Go Organic 2010 fail, Go Organic Gagal


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Critical review to the ministry of agriculture program on organic agriculture in Indonesia, namely Go Organic 2010. Similar text but less posters available in http://biotaniindonesia.blospot.com
Pengembangan pertanian organik oleh Departemen (kini Kementerian) Pertanian, dengan nama populernya Go Organic 2010.

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Go Organic 2010 fail, Go Organic Gagal

  1. 1. Organic GO 2010 up to where? Realities far Below Soar Target Riza V. Tjahjadi Biotani Bahari Indonesia Jumat, 01 Oktober 2010 GO Organic 2010 failed, GO Organic 2010 Gagal GO Organic 2010 failed, Versi bahasa Indonesia di akhir vesi Inggris GO Organic 2010 Gagal ( 1
  2. 2. Regulations and the preparation of organic farming systems are orderly fine, the players are very much country-wide ... but on the other hand, is woefully inadequate in its trade in the domestic arena as well as delays to the harmonization of political and international trading system, and also for society as a consumer awareness ... While the eventual goal "... to make Indonesia as one of the major organic food producers in the world from 2010 ..." Gosh... Go Organic 2010 recognition and accountability in the eyes of the State has had been too low. However, the tail wind had been blowing - by agreed of commitment between representatives of the people (Parliament) and government on subsidies for organic fertiliser into a grand design in the fertiliser subsidy in the state budget. Whereas with this grand design would be grateful to shift the chemical-based of national agriculture development into mainstreaming organic farming... What can I say ... moment it has vanished. Now, Indonesia is like a small-scale model of the state Cuban organic agriculture movement, and also very slow motion of the state-driven transformation. "... to make Indonesia as one of the major organic food producers in the world from 2010 ..." 2
  3. 3. Organic GO 2010 up to where? Realities far Below Soar Target Riza V. Tjahjadi Biotani Bahari Indonesia Go organic 2010 like a mantra, known widely by the community activists of organic farming in the country, and cited as the main reference for the community of bloggers or netters at various websites, as well as a variety of discourse in the mass media. But if you see more closely, it is very rare that examining closely following the word Go Organic 2010 and with its vision. Go Organic 2010 “… creates Indonesia as one of the major organic food producers in the world starting in 2010…” 3
  4. 4. (...) “...development of organic agriculture will lead to increased food security and sustainable prosperity...” (translation) Source: Otoritas Kompeten Pangan Organik. Lembar Informasi. Halaman belakang. Sekretariat OKPO Direktorat Mutu dan Standarisasi Ditjen PPHP... dst. Tanpa tahun (Organic Food Competent Authority. Information Sheet. Backpage. OKPO Secretariat of the Directorate of Quality and Standards Directorate PPHP ... and so on. No date). In the perspectives of social communication Go Organic 2010 has been no longer viewed as a program of "the government", but might be called social marketing - which is viewed as successful enough to be understood and adopted - from the department (now Ministry) of agriculture to the agricultural community in Indonesia. “Organic GO 2010 up to where?” This is the third time the central question I am asking ... The first and second main question is exactly the same sentence, that is almost 6 years ago (24 November 2004, and on August 25, 2010) - that I directed by e-mail to the organisers. The first time I submitted question was not answered. This is contrary to when a number of technical questions that I asked one day in advance. For the second time this question I sent to two persons as the old crack actors (2001-2006) but have not seen the response to this day. Now my main questions – for third time - are reviewed by using the paradigm of exercising the problem on the government itself, as carrying the view that the campaign is an effort of Go organic 2010 themselves into the current government who have first developed in the organic farming community - they move with NGOs-driven as well as 'auto-driven Farmers' Communities - in gait as the organic farming movement. This perspective of the question is more focused on who and how of Go Organic 2010 that the government moved toward achievement or reality of the ultimate goals in the year 2010. Go Organic 2010 to what extent? So, “… creates Indonesia as one of the major organic food producers in the world starting in 2010…” It is there significant evidence that Indonesia was the status has become one of the major organic food producers in the world starting in 2010? The truth was already there when the twin, namely “Go Organic” full stop, without frills years, as posted at the website of Directorate General of Processing and Marketing of Agricultural Products. Ideals of Go Organic 2010, was also revised by Maporina intelligently in workshops and Maporina Second Congress on December 21, 2005, which delivers Indonesian themed Become Leading Producer of Organic (Biotama 2007, Maporina). But the slogan Go Organic 2010 is more memorable audience organic farming community activists. Go Organic 2010 "... to create Indonesia as one of the major organic food producers in the world started in 2010 ..." and “...development of organic agriculture will lead to increased food security and sustainable prosperity...” The sentences that really makes us happy, but for who critical stunned amasement at the same time forcing us frowning, whenever we refer to the phases of the realisation of the GO Organic 2010 . Final stage (2006-2010) is the industrialisation and trade. For those who would have commented critically, that public understanding could be lost or created the 4
  5. 5. confusion of understanding. With the plunge while building basic institutions, the Ministry of Agriculture moved fast ... transition from the era of euphoria after the fall of the oppressive Soeharto regime (19982001), then, began dreaming of setting targets, that organic farming in Indonesia will be brought Indonesia into one of the main producers and exporters of world organic food, ie simply by requiring less time of 10 years (from 2001 to 2010; see the poster above: Go Organic 2010, Fertilisers development within…). Because as far as I observe and understand towards organic farming among promoters (proponents of organic farming) in this world no one wants to reconcile the words: "industrialisation and trade," with the words "organic farming" into one sentence in one the contradictory pull of breath. That there are actually even a sharp debate as always spoken of by the proponents of conventional agriculture - who rely on outside intake high and sophisticated - as well as public policy analysts. Which to contrast it puts into question: "Can organic farming feed the world?" That's the title and the main problem has always been a serious concern - among them: Nourman Bourlag (late), Robert Paarlberg, Foreign Policy Magazine (2010), but Brian Halweil (Worldwatch Institute, 2006, public debate: Can Organic Farming Feed Us All?), and the other contender, for example Anna Lappé (2010; See also: Global Food Security, May 2010: Industrial vs.. Organic Farming) actually says, "Yes. .! " A clear answer "Yes ..!" It's based to (...) the genesis of a multi-year, multidisciplinary study to explore whether We Could, Indeed, feed the world with organic, sustainable methods of farming. Contrast that formulated into a question I deliberately put here, because the Go Organic 2010's vision meant that Indonesia would contribute greatly to the world trading of organic food. How large supply of organic agricultural products of Indonesia into the world trade in organic food? Or that at the national level only, will be how much (percentage, or the quantitative amount) of the supply of organic food producers to the national food? For comparison, in the United States only in the year 2005 organic agriculture covers about 50 states that were certified. But the supply? Today there are more than 10.000 certified Organic Farmers Produce two percent of the U.S. food supply (Maria Colenso, How Organic Farming Works, nd). In the context of public awareness in Indonesia, then, what kind of industrialisation means such as the real target by the Ministry of Agriculture? Did the ideals of the Ministry of Agriculture, with a target of "the industrialisation of organic agriculture" wouldl be easily understood by the public? Whether, with a target like that was specifically useful in the budgetary process (annual budgetting) for the realisation of the "program"of Go Organic 2010? For me, vision and goals of Go Organic 2010 was caused confusion. In popular language, I’m once again even asking, whether organic farming requires (term) of industrialisation? Suppose ... organic food to be excellent in the eyes of consumers is not due solely production is abundant and very affordable price, but because of its strategic position as a food quality which ...(you may fill by your own words)... to human health ... and so on. Or in the words of farmers, who cultivate organic crops, should be always easy to say, 'Now the fruits are still on trees had a lot of people eagerly just want to buy ... "etc. Two illustrations it may be extensive 5
  6. 6. and can be interpreted more broadly as the entry points into the framework heading towards the preparation of setting up a vision and strategy for organic agriculture development in Indonesia. The short sentence: organic food in the sense of "Food from Factories" or organic food is truly "Food from farm"? Which is meant by the Go Organic 2010? Not clear, not with what was desired by the agricultural department in the slogan: Go Organic 2010? Wishing more ... Export of organic food? Some reality, it still relies more the Nederlandsche Oost-Indische Compagnie or Dutch East India Company or VOC model alias export raw materials such as the colonial era? This model, in fact, is still ongoing (Tjahjadi 2009). Trailing only the export of organic food to the "biological brother but different mothers", i.e. export commodity crops solely without processing organic foods (raw materials) ... Whereas conventional agricultural export crops have been criticised by Professor Mochammad Maksum (2010). No valued added considered…. Export destination? Entering to the trade area to the north with the pride? Could this VOC model give significance to the balance of trade of Indonesia and the European Union, or the balance of trade between Indonesia and Japan? Then should also be questioned, whether the originator of the Go Organic 2010 was aware to the problem of calculating the ethos of "food miles" or "Long trade routes" that developed in the North? There are many societies that adopted the "food miles" as a fad in food consumption patterns - that have been propagated by proponents of organic food to consumers since the 2000s (Lang, 2004: Food Wars: The Global Battle for Mouths). Or, let us ignore it because it appears the answer is that "food miles" are said to be "naïve method" by Capper et all (Demystifying The Environmental Sustainability of Food Production. Cornell Nutrition Conference. 2009). Just a reminder, please read also the position statement of the Indonesia Organic Farming Network, Jaker PO (2009): (…) 6) Biological diversity and the necessity to protect the Health Ecosystem All the healthy food and agriculture systems are entirely dependent upon the protection of the natural world, with all biological diversity. We must not view the existence of commercial and trade considerations that ignore it. This principle is to heed the rules of maintaining a relatively short distance transportation for food from its source down to the dinner plate (Travels distance of food from farm to our plate) in order to minimize the chance of contamination of foodstuffs for human health or the addition of air pollution and other pollution on the environment life (Jaker PO, 2009). A relatively short distance also allows the creation of a more affordable price physically and economically for local consumers, and greater recycling opportunities to land for food cultivation (From land to table ... to land again). In reality initiators of Go Organic 2010, was adamant that the final stage in the period 20062010 is to Industrialisation and Trade (mid of this year only an organic tea bag with double chamber packaging of “W”, and sachet of powder of organic orange of “N” began sold massively in two retailer shops), then obviously as a necessary consequence of a massive engine, namely the State. And, gosh ... (compare with the stages of Go Organic 2010) head of government or the President of RI just on July 30, 2007 delivered a political statement which recognizing the important of organic farming whilst corrected the green revolution. 6
