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Stakeholder mapping and engagement: Bringing together stakeholders for robust wetland management


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Presentation made during a 4 day training session organized by Center for Science and Environment on Urban Wetlands Management - Towards Water and Environment Sustainability

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Stakeholder mapping and engagement: Bringing together stakeholders for robust wetland management

  1. 1. Stakeholder Mapping And Engagement Strategies Experiences from Bengaluru Biome Environmental Solutions 1
  2. 2. Bengaluru: A city of Tanks Biome Environmental Solutions 2 Bangalore, 1924, Murray’s Handbook 1924
  3. 3. Bengaluru’s tanks (lakes) – a historical perspective • Most of Bangalore’s lakes are actually irrigation tanks, built over the course of many centuries, starting with the Gangas, the Cholas and the Hoysalas who built tanks with high bunds to store water. • In the 16th Century, Kempegowda built tanks and irrigation wells as well. Traditionally interlinked through a chain or cascade system, this ensured water was not wasted. • The Hoysalas, Vijaynagara, Marathas, Tipu Sultan, Haider Ali, Wodeyars have all been patrons of lakes and tanks. Biome Environmental Solutions 3
  4. 4. Earlier Uses, values and users/stakeholders • Communities were largely agrarian and communities clustered around lakes. • Lakes had environmental uses, they were critical to flood control management, and stored water. They were not always perennial. • Lakes recharged groundwater • This was accessed through wells and then used for drinking and domestic purposes such as washing (both domestic and cattle) • Of course, most importantly, it had economic uses as well, farmers used the water as irrigation, the silt as manure, shepherds used the grass for grazing, dhobis washed clothes, fishermen fished in the lakes Biome Environmental Solutions 4
  5. 5. Who managed and owned these lakes? Farmers, Fishermen, Grazers Community Community and Village Elders NeerugantiRulers Biome Environmental Solutions 5 Patronage Ensured tanks were maintained Control management distribution of water to village or community tank Joint decision making on water use Active participation in maintenance: cleaning, desilting… Used lakes for economic use
  6. 6. What happens to lakes over time Community Disconnect is what kills The lake Biome Environmental Solutions 6
  7. 7. This is Bellandur Lake: A changing Catchment • In 1973, you can see that lakes were well connected, with clear areas of vegetation growing along the networks that linked them (highlighted in red) • By 1992, as the city grew, these lake networks began shrinking and became increasingly fragmented • By 2000, the entire catchment has been transformed by the urban spread • Think of the disappearing water bodies, vegetation across drainage links and drainage itself • LAKES THEMSELVES GET ENCROACHED AND DISAPPEAR • Source: Biome Environmental Solutions 7
  8. 8. Biome Environmental Solutions 8 And this is what happens to drainage Flood plain encroachment Solid waste dumping-Reduced culvert capacity, inlet block Source:
  9. 9. Biome Environmental Solutions 9 Untreated waste water & solid wastes flow into the lakes
  10. 10. Impact • Lost livelihoods: people dependent on these lakes forced out • Lost resource: Loss of the source of water for drinking, domestic, economic, environmental uses • Lost space: the community’s access to the lake diminishes • A Disconnect: the Community disengages from the lake Biome Environmental Solutions 10
  11. 11. THE LAKE AS A LIABILITYSource: Source: The Hindu The cascading effect: “The pollution in Varthur lake is bound to have a cascading effect, contaminating groundwater and the Dakshin Pinakini downstream, which it finally flows into…” Prof TV Ramachandra Source: Biome Environmental Solutions 11
  12. 12. Biome Environmental Solutions 12 Source: R. Viswanathan 2012
  13. 13. Re-imagining urban lakes Pathways to restoration Biome Environmental Solutions 13
  14. 14. Initiating urban lakes management in Bengaluru Biome Environmental Solutions 14 1980s • Bangalore Bird Watcher’s club • Bird habitat survey- lake and wetlands 1985 • Bangalore Development Authority (BDA) submits comprehensive development plan (CDP) for the city • Suggests conversion of some tanks into regional parks 1985 • Mr. Lakshman Rau Committee set up • To examine all drawbacks and problems relating to existing tanks • Remove encroachments, address pollution, plantation activity, setting up of implementing agency 1995 • Writ Petition: Against indiscriminate land grant and unauthorized occupation of tank bed areas
  15. 15. Biome Environmental Solutions 15 2002 • Formation of Lake Development Authority (LDA) (First in India) 2004 • Environment Support Group (ESG) and others file Public Interest Litigation (PIL) in High Court • To implement Lakshman Rau Committee recommendations 2007 • ESG files PIL against LDA to prevent privatization of lakes 2010 • Justice N K Patil Committee to suggest measures for lake preservation and restoration • BBMP to plan for restoration, BWSSB for treating and managing sewage, KSPCB for water quality checks and creation of lake data base 2010 onwards • Namma Bengaluru Foundation- Bellandur and Varthur PILs • National Green Tribunal (NGT) to intervene
