriefalle gezeigt haben. Shiseido hatte zwar einen Vertrag mit dem Kraton abgeschlossenund somit dessen Zustimmung, aber die local community wurde nicht befragt (...) Im Fall vonShiseido bedeutet dieser Schritt, wie bereits der Indonesische Umweltminister festtellte, f r dieNutzung und Anwendung von Kr utern zahlen zu mussen, weil Shiseido ein staatlicheingetragenes Eigentumstrech besitzt. Hier w re sie dann die Frage, welche Form derKompensation den traditionellen Haltern zufällt, wenn aiw ihren Eigentumspruch aufgeben, bzw,wie ihre Leistungen bei der Patentvergabe berucksichtigt werden. Bez glich der Monetisterungentstehen Konflikte hinsichtlich der Gewinnverteilung einem erforlgreichen Verkauf deskommodifizierten traditionellen wissens.p.39.Literaturkiste(...)SekundarliteraturISIS 2002 "No Patent No Beauty, no patent no cure?" Science in Society. Web-Ausgabe 15.Jakarta Post (20.3.200) NGO seminar urge campaign against unfair biopiracy"Kompas (18.9.2002) Makna Keberhasilan pembatalan Paten Shiseido (Zur Bedeutungerfolgreichen Ruknahme des Shiseido-Patent). My correction (RVT) it should be dated 17.7.2002.PAN 2001a. "Shiseido Biopiracy to traditional herbal plant Indonesia." Ferbruar 2001.PAN 2001b. TRIPS. UU Paten dan PVT. Ancaman bagi petani. masyarakat adat dankeanekaragaman hayati [TRIPs, Patentrecht und PVT. Zur Bedrohung der Bauern, der Adat-Geselschaft und biologischen Vielfalt. ] Juli 2991InterviewsRiza V. Tjahjadi, Vorsitzender der PAN Indonesia. Jakarta, 4 Februar 20026
  49. 49. Revise Logo IFOAM, possible? radmail © radnet | webmail ::: show message biotani@rad.net.id From: Riza V. Tjahjadi <biotani@rad.net.id> Subject: Watch out_LOGO_IFOAM Directory 2006 To: Organic-Asia@yahoogroups.com "ONG KUNG WAI" <kungwai@tm.net.my> (less) headoffice@ifoam.org Cc: n.sorensen@ifoam.org members_and_associates-bounces@list.ifoam.org Date: Thu Mar 2, 2006 3:53 am inbox compose reply forward reply all delete header prev next address add logout Watch out_LOGO_IFOAM Directory 2006 Greetings from Jakarta, Dear all, This week I received a copy of Organic Agriculture Worldwide, IFOAM Directory 2006. My first impression (I do recognise now) the logo (really) ignore Asia. The logo depicted only two continents. 7
  50. 50. Can we demand revision of Logo to HO of IFOAM? Tropical Organically Riza V. Tjahjadi BioTani Indonesia Foundation Jl. Persada Raya No. 1 Menteng Dalam Jakarta 12870 Indonesia Telp. +62-21-8296545 email: biotani@..., biotani2004a@... http://www.biotani.org «»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«» No Patent No Beauty, No Patent No Cure, No Patent No Food, They claimed, We fight for Farmers Rights and Community Rights «»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«»«» "Kein Patent auf Leben!" ("No Patents on Life!") also Pharmacosmetic is coming..!Subject: Watch out_LOGO_IFOAM Directory 2006From: "RIZA V. TJAHJADI" <biotani@rad.net.id>Date: Thu, March 2, 2006 12:39 pmTo: Organic-Asia@yahoogroups.comCc: "ONG KUNG WAI" <kungwai@tm.net.my> (less) headoffice@ifoam.org n.sorensen@ifoam.org members_and_associates-bounces@list.ifoam.orgPriority: HighOptions: View Full Header | View Printable Version | Download this as a file Watch out_LOGO_IFOAM Directory 2006 Greetings from Jakarta, Dear all, This week I received a copy of Organic Agriculture Worldwide, IFOAM Directory 2006. My first impression (I do recognise now) the logo (really) ignore Asia. The logo depicted only two continents.8