  7. 7. The main reason, according the President RI, as to avoid future loss of gas supply for other usage, then the solution is to replace chemical fertilisers with organic fertiliser. In the following years, organic agriculture is the responsibility of the State as reflected through the state budget in 2008 which continues at the 2011 State Budget. Substantive sentence in the state budget: organic agriculture as agriculture that is closely related to the environment. And ... here it is, the allocation was an organic fertiliser subsidy, and Machinery units for making Organic Fertilizer (APPO) / home organic fertiliser processing unit, and aid for cattle. This last budget allocation (cattle assistance) scramble portion: whether solely for compost or for the benefit of biogas for the sake of alternative energy. (As a reminder, please see also my analysis on previous postings on this blogspot, and should also be imagined ... at the level of farmer households had two interests seem to be difficult to harmoniously side by side as a couple). That description reviews the vision and targets Go Organic 2010 - that the material is minimal and compact, so that, in turn, are interpreted very open possibility of multiple perspectives or points of view with multiple layers of questions. General description (indicative) and some problems faced Organic agriculture, that word during the buds in the middle of Soeharto's oppressive pressure for rapid self-sufficient in rice. Then the term in the next sequence into organic farming - which blended in to the current size of government via the national development planning agency (Bappenas) with the funds (grants) of the Netherlands, Australia and the World Bank's soft loan of field school programs integrated pest management (SLPHT). And in the present organic farming is claimed similar to system intensification rice (SRI), and correspond with the current mainstream of the State, namely the integrated plant control field school (SLPTT) and nevertheless still had SLPHT. But two researchers at the ministry of agriculture organic farming sorting into two (2) categories, namely absolutely organic farming (POA) and rational organic farming (POR) - both are equally important and should be developed for the sake of rice sufficiencies. Elements and the values that appear in the realization of the Go Organic in 2010, is a fundamental matter, and a glimpse of the questions. Namely: 1. SNI limited participation Preparation of Indonesia's National Organic Food Standards (Standar Nasional Indonesia mengenai Sistem Pangan Organik, SNI PO) organised by the Center for Standardisation and Accreditation (PSA) in the year 2001 to 2002 - arguably laden with a cargo of participation and appreciation among the activists / observers of organic farming. The reason, obviously, SNI PO did not allow the seeds of transgenic plants. This participation continues until the enactment of the Organic Food Standard by the minister of agriculture in 2002. SNI PO to be completed in 2002, then the minister of agriculture formed Competent Authority on Organic Farming (OKPO) in 2003. Participation by organic farming activists created also in the process of revision of the SNI PO 2002 starting since the end of 2004 - but hang fire for nearly six years, the final version 7
  8. 8. SNI PO available to the public in this 2o1o. From the perspectives of the flow, showed Standard-setting first, then Competent institutions - SNI PO in 2002 - before then established institutions and authorities, namely OKPO (Decree of Minister of Agriculture in 2003 – which a lot of sentences typed by not precise, and then transformed through a newly decree in 2005) ... Is it weird? One of the main factors, is "changing ministers, changing priorities", so feels the internal situation in ministry of agriculture OKPO erratic for months, which in turn lead to major impacts, which is slowing the process of realisation Go organic 2o1o phase in 2010. Presumably other impacts, is the sacrifice of time, loss of opportunity, or loss costs for all parties associated with the authority OKPO – it may including hanging period for verification of organic certification agencies. So far, indeed, more powerful learning climate and widespread in the arena of organic farming, so that did not sound the claim letter or a legal claim about the sacrifice or loss. But on the other side of the Go Organic 2010 which has reverberation blaring its slogan be a trigger factor in the mushrooming of creativity stakeholders, as well as organic farming among developers - including the term emerging SRI (system of rice intensification) as the equivalent of organic farming of rice plants. From the internal situation of the agriculture ministry feels erratic, with another perspective I can only say ... "In the meantime, do not try to rush anything. The universe has only one rule: Nothing comes to pass, until all conditions are right". It may be noted, spaces for public participation has actually been prepared by PSA, which was planning a national committee dealing with organic farming. This began by inviting public participation on September 25, 2001 to respond to the draft decision letter the minister of agriculture of the matter, substance and scope of its authority following the work on a national committee dealing with the organic agriculture. Unfortunately, this idea faded out with the regime change of government. This committee was never realised till this year 2010 – no reason available to public. 2. Responsive in face to face Responsive toward info request, unless accurate data are renewable for anyone who just came to the implementing unit of organic farm at the Department of Agriculture - now the Ministry of Agriculture. It's just that the responsiveness of the electronic mail (e-mail) was very low, if there is an answer anyway, then the contents just a short sentence. Responsive to the difficulties small farmers face the problem of expensive cost of certification, namely by promoting participatory quality assurance system (PGS). Two points on top (No. 1, and 2) shows that Access and Voice wide spread. Meanwhile the Rights were a reference to the use of SNI PO, and recognition for the initiative to introduce an alternative system of quality assurance in the process of organic farming. But there is a missing right away, including the absence of a public claim letter or a legal claim on the question of sacrifice or loss caused by the lack of clarity about where the formal seat position of OKPO earlier in the year 2005 ... Public asked to participate in organic farming, but abandoned for months at a sufficiently long period ..! 3. Poor data and its availability 8
  9. 9. Until 2006 the data about who, and what main concerns was relatively adequate available and accessible to public. For example the displaying of the NGOs "directory” engaged in organic farming at website of the directorate general Processing and Marketing of Agricultural Products Department of Agriculture in 2006. But updating the directory did not appear in later years. Publication of progress results and achievements of Go Organic 2010 issued in 2005 in the form of printed and soft copy versions with a summary of the work and the results are attached (see posters above) available to the public, but the update data in the following years did not appear. It is probable that this occurs because there restrucrisation in the department of agriculture - the liquidation of PSA, as well as other directorate generals. Organic farming - in this case the Competent Authority on Organic Farming (OKPO) experienced a lack of explanation of its existence almost eight-nine months. Then on October 19, 2005 OKPO transferred from the PSA to the Directorate of Quality and Standardisation of Agriculture Directorate General of Processing and Marketing of Agricultural Products Department of Agriculture. The PSA was dissolved. Is essentially the Decree of the Minister of Agriculture No. 380/Kpts/OT.130/10/2005, given to the Minister of Agriculture Number 299/Kpts/OT.140/7/2005 on Organisational Structure and Procedures Department of Agriculture. 4. Adequate regulations and technical facilitation Regulation: SNI PO 2002, service / facilitation to obtaining recognition of organic farming certification bodies, the provision of technical materials for field inspection, and financial management system of organic farming is available. Only thing the update the data are still matter. For example, non-performance has consistently renewed the SNI PO intended reviewed periodically, whereas in the private sector (NGOs companion, as well as other players) carried out basic standards periodically review and adoption. Yet another said their realization. Regulation and development of organic farming systems were not quite able to encourage the emergence of the movement of society toward industrialization and trade, if we return to the ideals of the Go Organic 2010. The effort to legitimise organic farming was to propose a revision of the government regulation: PP 28/2004. The minister of agriculture in Congress Maporina II in late 2005 saying in his opening remark that the idea on organic farming as a legal system should be orderly structured and stipulated in the Government Regulation (PP). But this was still just a discourse, no follow up. 5. Less deep cooperation with small amount of budget Go Organic 2010 showed the cooperation between PSA of Department of Agriculture and the National Standardisation Agency (BSN), Food and Drug Supervision Agency (BPOM), and other related departments, excluded a national logistic for food (Bulog). But cooperation was not widespread enough, inadequate understood and far from reciprocal utilisation. For example the poor knowledge and unutilised of the ideals of Go Organic 2010 by two researchers of LIPI, the Indonesian Institute of Sciences, in writing a paper on organic agriculture in Indonesia, and so did the trade department in the matter of procurement of HS codes for the trade of organic products. Similarly, poor knowledge and inadequate understanding toward ideals of Go Organic 2010 by internally on the units or other parts of the agriculture department. For example, the MoA’ R&D agency for Tobacco and Fiber Crops (Balittas) fundraised for research activities on organic cotton to PAN Indonesia in 2002 - without a word mentioned 9
  10. 10. Go Organic 2010 as a background, or their intention to support lasing. Cooperation of OKPO with foreign undoubtedly was by IFOAM and, especially its proponents in Asia. Participating in the training course, consulting, but also conducted the defense of the practice of organic shrimp farming systems in Sidoarjo in East Jawa - which have had criticised by the certification body from Sweden and Thailand. Activities that can be observed seemed limited to the procurement regulations and monitoring system, so enough space was missing. This indicates the lack of funding. Promotion included social marketing more superimposed to the part that agriculture is more common. For example in promoting organic farming mostly carried out by participating in general agriculture exhibitions. In turn, the mass-socialisation of organic food for a wide audience is very inadequate, so was the consumer of organic products was very limited in number. One of the efforts the department of agriculture, was the submission of technical assistance proposals for the development of organic farming - as stated in the Joint Study Group in 2005 - in agreement Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership (EPA Indonesia-Japan). But this effort did not continue alias failed - as publicly confirmed by the Ambassador for the Kingdom of Japan (2005) directly to me (Soemadi DM Brotodingrat, the Indonesian Ambassador for Japan statement as to answer directly to the question asked by BioTani Indonesia in a seminar on trade liberalisation through bilateral trade agreement, on 24/8/2006). Indications of limited funds can also be seen from the support and determination of the target from the department of agriculture - of which shown in the publication, entitled Performance of Agriculture in 2007 (Ministry of Agriculture, 2008). 6. State recognition minimal Recognition of organic agriculture was absolutely nil within the document Agricultural Development Plan 2005-2009 (both in the Indonesian version and English version). In this document there was no single word organic farming. Imagine ... Whereas on 30 November 2004 the minister of agriculture announced “SiSakti” or certification system in the form of the Movement of Indonesian Agricultural Food Quality Aware Campaign on 30 November 2004. However, Go Organic 2010 was not loose her way. Agricultural Development Plan 2005-2009 document was ignored. Kindly, check it to Table 1.1. Development Goals and the Marketing of Agricultural Products Processing Year 2007 Development of rural agro-industry states (...) 3. The development of environmentally friendly industries in the five districts and the development of organic food in 10 districts, as stated in a publication of the Directorate General of Processing and Marketing of Agricultural Products (2006). More further (...) b. The development of organic fertiliser to substitute the excessive use of chemical fertilisers and increase / maintain soil fertility, through the issuance “Permentan” a minister decree about organic fertilisers, facilitation / modeling balanced fertilisation and procurement assistance for mechanising processor / manufacturer of organic fertiliser. In the year 2007, it was stated: allocated aid of organic fertiliser processing mechanization 324 units scattered in 300 districts in 32 provinces. In this regard, the Directorate of Quality and Standardization has conducted two activities sequentially, namely: 10
  11. 11. 1. Technical Guidance Inspector / Supervisor Application of Organic Food System, which was attended by 20 participants coming from: the representative of Organic Food Certification Institute (LSPO), Deputy of the Provincial Agriculture Office Scope of Organic Food Centers and Vice OKPO as well as representatives from the Directorate of Quality and Standardisation. 2. Technical Guidance Facilitator / coach Application of Organic Farming Systems, which was attended by 25 participants coming from officials of the Provincial Agriculture Office Scope of Organic Agriculture Center. Two technical subjects facilitated by instructors of Organic Agriculture Instructor-qualified and experienced than APOI, Certification Bodies (PT.MAL), Department of Trade and DG PPHP (http://agribisnis.deptan.go.id). Abandonment of Agricultural Development Plan 2005-2009 by the agriculture department in 2007 moved to a higher level. With perspective toward the reduction in fossil resource, then the government's recognition of the potential of organic agriculture, while revising the green revolution through the statement of the president of RI. His statement should be viewed as political support towards the development of organic agriculture (July 30, 2007). [g]reen revolution should be the good things we should hold, but that does not fit we replace it with a friendly environment. In my opinion, SRI is a real example of sustainable agricultural development as a correction of the green revolution, green building that had a lot of use of chemical fertilisers and the ways that it could disrupt the environment, especially for long-term (...) our oil if not found new live 20 years longer. Gas us if not found a new live 60 years longer. Coal if we spend away without a comprehensive plan, then within 150 years its reserves will be depleted again. Therefore it is obligatory for the Indonesian nation, for all of us save everything, including saving gas. So gas is not low, not too much for fertiliser, the chemical fertiliser was reduced, replaced with organic fertilisers is also an answer. If it had been processed like what I see, waste, yes, after all, something that during the time we waste recycled, including dirt apparently healthy, fertile organic fertilisers are not so damaging to the environment… and so on. (For information depletion of oil reserves is also marked by the release of Indonesia from OPEC membership at 28 May 2008 as it is no longer a net oil exporter of the commodity). The following year, 2008, Agricultural Development Plan 2005-2009 be ignored again by the ministry of agriculture in the period in which the minister was still the same person - although written as qualitative sentences, without any data. Namely: 1) The Development of Organic Farming and the Environment. Level of awareness of the need and importance of health and clean living environment is increasing. On the other hand, it cannot be denied that for many of these farms use chemicals in an effort to increase production and productivity. In connection with these two things, then the agricultural sector has begun to develop agricultural business as little as possible or completely free from the use of chemicals, or in other words to develop organic farming (Agriculture Sector Development Performance, pp. 84, March 2008). In an earlier version, published in February 2008 stated: To improve soil structure and reduce dependence on chemical fertilisers has also provided a budget for the development of organic agriculture and the environment whose value reached USD 20 billion (Agriculture Sector Development Performance in 2007. Department of Agriculture. February 2008). 11
  12. 12. In technical language, agriculture minister raises concerns of poor soil fertility - along with chemical fertiliser supply problems, the new state began to provide organic fertiliser subsidies as part of a very small percentage of chemical fertiliser subsidies in the fiscal year 2008 state budget. With the existence of these subsidies, it also ignores again to the State Agriculture Development Plan 2005-2009. On the other hand, we could understand, organic fertiliser subsidies as part of a very small percentage of chemical fertiliser subsidies in fiscal year 2008 state budget which continued until 2011 Draft Budget and its interpretation, was to Go Organic 2010 follows the system until the year 2007 in the eyes of the State accountability is low. It worthy to say among critically-minded observers, reviewing the state budget allocation for subsidy of organic fertlisers is far from adequate qualifications. The portion of organic fertiliser subsidy is very small compare to subsidy for chemical fertlisers. On the other hand, local or traditional rice seed varieties was not sufficiently clear appreciation of the state budget. As an illustration, an organic farming initiatives developed by the NGO are a nonchemical farming, and ... utilising local or traditional seed varieties, while state budget only provide subsidies for modern-varieties of high yield seeds… Practising organic farming by using hybrid rice varieties and/or using inbred rice variety such as IR 64 or Ciherang variety is not classified as educating people on organic farming in genuine atmosphere. 7. Political lobbies in the State budget very weak Ministry of Agriculture, was the first who suggested that chemical fertiliser subsidy budget with amount Rp17, 12 trillion were transferred to the newly allocation posts that were the development of organic fertiliser and infrastructure development. Agriculture Minister Anton Apriyantono was argued, the purpose of this assignment was to minimize the chance of deviation distribution of subsidised fertiliser due to the large price difference with nonsubsidised fertiliser. Savings from subsidies, that will help farmers and ranchers to make organic fertiliser through the development of cattle, home composting and land transportation will be deployed in a production center. Calculation made by the Department of Agriculture, if the fertiliser subsidy was reduced to Rp11, 29 trillion, then the rest about Rp6 trillion able to assist the development of organic fertiliser. Details, reached approximately Rp2, 5 trillion for the procurement of cattle and Rp3, 5 trillion for the construction of compost housing units. However, the calculation of the Department of Agriculture actually missed. Proposals submitted to the Ministry of Finance and the national development planning agency (Bappenas) in fact interpreted differently. In the midst of financial difficulties, when receiving proposal on reduction of fertiliser subsidy, in the perception of the Ministry of Finance was like a windfall (or luckily get the falling durian, king of fruits, from the tree). Both institutions were only approved the reduction of fertiliser subsidies, but it did not approve the budget allocation for the development of organic fertiliser and infrastructure development (Farmers Bitter Pills, Monday, September 28th, 2009 14:40 by agroindonesia; www. Agroindonesia.co.id; see, also my reviewed to the another proposed revision by minister of agriculture in 12 April 2010, as I posted in this blogspot: A Cuban Model slower, organic farming – Indonesia 09/06/2010). However positive respond came (again). Even now there is a high level of political will on 12
  13. 13. the elements of the State, namely the Parliament and the representative of the Government to create national political-based fertilisers to organic fertilisers. However, very regrettably, the political will of the House of Representatives Commission VI and Minister of State, in the Working Session Thursday on February 19, 2009 (PM 14:30 to 16:00 pm) will not continue into the synergy and coordination between ministries and also between the political lobbying commission in House of Representatives (Commission VI and Commission IV). Result, failed. House of Representatives Commission VI efforts and Minister of State to create a paradigm-based budgeting fertiliser subsidy prior to organic fertiliser (as a grand design) did not succeed. The old paradigm continues within State Budget 2010, and also on the State Budget 2011; chemical fertilisers is still the biggest portion (see: poster above). Had a strong political will that existed between the elements of State, with a lively lobbies performance (especially if using a technical skills of the Drunken Master), then this was politically, actually can be a small “gong” as closing remark of Go Organic 2010, that the year 2010 is the starting point for Indonesia to be one of the world organic food producers. Small gong - it's like a"Bende Mataram" - this is much more beautiful sound and elegant appearance than the agriculture minister merely select a shortcut, i.e. remove the year 2010 on the Go Organic 2010 - and now modified only to “Go Organic” with no-frills year - thus no longer clear what and how much the stage(s) as target. Other things, was the performance of cooperation between the ministries of trade, and Bulog, a national logistic for food did not produce good and deeply mutual understanding and not fully utilised by inter-party. For example, until August of 2009 turned out there was no tariff heading number (HS code) for organic rice export trade. Now the problem on HS code solved. However, the availability of imported organic food, especially organic rice in the market has shown that the other organic foods exporting countries have far more advance in providing complete basic requirements in the organic food trade. Paradigm that exercising the problems on the government itself, with the illustration above can further flow into the paradigm of excercising the system and its structure, namely the weakness of the government, particularly between the ministries in preparing and budgeting system in the State Budget Expenditures, and follows its strategy of governance in realising the dream "... create Indonesia as one of the major organic food producer in the world started in 2010 ... ". The final word from my reviews, if Anne Booth (1998) states the character of economic history of Indonesia with a melancholy expression "a history of missed opportunities", then I add the sentence "Go Organic 2010 Indonesia" is a "history of targeting (woow…) excessive." In other words the more humorous spoken by Professor Mochammad Maksum (2010), namely “Republik Undur-undur” or the Republic of ant lion (insect, Myrmeleontidae family) to retreat-retreat against targets self-sufficiency in food commodities expands ... I coincidentally add with the above quote, because in the period 2000 to 2002 the agricultural ministry inundate themselves with self-sufficiency targets of several basic food commodities... try to go back to your archives. About Go Organic 2010 revised into Go Organic? WooW… "The Indonesia nation was clever dodging" as popular comment to certain politic situations - see also “Indonesia Sehat 13
  14. 14. 2010” or Healthy Indonesia 2010 is in reality achieved? Flashbacks 2000 No information about Go Organic 2010 is available to the public, but there was something correspondent with the idea in developing organic farming with emphases to a certification scheme. I may disclosed (...) exactly, like six years ago, I politely rejected to the idea of a staff of MoA’ Agribusiness Agency (when it) so I became a cop on organic farming. This was proposed by the staff of the Agency for Agribusiness Ministry of Agriculture when the Office of State Minister of Environment - with SIAP of the state budget in 1995 - which was facilitated by the late Professor Kasumbogo Untung, a dialog about organic farming (Tjahjadi, September 26, 2001; see, also: PAN Indonesia, 27 September 1995). Time has not come to deal with certification issue within “the underground” organic agriculture movement - Soeharto regime was still strongly in power. Widayat, W. came to PAN Indonesia office in 1996 he declared about the intention of the researcher to switch to organic farming systems (result: The technology of organic tea production in the Warta Agricultural Research and Development, v. 24 (6) 2002: p. 70-10.). Year 2000 is a new chapter for NGOs in Indonesia ... This is my own mark, when I initiated the establishment of an institutional certification of organic farming that have been mushrooming within NGOs and farmers. My initiative was in response to the question of a colleague who works in an international NGO, the donor as well as small-scale grants in Indonesia, in late 1999: "What's the next step for the organic agriculture movement in Indonesia?" Seminar on organic farming standards (2000), and in the following years (20012002) to form small teams to develop action plans, discussion, and brief visited to Malaysia, and Thailand, all of it is the initial stage of formation of a certification agency - now called Biocert. 2001 Mon, July 3, 2002 13:23:30 +0700 a draft on Organic Food System Secretary General of the Ministry of Agriculture prepared public consultation discussing the draft Indonesia National Standard RSNI 120, 2002, including The Guidelines for Food Organic systems (Production, Processing, Labeling and marketing). Meetings will be held on Monday July 8, 2002 in Building E of MoA. A draft of text for discussion, technically, apparently prepared by Standardisation and Accreditation Center / PSA MOA, but there was this great work in the National Standardisation Agency to adopt CODEX standards in national legislation. As shared by e-mail to several NGOs, besides the Indonesian Consumer Foundation (YLKI) also invited 70 other parties that 85% is the MoA and the Government (BSN, BPOM, Trade & Industry Department), the rest were individuals from universities, cooperatives, agribusiness industry. NGOs classified on that list only YLKI and the Indonesian Chamber of 14
  15. 15. Commerce (Kadin). Because YLKI not too much deal with the organic agriculture, YLKI then felt the need to ask if any of friends there who could comment on this design was at Monday's meeting with the government. YLKI never questioned the invitation list were less representative: “Maybe this time we can begin to show how serious we are to want to participate”. (Pers. Comm. From: konsumen@rad.net.id, To: "Konphalindo" , "Riza V. Tjahjadi" , Thu, July 3, 2002 13:23:30+0700) 2001-09-28 A draft of the Minister of Agriculture decree Number: ..... (not filled) with subject: About the Commission on Organic Farming ... consisting of Chairman, Secretary, with 12 people in full as a member of the Steering Committee of Organic Agriculture and daily executive Chairman, Secretary with 16 members ... and so on circulated to small number of public. In fact, the commission has never been a ministerial decision alias wishful thinking only of the past even though the letter had been given the date: September 2001-0928. Oct 22 2001 12:55 Organic Agriculture, the Government Speech just talked only The National Farmer's Day October 24: Organic Agriculture, Government Speech is still limited. Among farmers argued, the issue of organic farming that ensures the preservation of natural environment and health of farmers, to this extent be a "talk" among the government. Farmers considered, the government has not made any real and spontaneous action to save the natural environment, and improve the lives of farmers. Farmers said in a statement on the sidelines of Degree Cultural activities Farmers and farmers' production exhibition October 20 to 23 in House Full of Cultural Centers. Culture titles, initiated the Alliance for the sovereignty of the farmer include seed and technology showcase local farmers, farm markets, farmers stage art, performance art farmer, agrarian dialogue and natural resource management, and gatherings of farmers and consumers ... and so on. ( http://kompas.com/kompas-cetak/0110/22/JATENG/pert26.htm). December 12, 2001 Competent authority for OA regulation: (...) The OA regulation is in the process of discussion, so We Can not release to the public. As a refference, We use GL's CAC-32, IFOAM, and USDA Regulations ... etc. (Pers. Communication by e-mail. December 12, 2001). 2002 Jun 24 2002 13:36 Two senior researchers at The MoA' R&D agency for Tobacco and Fiber Crops (Balittas) sent an e-mail with subject: Develop Organic Cotton, to Coordinator PAN Indonesia. They say our view that the development of cotton in Indonesia faces many problems. Surprisingly, these problems stem from government policy itself is not impartial to the interests of farmers. Let say introduction of transgenic cotton grown in South Sulawesi, to date there are still pros and cons. Therefore, to prioritize the interests of cotton growers, we intend to apply for PAN 15
  16. 16. cooperation with Indonesia in developing organic cotton. The idea of this cooperation on the basis of our knowledge for the success of PAN in developing organic cotton in some countries, such as PAN Africa, PAN North America (panna), PAN Latin America (Papal), PAN Germany and others. From Balittas we have enough available technology to develop organic cotton, for example the use of organic fertilisers, the utilization of natural enemies in pest control and pesticide use vegetable oils ... and so on (Development of organic cotton, To: biotani@rad.net.id. Date: Jun 24 2002 13:36). An e-mail of two researchers of Balitas has been provided fresh air. Because NGOs (Included I myself) still feel shortness of breath due to the defeat of the coalition NGO appeal against the decision of the Administrative Court judge who did not win a lawsuit over the release of a limited license for its Bt cotton by Monsanto's agriculture minister. NGO coalition lawsuit (ICEL, Konphalindo, PAN Indonesia and YLKI) for biodiversity and food security was defeated in the Administrative Court on 27 September 2001, then a coalition of NGOs appealed to the State Administrative High Court (High Court), but the results are lost again. For background information, two years ago (the Jakarta Post, 31 Dec.2001), the Pesticide Action Network (PAN) criticized the government's decision to extend the plantation pilot project for hazardous transgenic cotton plants in several provinces throughout Indonesia without preliminary examination of the impact of genetically modified seeds. PAN, along with YLKI and other non-governmental organizations, has filed a lawsuit against the Ministry of Agriculture's policy but the district court decided that a thorough analysis was not needed before opening the testing fields for transgenic plants (the Jakarta Post, 31 Dec.2001). But I was responding to a letter Balitas researchers by providing an empirical description of the experience of PAN Indonesia / Indonesian Biotani form an organic cotton field trials, as follows: (…) in Indonesia, I began in West Sumatera - because I got a short information there was the Asian Development Bank's plan would boost cotton production in seven provinces – that was at the end of 1996. That information has prompted me to accelerate the testing plan of organic cotton growers. The first harvest in March 1997, the result could technically be used for data entry. The second test, has failed, because the growth of cotton plants affected by El Nino, and the next test in early 1998. Results from the three-times-a field test that can be considered adequate, and I already can identified TS (“tumpangsari” or multiple cropping patterns) is profitable, both ecologically and economically (this is parameter of PAN Indonesia since 1985 in the development of alternative to pest & diseases, years before the Bappenas introduced FAO’ Integrated Pest Management) ... and so on (Re: Development of organic cotton, balittas@malang.wasantara.net.id. Date: Jun 24 2002 15:01) July 7, 2002 PAN Indonesia sent a letter to the Minister of Agriculture, and Secretary General of Ministry of Agriculture, the Director of PSA in the form of responses to Draft Indonesian National Standard, RSNI No. 120 Year 2002 Guidelines for Organic Food Production System of the National Standardisation Body. Summarised: The Department of Agriculture until the first week in July 2002 spread (limited basis) a draft of this Organic Agriculture SNI. At first glance it is very exhilarating, like a fresh breeze that reveals the narrowness of space for agricultural development which still on production and productivity framework. But we admit there are a lot of progress has been 16
  17. 17. made to break through the primacy of ecological sustainability principles with agricultural biodiversity (agrobiodiversity) and more humane. Transgenic seeds in organic farming are unlawful Indonesia. In addition, the goal is within the framework of encouraging the export of organic agricultural commodities to the North. This is connected with the slogan Agriculture: Organic Agriculture 2010. BioTani Indonesia / PAN Indonesia recorded in the first wave of organic agriculture in Indonesia has the values and spirit of the struggle to develop an alternative to the heavy dependency to modern chemical inputs (Green Revolution that are so tight, if squashed the "fight" or by using the umbrella of the environment such as the state ministry on environment, KLH or the Indonesia forum on environment, Walhi; this tactis also utilised by the oldest organic farming in Indonesia Bina Sarana Bhakti in Cisarua, in that time). Even now still is, despite the multidimensional crisis have zoomed "agricultural practices (by no choice) goes organic." BioTani Indonesia / Indonesian PAN shared views / special note to the minister of Agriculture, dated July 7, 2002: The first time that deserve noted, that are substantive guidelines (and a Standard) is good enough. More than that, primarily, that the (draft) SNI PO is firmly reject GE / transgenic crop, or even not allowed to contain GE ingredients. However there are some important things, which should be considered, and attempted solutions. 1. There should be a clear framework of harmonisation, or the flexibility with IFOAM, the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movement. Because in IFOAM listed it. For example: Unless the text of "standard", then the other words refer to the guidelines for national certification, the word "standards" used in the text refer to the IFOAM Basic Guidelines. For example, if the IFOAM Basic Guidelines proven incorrect and incompatible with national legislation or other regulation, Certification Program can be reported to the Committee on IFOAM Basic Guidelines. Thus, also, the SNI PO needs to consider the existence of a kind of a committee, or whatever the name, as to oversee to the Basic guidelines for organic farming in Indonesia. 2. The lack of standards regarding the Social Justice in IBS (IFOAM Basic Standards referred by Social Justice). Once again, it should not be ignored. Therefore, we propose that the Social Justice can begin compiled into a draft of this SNI. It has two (2) implications. First, if the export of organic agricultural products or commodities (broad) to another country, it is possible that this will be questioned (accession, or reviewed - as a principle of the reciprocal of the SNI PO is also on imports). Second, civil society, especially NGOs will question it as well. For example, the attached information regarding the efforts of organic agriculture among activists in the United States today that any element of Social Justice to enter into the organic farming standards of U.S. agriculture department (USDA Organic Standard). (See Letter to Minister of Agriculture PAN Indonesia, dated July 7, 2002; or archives: SNI_CatatanBiotaniPANIndonesia.Rtf) SNI 01-6729-2002 Organic Food System published by the National Standardisation Agency 17
  18. 18. was the end result of the participatory work of the stakeholders since mid-2001. Its contents include eight points, accompanied by three Appendices. Namely: Scope, Reference, Description and Definitions, Labeling and Recognition, Production and Preparation Procedures, Inspection and Certification Systems, Import, Review. Appendix: The Principles of Organic Food Production, Materials allowed for Organic Food Production, Minimum Requirements for Inspection and precautionary Actions in Inspection System or Certification. 2003 Exports of rice: the need for certification (2003) was one of the prominent issues and topics in 2003, and over the years continues till last April-May of this year. 20 September 2003 Minister of Agriculture issued a decree Nomor432/Kpts/OT.130/9/2003: Pointing Center for Standardization and Accreditation as a Competent Authority (competent Authority) Organic Food. The "Task force organic" was set up and administratively under the department of agriculture, as stated in the Decree of the Minister of Agriculture No. 432/Kpts/OT.130/9/2003. 2004 A meeting was held between representatives of China and ASEAN countries in Guangzhou, China, this week, to encourage trade in organic agriculture. In the meeting emphasized the need for harmonization of the concept of organic food. For that, need to be establishing national standards and certification bodies of organic food. Riza V Tjahjadi of Biotani Indonesia, representing Indonesia in the China-ASEAN Expert Group Meeting on OFGF Net Building, in a press release, Friday (19/11), said: to form the food industry and sustainable agriculture, the countries of ASEAN and China need to develop policies that support, establish national standards and certification bodies. The meeting was attended by representatives from several countries, such as the Philippine Department of Trade and Industry, Ministry of Agriculture of Thailand, and the Department of Agriculture and Rural Development of Vietnam. In addition there are observers from South Africa and Hungary. Through the ASEAN Secretariat and the Economic and Social Commission of the United Nations for Asia Pacific (UNESCAP), the countries in the region can share experiences with the EU, U.S. and Japan in agricultural development organic. China through the China Green Food Association (CGFA) began trading in organic agricultural products to several countries since many years ago ... and so on (Kompas daily newspaper: China and ASEAN Trade Encouraging Organic Farming, Saturday, November 20, 2004). 18
  19. 19. Wed, November 24, 2004 10:58:33 AM GO Organic 2010, It has been, how far? That's my question to the principal: pertanian_organik@uedoramail.com, Dear Sir/Madame promoting Go Organic 2010 ... Go Organic 1. Please be explained basic legal / regulatory Go Organic introduction in 2010? 2. What has been done (Stage 2001), 3. What is being worked on (Stage 2005), 4. How the enthusiasm of farmers, and consumers today, according to your observations?, 5. Any prospect that can be showed of the benefits of Indonesians in the near future, or 2010? But… No answer ..! 25 November 2004 Information from the interview: "When compared with European countries, Indonesia was" too late "in promoting organic farming. In terms of psychological, Indonesian farmers were more interested in conventional agriculture (non organic), after seeing that the more conventional agricultural products is higher. In addition, conventional agricultural crops have a relatively faster in planting crops. In fact, according Ananto, with organic farming is actually more to give income / higher income and productivity of the more promising if managed properly and correctly in accordance with the principles of organic agricultures. "Therefore, to meet market demands, since the year 2001, the government has been promoting organic farming, whether through the media, training and education, as well as pilot sites. According Mahfudin, Head of Subdivision of the Environmental Management Department of Agriculture, since 2001 until 2004, has spread organic farming pilot sites over 20 districts in the western part of Indonesia, such as in Bogor, Sukabumi, Cianjur, Sragen, Yogyakarta, Malang and Cimande. On the island of Sumatera, there are organic farming locations in Bengkulu and Agam (West Sumatera). For the eastern part of Indonesia, until now there has been no demonstration of organic farming land that fostered directly by the Department of Agriculture. However, in some areas of eastern Indonesia there are several locations of organic agriculture, like organic coffee farm in Toraja, and East Nusa Tenggara. For the year 2005, the Indonesian government is ready to compete in the market with other organic producer countries such as Vietnam (Biotani PAN Indonesia monitoring, 25 November 2004). 30 November 2004, Minister of Agriculture Anton Apriyantono launched a campaign on Food Quality Awareness by Interactive dialogue on Metro TV. Awareness campaigns conducted in the framework of food quality community awareness about the importance of healthy food consumption and good for public health in general. Movement Awareness Campaign also included Food Quality Certification System for Agricultural or “SiSakti Indonesia”. PO 2002 ISO revision process began. Thu, December 30, 2004 7:45:59 AM Biotani Indonesia submitted a proposal on revision of Organic Food System; re-sent by email (bounce mail, yesterday) 19
  20. 20. (...) principally I just want to keep the word social justice exist, in accordance with the original manuscript, with the exception “Indigenous people” translated into Indonesia language as “masyarakat adat” (indigenous people). The second proposal was still associated with the return of the original manuscript, with the exception of the word, at the end of the sentence: "Except for the farmers / small-scale organic growers who work wholly with their family members" (communication by e-mail). 2005 In mid-January consultation meeting between the Minister of Agriculture and stakeholders regarding transgenic crops Biotani Indonesia pointing out to a big banner Organic GO 2010, at outside of the plenary room of the meeting. I suggested the minister of agriculture, should does not merely promote biotechnology, but also organic farming. Publication of the results of Go Organic 2010: 4 Years of Go Organic 2010 publisehd by the Agricultural Product Processing Directorate, Directorate General of Processing and Marketing of Agricultural Products Department of Agriculture, 2005 (Executive version Summary; see Poster, RVT). Ministry of agriculture was the submission of technical assistance proposals for the development of organic farming - as stated in the Joint Study Group in 2005 - in agreement Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership (EPA Indonesia-Japan). Sentence: “... Requested Cooperation from the Japanese development of organic farming ...” Indo-Japan EPA (Joint Study Group Report, p. 17) October 19, 2005 Decree of the Minister of Agriculture Nomor380/kpts/OT.130/10/2005 Setting: FIRST: To revoke the decision of the Minister of Agriculture No. 432/Kpts/OT.I30/9 / 2003 about the appointment of the Center for Standardisation and Accreditation (PSA) as a Competent Authority (Competent Authority) Organic Food; SECOND: Pointing the Directorate General of Processing and Marketing of Agriculture as the Competent Authority (Competent Authority) Organic Food; ff. October 25, 2005 Statistics or basic database was not available. DYS (OKPO; PSA-MOA) said, no one knows how many / wide number of organic farms in Indonesia. Because, “we are only focusing on the fulfillment of food alone,” he said. In addition, BPS is entered into the Census of Agriculture in 2003 and also did not make organic farming as a barometer in the register of agricultural land in Indonesia. He suggested a websites of SOL (The Word of Organic Agriculture), although he himself is less confidence with the data contained in the website. In related developments of Go Organic 2010, AKS said that right now we are preparing the legal aspects, especially in terms of accreditation, which was coordinated by National 20
  21. 21. Standards Agency (BSN) and the Commission on Accreditation of National (KAN). "So we're more on the signs, yet," he said. Commodities? When viewed from the side of the amount of exports, the most primadona is the coffee. Like coffee from Aceh, Irian, Toraja and Bali. But in terms of volume, organic rice is also quite a lot. Recently, Manado of North Sulawasi exporting rice to Brunei as much as 58,000 tons. Without any data he mentioned the administration of Central Kalimantan also exporting organic rice to Brunei. For organic vegetables, Riau has collaborated with Singapore, where the seeds and cultivation costs borne entirely by Singapore, while vegetables are exported to Singapore ... (Riau people labors in his own country), Biotani PAN Indonesia monitoring 2006. Monday, December 19, 2005 Environment Organic Agriculture, Environment Revitalizing Organic agriculture developed more and more nowadays. Indirectly it shows an awareness of various parties who deals in the agricultural sector to pay attention to environment and health. The green revolution that intensively used of chemical fertilizers has been shown to make the environmental damage and unsustainable. Why should return to organic farming? What are the implications for the environment? Organic agriculture the one reliably as an alternative to revitalize and restore the environment in soil nutrients thinning due to the use of chemicals in agriculture. Green revolution began in the world since the 1960s with the label of modern agriculture. This model reflected in the procurement of seeds, chemical fertilisers and pesticides. In the early decades of green revolution very fast developed. Evidently, this revolution can meet food needs in accordance with world population growth rate. (...) Gains and benefits of organic cultivation have been much publicised. Campaigning on these benefits of organic farming too much carried out and reached in various areas. In fact, some regions have declared themselves as organic cities, such as Batu Malang and Cianjur. Companies producing organic fertilisers, bio pesticides, and liquid fertiliser also began to appear. But unfortunately, until now organic agriculture is still unpopular and unknown among farmers. (...) Rapid Growth Organic agriculture industry in the world grew rapidly from year to year. Until 2003, the total area of organically managed land that reaches 24 million hectares. The total value of sales of organic products worldwide is estimated at 23 billion dollars. The values of these sales were concentrated only in Europe, the United States, Japan, and Canada. United States and Canada dominates almost around 51 percent, while Europe and Japan about 46 percent of about 350 million dollars. Currently only 39 countries that have been implementing regulations on organic farming meanwhile eight countries have completed the regulations on organic farming but not yet implemented. A total of 15 countries were in the process of drafting legislation concerning organic agriculture. (iah / various sources) Unfortunately, until now organic agriculture is still unpopular and unknown among farmers. In fact, organic agriculture much contributes to environmental protection and the future of human life.(www.balipost.co.id/BALIPOSTCETAK/2005/12/19/ling1hl.htm). 21
  22. 22. 2006 Publication: organic food in 10 districts (...) .3. Development of environmentally friendly industries in the five districts and the development of organic food in 10 districts (Table 1.1. Target Development and Marketing of Agricultural Products Processing Year in 2007 in rural agro-industries Development Directorate General of Processing and Marketing of Agricultural Products. Department of Agriculture Year 2006). May 24, 2006 AM Two senior researchers: Fagi and Irsal Las (2006) shared a common understanding that both are equally important and should be developed. First, the absolutely organic agriculture (POA) as an agricultural system which does not use inorganic chemical inputs, but using only natural ingredients such as organic matter or organic fertiliser. This system is sometimes associated with the concept of low-input sustainable agriculture (Low Input Sustainable Agriculture, LISA). Its main target is to produce products and the environment (soil and water) is clean and healthy (ecolabelling attributes). The system is more priority on nutrition (nutritional attributes), health, and economic products, which consumers are certain circles (exclusive), and less priority to productivity. Second, rational organic farming (POR) or semiorganic agriculture as farming systems which use organic materials as one's entrance that serves as a supplement soil restorer with chemical fertilisers. Pesticides and herbicides used are selective and limited, or use the biopesticide. The main runway is a modern agricultural system (GAP), which prioritises the productivity, efficiency of production systems, security, and conserve natural resources and environment (Providing farmers with advanced technology and local wisdom based on Sustainable Green Revolution era. Proceedings of the Seminar YAPADI: Reversing the Flow of Rural Revitalization Reaping. May 24, 2006). Thu, August 24 2006, Indonesia Ambassador for the Kingdom of Japan updating the issues on Organic Farming and IPR within the context of Japan-Indonesia EPA in a national seminar in Jakarta. He revealed, recently there was negative respond from the Japanese government toward technical assistance as requested by the Indonesian’ department of agriculture (ref. a Joint Study Group, 2005). Database not yet available Recheck data on October 20, 2006; see also 2004. (...) Data area of organic farming in Indonesia, until recently the Ministry of Agriculture or the BPS does not yet have complete data and were scattered in every related offices such as the existing institutions are at the agency office Plantation, Food Crops, Fisheries, and others. I do not know! (Biotani PAN Indonesia monitoring report). 22
  23. 23. Since DG Processing and Marketing of Agricultural Products (BPPHP) Go-Organic Program initiated in 2010, only a single new national certification agency (local) that have been able accredited only Sucofindo. More like BIOCert (Bogor), Great Quality Lestari (Depok), Pabindo (Jakarta), Persada (Yogyakarta), BPTPH (Padang), yet can be fully accredited. While the organization / institution certification of organic products that operate in Indonesia, including SKALL, Sweden and the NASAA, Australia. But only SKALL Sweden that made communication with the Authority Competency Organic Agriculture (OKPO) or National Certification Agency and the National Accreditation Commission (Biotani PAN Indonesia monitoring report). 26 October 2006 List of Producer and Board of Organic Certification for Food Products 2005, accessed in the internet 31 Oct 2006 2007 Agriculture Sector Performance Year in 2007 (...) III. Efforts which have been implemented and the Results Achieved. For the year 2007, the Department of Agriculture set a 28 (twenty eight) also called the operational activities of the main activities, namely: (...) 25. Development of Organic Farming and the Environment (p. 6). Organic agriculture is a part of one of the main activities of 28 points. Within the scope of the agriculture ministry we know that organic agriculture does not stand alone but together with the environment. Further Development of Agriculture Sector Performance report in 2007 by the Department of Agriculture (2008) mentioned again on organic farming but without an adequate description of "4.2. Regions and Horticulture Development Center in 2007 (...) "The development of organic farming in 12 provinces, 36 districts, (...) (p. 39). That the sentence. The quantitative targets set out in the work plan by directorate general PPHP year 2006, namely (...) 3. Development of environmentally friendly industries in the five districts and the development of organic food in 10 districts (Table 1.1. Target Development and Marketing of Agricultural Products Processing Year 2007, Ditjend PPHP Year 2006). In other words, it is known that the results from the target in the work plan Ditjend PPHP 2007 although a smaller quantity, but the target will be blurred or not reflected in trace synchronized with the results from other directorates within the scope of the general public to departmental performance in the Agricultural Sector Development Performance report in 2007 by the Ministry of Agriculture Year (2008). Planning on organic agriculture in the next year, in 2008 - still in the Department of Agriculture Agricultural Performance reports included only one of 15 points in the activities included in the Agribusiness Development Program in 2008, namely (11) Development of Organic Farming and the Environment (p. 81), and even this without a defined quantitative target. Go Organic 2010 whereas the scheme issued by the Department of Agriculture (no year), as cited by Dede Sulaeman (2006) is the sixth stage or last stage: Industrialization and Trade for the period 2005-2010. 23
  24. 24. Directorate General of Processing and Marketing of Agricultural Products Department of Agriculture issued the guidelines in the framework of operationalisation of Compentent Organic Food Authority (OKPO), and Working Group of OKPO. OKPO has the following tasks: a) formulating regulatory policies, the supervision and guidance of the organic food system; b). design and formulate the system and the reference to be made in the establishment of mandatory requirements for organic certification bodies; c) verification of certification bodies and / or legal entities that implement the quality assurance system in organic agriculture certification program; Task of Working Group: a) Provide input to the Competent Authority in development of organic agriculture, certification bodies verification decision, and within the framework of harmonization of the organic food system, b) Assist the Competent Authority in formulating the concept of organic food control regulatory policies, c) Prepare draft policy and technical provisions related to the development of organic food in Indonesia. For that OKPO secretariat should be able to function as a facilitation of the activities associated with the development of organic food in particular that is the responsibility OKPO and Working Groups. The Secretariat Duties OKPO: 1) Preparing and updating a data base of organic food producers, 2) Preparing and updating a data base of facilitators, 3) Setting up an organic food marketing data 4) Preparing and updating a data base of certification agencies, 5) Preparing and updating the data base inspector Organic, 6) Preparing and updating the data base of assessors, 7) To prepare the organic logo, 8) Setting up / archiving guidelines and regulations in organic food development, 9) Facilitate the implementation of verification of certification bodies, 10) Facilitate (testing strings) certification implementation actors business, 11) Facilitate regular working group meetings, 12) Facilitate discussion on the verification / certification, 13) Facilitate the coordination of activities across a single echelon in organic food development, 14) administrative tasks associated with OKPO secretariat functions. Wednesday, 04/07/2007 20:02 pm MOA: an organic fertilizer should includes within the PSO program by: Edward Djony JAKARTA (Antara): The Department of Agriculture proposes to the number of SOEs that produce manure for organic fertilizer as a program insert PSO (public service obligation) to them. Director General of Food Crop Agriculture, Sutarto Alimoeso in Jakarta said the PSO program for organic fertilisers to support the rice production target of 60 million tons of dry milled grain (DUP) in 2008. "We've asked five state-owned fertiliser factories to produce organic fertiliser this PSO," he said. According to him, through the state-owned PSO program is expected to deliver as much organic fertiliser to farmers with around 1.5 million tonnes. To support the PSO organic fertilizers such as 1.5 million tonnes, he added, the budget allocated 225 billion if the later is sold for fertiliser Rp1.500/kg. In addition to organic fertiliser PSO program, according to Sutarto, next year NPK fertiliser subsidy will also be increased from the current 700 thousand tons to 1.4 million to 1.5 million tons. "When can we expect to reach two million tons of even more than that," he said. According to him, the use of organic fertiliser for rice cultivation was considered so important because rice field soil conditions in Indonesia suffered severe damage due to excessive use of chemical fertilisers over the years. 24
  25. 25. DG said, in order to achieve production targets 60 million tons in 2008 through the use of organic fertiliser and compound fertiliser will be done intensively in an area of 1.5 million ha. On these rice fields will be guided continuously for one growing season by conducting a field school program for 60 thousand groups of farmers. 2008 January 7, 2008 Regulation of the Head of Food and Drugs Supervisory Agency Number: HK. on Organic Processed Food Control. Coverage is monitoring of organic processed food. Processed food must meet the prerequisites, namely fresh organic food is food produced according to organic production methods and organic evidenced by a certificate issued by the certification body that verified by the competent authority. As for processed organic food is a food or beverage that comes from fresh organic food processing results in a way or a certain method, with or without additional materials allowed. September 2008 Organic Products Labeling Guidelines have been drawn with a foreword by the Director General of Processing and Marketing of Agricultural Products as Chairman of the Competent Authority of Organic Food. These guidelines have been prepared as a reference for Organic Food Certification Institute and operators in the organic food label on the packaging and / or organic products in Indonesia. Two researchers LIPI, the Indonesian Institute of Sciences made the calculation estimation of Poverty Reduction Through the Application of Organic Farming from 2008 until 2017. By making the estimated decline in rice productivity factor, they show that land suitable for organic farming with a distribution covering 39 provinces in Indonesia (I myself count the number of provincial: RVT). Without referring to Go Organic 2010 Lesmana & Hidayat in one of the policy recommendations mentioned one recommendation: OKPO should be established in all Provinces (Lesmana & Hidayat, 2008, the National Study of Organic Agriculture on Indonesia, the Indonesian Institute of Sciences, LIPI 26-28 March 2008; see also Tjahjadi, 2010) . Tjahjadi, 2010 describes a matrix made by Lesmana & Hidayat (2008) with the sentence: By considering the average growth factor productivity of wetland rice, Teddy Lesmana et al (2008) proposed two schemes in developing organic agriculture in Indonesia. Area under the category of Rapid Decrease (- 5.0% more) is likely to promote organic agriculture in the short term; total of nine provinces. While the decline Medium (-3.0% to -4.99%) and decrease Few categories (<- 3.0%) is likely to promote organic agriculture in the long term the total 19 provinces. A little decline (<-3.0%) are South Sulawesi, South Sumatra, North Sulawesi, Bali, Maluku, Papua, Jakarta. Moderate decline (-3.0% to -4.99%) is Banten, Lampung, East Jakarta, Jambi, Central Jakarta, Gorontalo, North Sumatera, West Sumatera, West Jakarta, Riau, South Kalimantan, Central Sulawesi. Areas with Rapid decline (-5.0% more) is in Central Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, East Nusa Tenggara, Bangka Belitung, DI Yogyakarta, West Nusa Tenggara, Bengkulu, West Kalimantan, Southeast Sulawesi (Teddy Lesmana et Indonesian National Study, Organic Farming , Indonesian Institute of Sciences, LIPI 26 to 28 March 2008). 25
  26. 26. However, the remaining three provinces are not covered by Lesmana et al. The number of provinces, in December 2008, in Indonesia, 33 to 483 + District Municipality and 75 666 villages (BPS: Socio-Economic Indicators, March 2009). October 28, 2008 Results of a survey by Maporina and the Office of the Minister of Economic Affairs in 2008, shows the Indonesian community understanding about organic food is still very lacking. On the other hand, in Europe (Czech Republic, Switzerland, UK, Germany, etc.) spend approximately 20% of organic food, approximately 17.5% of Canada, the U.S. nearly 25% are Asian 13.6%. Given the importance of things mentioned above for the quality of the Indonesian nation and the future development of the agribusiness world MAPORINA-DIKTI DP2M supported by the Ministry of Education will hold “Gebyar Organic”. Competition Results: a series of research related to "organic", both about the cultivation of crops, livestock, horticulture, fertilisers & organic pesticide industry, food industry, beverages and drugs until the organic cosmetics. Beside the event will be a National Seminar on Organic (October 28 in Jakarta) with the theme: "Go Green with Organic & Health" (Gebyar ORGANIC 2009: GoGhO, Go Green with Organic & Health. Www.maporina.com. Last Updated Thursday, 10 September 2009) MAPORINA - Indonesian Society of Organic Agriculture. 2009 February 19, 2009 Politics of the national fertiliser should be placed on the grand design to optimise the use of organic fertilisers. Organic fertilisers can be made by modern fertiliser industries (SOEs and private), but can also be developed through independent cottage industry that can be done by the farmers / farmer groups themselves with technical guidance and capital ... That is the first of six points of the conclusions of the Hearings Meeting (RDP) between the Commission VI of House of Representatives and the government as represent by the Deputy Minister for State Enterprises Agro Business, Industry, Agriculture, Forestry, Paper, Printing and Publishing, the Director General of Domestic Trade Department of Commerce, and Representatives of the state-owned fertiliser companies on Thursday, February 19, 2009 (At 14:30 to 16:00 GMT). Thursday, August 20, 2009, 16:48 GMT Minister of Trade Ministers Support Organic Rice Export Trade Minister issued a decree No. 35/M-DAG/PER/8/2009 on August 11, 2009 to support the special rice exports, such as organic rice. The decree (Permendag) was a revision of the Minister Decree No. 12/M-DAG/PER/4/2008 about Import and Export of Rice. Trade Minister Mari Elka Pangestu said Permendag were issued based on the letter of the Minister of Agriculture to the Ministry of Trade numbered 155/PP.319/M/7/2009 dated July 16, 2009 on requesting Certain Types of Rice for Exports. "The letter stated the Minister of Agriculture supports the export of certified organic rice can be exported throughout the year," Pangestu said in Jakarta on Thursday, August 20, 2009. Besides, she added also the result of coordination meetings based on the consideration of rice 26
  27. 27. exports, which proposes certified organic rice can be classified into groups of special rice that can be granted an export license. Of rice varieties that can be exported namely rice paddy or rough-skinned i.e. specifically for the purposes of the seed (HS 1006.10.00.00), the rice was not fragrant Thai Hom Mali (HS 1006.30.19.00), and other types of rice (HS 1006.30.90.00), which not produced through organic farming systems with the highest fracture rate 5 percent. For the fracture rate of 5 to 25 percent, only allowed to export by Bulog. Also granted an export license for the type of sticky rice sticky rice (HS.1006.30.30.00), and rice are produced through organic farming systems (HS. 1006.30.90.00 and HS. 1006.30.19.00) and the level of fracture 0-25 percent. 2010 Go Organic (only without the year). "There are so many aspects that is affected by the development of organic agriculture, whether it be social, economic, or environmental," said Minister of Agriculture Suswono in a discussion entitled Go Organic movement, in Jakarta on Thursday (15 / 4). The pattern of development of organic agricultural systems is considered capable of producing a healthy product and free from contamination of pesticides or synthetic chemicals. "From the economic aspect, agricultural production costs will be cheaper because farmers do not need to buy chemical fertilisers and pesticides," he said. However, Suswono said, to campaign for this program was not easy. Everything must be done gradually. Sun Marketing Director of Merchandising for Food Business Meshvara Kanjaya Indonesian society reveals not understand what exactly is true about organic agricultural products and their benefits. For that, the institute has tried to educate the public in stages through the mass media. "Not only that. We also make weekly ads to support programs that encouraged governments Go Organic. That we expect can be a place for farmers to explain about what exactly their product and its benefits for society," said Meshvara (Empower "Go Organic" Jakarta newspaper. April 16, 2010). SNI PO 2010 issued by BSN This standard issued in 2010. as a revision of the Indonesian National Standard (SNI) 016729-2002, Organic Food System, which refers to standard 32-1999 Rev.1-2001, Rev.2-2007 and the IFOAM Basic Standards for Organic Production and Processing 2005. Revisions to the SNI 01-6729-2002 included: (1) Transition Labeling, deleted, (2) Annex B, ie materials that are allowed, restricted, and prohibited from use in organic food production is adjusted to the conditions in Indonesia, and regulations. SNI 65-03 formulated by the Technical Committee of Agriculture and has been discussed in technical meetings, and the final agreement reached in a consensus meeting in Jakarta padatanggal 12 November 2009 - which was attended by members of the Technical Committee and other relevant parties. With the enactment of this SNIPO, then cancel and replace SNI 01-6729-2002. This standard has been through the process of popular consultation on January 22, 2010 until March 22, 2010 with the end result RASNI (Final draft SNI). 27
  28. 28. Riza V, Tjahjadi; biotani@gmail.com Note: small revisions to several sentences in previous versions. -ooo 0 ooo- 28
  29. 29. 29
  30. 30. Versi Indonesia GO Organic 2010 Gagal Regulasi dan penyusunan sistem pertanian organik sudah tertata, para pemainnya sudah amat banyak di tanah air… tetapi pada sisi lain, sangat tidak memadai dalam kancah perdagangannya di dalam negri maupun keterlambatan melakukan harmonisasi politik dan sistem perdagangan internasional, dan juga penyadaran bagi masyarakat sebagai konsumen… Padahal tujuan akhirnya “… mewujudkan Indonesia sebagai salah satu produsen pangan organik utama di dunia mulai 2010…” Astaga… rekognisi dan akuntabilitas Go Organic 2010 di mata Negara amat rendah. Padahal, angin buritan sudah pernah berhembus – yaitu kesepakatan antara wakil rakyat (DPR) dan pemerintah, agar subsidi pupuk organik menjadi disain akbar (“grand design”) dalam pola subsidi pupuk pada APBN. Kenyataannya kesepakatan itu berlalu begitu saja. Padahal jika “grand design” terlaksana maka ini akan bermanfaat untuk (bayangkan) membalikkan pembangunan pertanian nasional yang semula berbasiskan kimia menjadi pertanian organik... Tetapi… Apa mau dikata... moment itu telah sirna. Kini, Indonesia bagaikan skala kecil dari model gerakan pertanian organik negara Kuba, dan amat lamban gerak transformasinya. “… mewujudkan Indonesia sebagai salah satu produsen pangan organik utama di dunia mulai 2010…” GO Organic 2010 sampai di mana? Realitas Jauh di bawah Target Melambung Riza V. Tjahjadi Biotani Bahari Indonesia 30
  31. 31. Go organic 2010 bak mantra, dikenal luas oleh masyarakat pegiat pertanian organik di tanah air, dan dikutip sebagai rujukan utama bagi komunitas bloggers atau netters di berbagai situs, begitu juga dalam berbagai wacana di media massa. Hanya saja jika simak lebih teliti, ternyata amat langka yang menuliskan dengan cermat yaitu kata Go Organic 2010 berikut serta dengan visinya. Go Organic 2010 “… mewujudkan Indonesia sebagai salah satu produsen pangan organik utama di dunia mulai 2010…” (...) “...pengembangan pertanian organik akan berujung pada peningkatan ketahanan pangan dan kesejahteraan secara berkelanjutan...” Sumber: Otoritas Kompeten Pangan Organik. Lembar Informasi. Halaman belakang. Sekretariat OKPO Direktorat Mutu dan Standarisasi Ditjen PPHP... dst. Tanpa tahun. Dalam perspektif komunikasi sosial Go Organic 2010 bukan lagi dipandang sebagai program “pemerintah”, melainkan dapat disebut sebagai pemasaran sosial - yang dipandang sebagai cukup berhasil dipahami dan diadopsi - dari departemen (kini kementerian) pertanian kepada masyarakat pertanian di Indonesia. GO Organic 2010 sampai di mana? Ini pertanyaan pokok ketiga kalinya saya ajukan... Pertanyaan pokok pertama dan kedua kalimatnya persis sama, yaitu nyaris 6 tahun silam (24 November 2004, dan pada tanggal 25 Agustus 2010) – yang saya tujukan kepada pengelolanya. Pengajuan pertama kali tentang pertanyaan itu tidak terjawab. Ini bertolak belakang ketika sederet pertanyaan yang lebih teknis saya ajukan satu hari sebelumnya. Adapun yang kedua kalinya (25 Agustus lalu lewat imil lagi) saya bertanya kepada dua aktor lama (2001-2006) tetapi gayungpun tak bersambut. Hingga pada hari ini tak ada tanggapan (terkecuali jika saya sowan ke sono?) Kini pertanyaan pokok tersebut – untuk ketiga kalinya - saya ulas dengan menggunakan paradigma yaitu melihat kepada masalah pada pemerintah itu sendiri, seraya mengusung pandangan, bahwa promosi Go organic 2010 adalah upaya menyeburkannya diri pemerintah ke dalam arus yang sudah terlebih dahulu berkembang di masyarakat pertanian organik mereka bergerak dengan pola “NGOs’driven” ataupun “auto-driven farmers’ communities” dalam kiprah sebagai gerakan pertanian organik. Cara pandang ini lebih berfokus kepada siapa dan bagaimana Go Organic 2010 itu digerakkan oleh pemerintah menuju kepada suatu wujud atau realitas cita-citanya pada tahun 2010. Go Organic 2010 sampai di mana? “… mewujudkan Indonesia sebagai salah satu produsen pangan organik utama di dunia mulai 2010…” Kalimat tanya lainnya, sudah adakah buktibukti yang signifikan, bahwa Indonesia statusnya sudah menjadi “salah satu produsen pangan organik utama di dunia mulai 2010…”? Kenyataannya saat imi ternyata sudah ada kembarannya, yaitu Go Organic tetapi tanpa disertai embel-embel tahun, sebagaimana yang terpampang dalam situs Direktorat Jenderal Pengolahan dan Pemasaran Hasil Pertanian. Selain itu Go Organic 2010, sudah pula direvisi 31
  32. 32. dengan cerdas oleh Maporina dalam Workshop dan Kongres II Maporina pada 21 Desember 2005, yaitu bertema Menghantarkan Indonesia Menjadi Produsen Organik Terkemuka (Biotama 2007, maporina). Tetapi slogan Go Organic 2010 yang lebih mudah diingat oleh khalayak masyarakat pegiat pertanian organik. Go Organic 2010 “… mewujudkan Indonesia sebagai salah satu produsen pangan organik utama di dunia mulai 2010…” Kalimat itu sungguh membuat kita gembira, tetapi bagi yang kritis akan sekaligus terpana terheran-heran memaksa kita mengernyitkan kening, manakala kita simak pentahapan realisasi GO Organic 2010. Tahapan akhir (2006-2010) adalah industrialisasi dan perdagangan. Bagi yang kritis tentu akan berkomentar, bahwa pemahaman publik bisa jadi tersesat atau menciptakan kerancuan pemahaman. Dengan nyemplungkan diri seraya membangun pranata dasar, Kementerian Pertanian tancap gas ... dari era transisi eforia bertani bebas paska tumbangnya rejim Soeharto (1998-2001), lalu, mulai berangan-angan menetapkan target, bahwa pertanian organik di Indonesia akan menghantar Indonesia menjadi salah satu produsen dan eksportir utama pangan organik dunia, yaitu hanya dengan memerlukan waktu kurang dari 10 tahun (dari tahun 2001 ke tahun 2010; lihat poster: Go Organic 2010, Fertilisers development within…). Karena sejauh yang saya amati dan pahami terhadap kalangan pengembang pertanian organik (proponents of organic farming) di dunia ini tidak ada yang mau menyandingkan kata-kata: “industrialisasi dan perdagangan”, dengan kata-kata “pertanian organik” ke dalam satu kalimat dalam satu tarikan nafas yang kontradiktif . Yang ada justru malah mempertentangkannya sebagaimana yang selalu diucapkan oleh kalangan penganjur pertanian konvensional - yang mengandalkan asupan luar yang tinggi dan canggih (sophisticated) - dan juga para analis kebijakan publik. Yang mempertentangkan hal itu merumuskannya kedalam pertanyaan: “Dapatkah pertanian organik memberi makan dunia?” Itu judul dan masalah pokok yang selalu menjadi perhatian serius – di antaranya Nourman Bourlag (alm), Robert Paarlberg, Foreign Policy Magazine (2010), tetapi Brian Halweil (Worldwatch Institute, 2006, debat publik: Can Organic Farming Feed Us All?), dan para pendebat lainnya, contohnya Anna Lappé (2010; see also: Global Food Security, May 2010: Industrial vs. Organic Farming) justru mengatakan, ”Yes..!”. Yang jelas jawaban ”Yes..!” itu berpangkal kepada (…) was the genesis of a multi-year, multidisciplinary study to explore whether we could, indeed, feed the world with organic, sustainable methods of farming. Kontras yang dirumuskan ke dalam pertanyaan tersebut memang sengaja saya letakkan di sini, karena visi Go Organic itu dimaksudkan bahwa Indonesia akan berperan sangat besar dalam perdagangan pangan organik dunia. Berapakah besarnya pasokan produk pertanian organik Indonesia ke dalam perdagangan pangan organik dunia? Atau yang pada tataran nasional saja, akan seberapa besarkah (persentase, atau kuantitatif jumlah) pasokan produsen pangan organik terhadap pangan nasional? Sebagai perbandingan, di Amerika Serikat baru pada tahun 2005 pertanian organik yang mencakup sekitar 50 negara bagian yang disertifikasi. Tetapi pasokannya? Today there are more than 10,000 certified organic farmers who produce 2 percent of the U.S. food supply (Maria Colenso, How Organic Farming Works, nd). 32
  33. 33. Dalam konteks pemahaman publik di Indonesia, industrialisasi seperti apakah yang sebenarnya ditargetkan oleh Kementerian Pertanian? Apakah dengan cita-cita Kementerian Pertanian, dengan target “industrialisasi pertanian organik” akan mudah maknanya dipahami oleh publik? Apakah, dengan target seperti itu secara khusus berguna dalam penyusunan anggaran belanja (annual budgetting) untuk realisasi ”program” Go Organic 2010? Bagi saya, visinya itu suatu kerancuan. Dalam bahasa awam, saya sekali lagi malah bertanya, apakah pertanian organik memerlukan (istilah) industrialisasi? Berandai-andai… pangan organik menjadi primadona di mata konsumen bukan karena semata-mata produksinya melimpah dan sangat terjangkau harganya, tetapi karena posisi kualitasnya yang strategis sebagai pangan yang…(anda dapat menambahkan dengan kalimat anda sendiri)… bagi kesehatan manusia…dst. Atau dalam kalimat petani yang melakukan budidaya tanaman secara organik, semestinya akan selalu mudah berujar: “Waaah, sekarang ini buah masih di pohon saja sudah banyak orang rebutan yang mau membeli…” dst. Dua ilustrasi itu mungkin dapat dimaknai luas dan dapat lebih luas lagi dipakai sebagai pintu ke jalan menuju arah penyusunan suatu visi dan strategi pembangunan pertanian organik di Indonesia tanpa embel-embel kata “industrialisasi”. Kalimat ringkasnya: pangan organik dalam artian “Food from factories” ataukah pangan organik yang benar-benar “Food from farm”? Manakah yang dimaksud oleh Go Organic 2010? Tidak jelas, bukan, dengan apa yang diinginkan oleh departemen pertanian dalam slogan Go Organic 2010? Ataukah keduanya sekaligus? Berandai-andai lagi… Ekspor pangan organik? Sebagian realitas, ternyata masih mengandalkan lagi model VOC alias ekpor bahan mentah seperti jaman kolonial? Model ini, ternyata, masih berlangsung (Tjahjadi 2009). Ekspor pangan organik mengekor saja kepada “abang kandungnya tapi beda ibu”, yaitu ekspor komoditas hasil bumi semata-mata tanpa olah (raw materials)... Padahal ekspor hasil bumi pertanian konvensional saja sudah dikritik oleh Prof. Mochammad Maksum (2010). Tujuan ekspor? Masuk ke wilayah perdagangan ke Utara dengan rasa bangga? Mungkinkah model VOC ini akan memberikan siginifikansi terhadap neraca perdagangan Indonesia dan Uni Eropa, atau neraca perdagangan Indonesia dan Jepang? Lalu selayaknya juga dipertanyakan, apakah penggagas Go Organic 2010 sudah mengkalkulasi adanya persoalan etos “food miles" atau “Long trade routes” yang berkembang di Utara? Di sana sudah banyak kalangan masyarakat yang mengadopsi “food miles” sebagai pola anutan konsumsi pangan - yang sudah disebarkan oleh penganjur pangan organik kepada konsumen sejak tahun 2000-an (Lang, 2004: Food Wars: The Global Battle for Mouths). Atau, mari kita “cuekin” saja karena sudah muncul jawabannya bahwa ”food miles” dikatakan sebagai ”naïve method” oleh Capper et all (Demystifying The Environmental Sustainability of Food Production. Cornell Nutrition Conference, 2009). Sekadar pengingat, silahkan baca juga pernyataan Posisi Jaker PO (2009) (…) 6) Keharusan melindungi Keanekaragam Hayati dan Kesehatan Ekosistem Semua pangan yang sehat dan sistem-sistem pertanian adalah sepenuhnya bergantung kepada perlindungan terhadap dunia yang alami, dengan semua keberanekaragamannya. Kami memandang tak boleh adanya pertimbangan komersial dan perdagangan yang mengabaikan hal itu. Prinsip ini adalah mengindahkan kaidah menjaga jarak transportasi yang relatif 33
  34. 34. pendek bagi bahan pangan dari sumbernya hingga ke piring makan (distance of food travels from farm to our plate) guna memperkecil peluang tercemarnya bahan pangan bagi kesehatan manusia maupun penambahan polusi udara, serta pencemaran lainnya bagi lingkungan hidup (Jaker PO, 2009). Jarak yang relatif pendek pun memungkinkan terciptanya harga yang lebih terjangkau secara fisik dan ekonomis bagi konsumen setempat, dan lebih besarnya peluang pendaur-ulangan bahan pangan ke lahan budidaya ("From land to table...to land"). Realitasnya penggagas Go Organic 2010, memang bersikukuh bahwa tahapan akhir pada periode 2006-2010 adalah Industrialisasi dan Perdagangan (teh celup W mulai dijual 2oo9 , dan serbuk minuman jeruk organik N mulai dijual 2o1o di dua retailer shops; sudahkah meraup keuntungan?), maka jelas sebagai konsekuensinya dibutuhkan adanya motor penggerak secara massif. Yaitu Negara. Tetapi… astaga... (bandingkan dengan tahapan Go Organic 2010) Kepala pemerintahan, Presiden RI baru pada 30 Juli 2007 menyampaikan pernyataan politik yang mengakui pentingnya pertanian organik seraya mengoreksi revolusi hijau. Alasan utamanya, menurut pernyataan Presiden RI, untuk menghindari masa depan pasokan gas yang hilang bagi pemakaian lainnya, maka solusinya adalah menggantikan pupuk kimia dengan pupuk organik. Setahun berikutnya, barulah pertanian organik menjadi tanggungjawab Negara yang dicerminkan melalui APBN 2008 yang berlanjut pada RAPBN 2011. Dalam APBN kalimat substantifnya: pertanian organik sebagai pertanian yang erat terkait dengan lingkungan hidup. Dan... ini dia, alokasinya adalah subisidi pupuk organik, dan Alat Pembuat Pupuk Organik (APPO)/ rumah pengolah pupuk organik, serta bantuan ternak sapi. Alokasi anggaran yang terakhir ini (bantuan ternak sapi) berebut porsi: apakah semata-mata untuk kompos atau terlebih dahulu untuk kepentingan gas-hayati, alias biogas. (Sekadar pengingat, silahkan baca juga analisis saya pada beberapa posting sebelumnya di blogspot ini, dan perlu juga dibayangkan... pada tingkat rumah tangga petani dua kepentingan itu tampaknya akan sulit bersandingan serasi). Itulah uraian ulasan terhadap visi dan target Go Organic 2010 – yang materinya minim dan ringkas, sehingga, pada gilirannya amat terbuka kemungkinannya diinterpretasikan dari berbagai perspektif ataupun sudut pandang dengan berlapis-lapis pertanyaan. Gambaran umum (indikatif) dan sekilas soal-soal Pertanian organis, itu istilahnya pada masa trubus di tengah derasnya tekanan opresif Soeharto untuk berswasembada beras. Lalu istilah pada urutan berikutnya menjadi pertanian organik - yang berbaur kepada arus besarnya pemerintah cq Bappenas dengan dana (hibah) Belanda, Australia, dan soft loan Bank Dunia yaitu program sekolah lapang pengendalian hama terpadu (SLPHT). Dan pada masa kini pertanian organik adalah serupa tak sama dengan system rice intencificarion (SRI), dan berpadanan dengan arus besarnya Negara, yaitu sekolah lapang pengendalian tanaman terpadu (SLPTT) dan juga masih ber-SLPHT. Namun dua orang peneliti di kementerian pertanian memilah pertanian organik menjadi dua (2) kategori, yaitu pertanian organik absolute (POA), dan pertanian organik rasional (POR) - 34
  35. 35. keduanya sama-sama penting dan patut dikembangkan. Go Organic 2010 “… mewujudkan Indonesia sebagai salah satu produsen pangan organik utama di dunia mulai 2010…” (...) “...pengembangan pertanian organik akan berujung pada peningkatan ketahanan pangan dan kesejahteraan secara berkelanjutan...” Sumber: Otoritas Kompeten Pangan Organik. Lembar Informasi. Halaman belakang. Sekretariat OKPO Direktorat Mutu dan Standarisasi Ditjen PPHP... dst. Tanpa tahun. Unsur dan nilai-nilai yang terlihat dalam realisasi Go Organic 2010, ialah beberapa hal pokok, dan sekilas soal-soal. Yaitu: 1. Partisipatif terbatas SNI Penyusunan Standar Nasional Indonesia Pangan Organik (SNI PO) diorganisasikan oleh Pusat Standarisasi dan Akreditasi (PSA) pada tahun 2001-2002 – boleh dibilang sarat dengan muatan partisipasi dan appresiasi kalangan pegiat/pemerhati pertanian organik. Alasannya, jelas, SNI PO sama sekali tidak memperbolehkan adanya benih tanaman transgenik. Partisipasi ini berlanjut hingga ditetapkannya sebagai SNI Pangan Organik oleh menteri pertanian pada tahun 2002. SNI PO selesai tahun 2002, kemudian dibentuk Otoritas Kompeten Pertanian Organik (OKPO) pada tahun 2003. Partisipasi tercipta pula pada proses revisi SNI Pangan Organik 2002 terhitung pada sejak penghujung tahun 2004 – namun terkatung-katung selama hampir 6 tahun –akhirnya SNI PO versi final tersedia bagi publik pada tahun 2o1o ini. Dari sisi alur, tergambar alur penyusunan standar lebih dahulu, kemudian lembaga kompeten - SNI PO tahun 2002 - barulah kemudian membentuk kelembagaan dan kewenangannya, yaitu OKPO (SK Mentan tahun 2003 – yang banyak kalimatnya diketik dengan tidak teliti, dan kemudian ditransfromasikan melalui SK Mentan tahun 2005)... Anehkah? Salah satu faktor utama, ialah “ganti menteri, ganti prioritas”, sehingga terasakan situasi internal OKPO di deptan yang tak menentu selama berbulan-bulan, yang pada gilirannya menimbulkan dampak utama, yaitu perlambatan proses tahapan realisasi Go organic 2010. Diduga dampak lainnya, ialah pengorbanan waktu, hilangnya kesempatan, maupun kerugian biaya bagi para pihak yang terkait dengan kewenangan OKPO. Sejauh ini, memang, iklim belajar lebih kuat dan meluas dalam arena pertanian organik, sehingga tak terdengar adanya suatu somasi atau gugatan secara hukum dari kalangan pegiat pertanian organik soal pengorbanan ataupun kerugian dari keadaan status quo itu. Namun pada sisi lain Go Organic 2010 yang telah membahana gaung slogannnya menjadi faktor pemicu menjamurnya kreativitas pada pemangku kepentingan, maupun di kalangan pengembang pertanian organik – di antaranya bermunculan istilah SRI (system rice intencification) sebagai padanan dengan pertanian organik untuk tanaman padi. 35