  16. 16. Partnerships and Participation 1. Informal Citizen Groups: People staying in neighborhood apartments 2. Formal Citizen Groups: Neighborhood residents (traditional users as well as urban dwellers) 3. MoU with BBMP (formally elected body) 4. BBMP responsible for civil and infrastructure 5. Citizens as watch n’ ward 6. Monies raised through donations Responses by Institutions of Governance: ‘Lake Wardens’ set up by G.O. FEE 99 ENV 2016 Watchdog Committees under Karnataka State Pollution Control Board (KSPCB) Biome Environmental Solutions 16
  17. 17. A Sustainable Solution (?) – working together with Traditional, Urban and Government Farmers, Fishermen, Grazers CommunityCommunityBBMPCSR? Biome Environmental Solutions 17 New era patronage along with formal custodians ? Formal custodians Joint decision making on water use Active participation in maintenance: cleaning, desilting… Use lakes for economic use
  18. 18. Experiences from 3 Bangalore lake groups Biome Environmental Solutions 18
  19. 19. Jalaposhan: Jakkur Lake Location: NE Bangalore Water spread: 160 acres Sewage treatment plant- 10 MLD, located upstream of the lake The treated water from the STP flows over a wetland of 7 acre before entering this 50 ha lake. Biome Environmental Solutions 19
  20. 20. Waste water management: Jakkur Lake Biome Environmental Solutions 20
  21. 21. Comparison of water quality from inflow to outflow into the lake Biome Environmental Solutions 21 Study by Prof. T V Ramachandra of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore
  22. 22. Stakeholders and responsibilities Biome Environmental Solutions 22 Actors/Stakeholders Responsibilities BDA Rejuvenation BWSSB Maintaining Sewage treatment plant and ensuring good water entering the wetland NGOs, Consultants Connecting, pushing the agenda higher up, technical understanding Fisherman Fishing, removing water hyacinth, monitoring water quality Farmers Sludge from the STP used as manure Grass cutter Cutting wetland plants, maintaining wetland Self help group women Maintaining clean lake surrounding KSPCB Monitors the water quality Academic Institutions- IISc, ATREE Collect data, analyze and share the results with larger community for improvements Funders Provision of Funds Jalaposhan Watch n’ ward, institutional follow ups, fundraising activities and events, lake vision
  23. 23. PNLIT: Puttenahalli Lake • Location: S Bangalore (JP Nagar 7th Phase) • Water spread: 13 acres 25 guntas, with a perimeter of 1.1km • Managed by Puttenahalli Neighborhood Lake Improvement Trust (PNLIT) • Has a Walking Track, Gazebo, Toilets, Rainwater Harvesting, Cycle Stands, Benches Biome Environmental Solutions 23
  24. 24. PNLIT and engagement with BBMP • Engaging with government institutions through active citizen participation to enable the sustainability of this lake- From small informal movement of save our lake to get included into BBMP list of to be rejuvenated lakes • August 2009- Fencing of the boundary, 2010- actual rejuvenation of lake started • Formal group: with focus on not only lake but the vicinity of the lake in June 2010 • BBMP handed over maintenance in May 2011 to Puttenahalli Neighbourhood Lake Improvement Trust (PNLIT) • First lake in the city to sign an MoU with BBMP • PNLIT signed an MoU with KSPCB and BBMP to use treated water from a nearby apartment – the first of its kind in Bangalore • Floating wetlands- ~70 Biome Environmental Solutions 24
  25. 25. MAPSAS: Kaikondrahalli Lake • Location: SE Bangalore • Water spread: 48 acres • Managed by Mahadevpura Parisara Samrakshane Mattu Abhivrudhi Samiti (MAPSAS) • Lake Development Plan collaboratively produced by MAPSAS and BBMP. MoU with BBMP • MAPSAS looks after Kaikondrahalli Lake Chain and Ambalipura Lake chain • Has a Walkway, Gazebo, play space for children Biome Environmental Solutions 25
  26. 26. Stakeholders and responsibilities Biome Environmental Solutions 26 Actors/Stakeholders Responsibilities/stake Revenue Department Boundary decision, remove encroachments BDA Rejuvenation BWSSB No BWSSB MAPSAS Watch n’ ward, institutional follow ups, fund raising activities and events Fisherman Fishing, removing water hyacinth, monitoring water quality Government School Monitors the lake, benefits from the lake, environment education Grass cutter Cutting wetland plants, maintaining wetland Funders-individuals, CSRs Provision of funds
  27. 27. All these lake groups have WOMEN leaders!! Biome Environmental Solutions 27
  28. 28. Ask Fundamental questions • What does the lake and wetland mean to the community? • What are the things we know and what don’t we know? • Who are the experts we could engage with to get relevant information and help? • How do we formulate the best possible solution for our lake’s rejuvenation? Biome Environmental Solutions 28
  29. 29. Engaging with the lakes and wetlands in urban context • For Community uses: as urban communities, we use lakes for recreation (walking, boating…) • For Environmental uses: lakes lower ambient temperature, are still important for groundwater recharge, for biodiversity conservation, for treating wastewater and maintaining water quality, Lakes are still critical for flood control and storage • For Livelihood uses can lakes reclaim their value for dhobis, grazers or grass cutters, fishermen, gardeners, as sources of silt and manure…? Or for creating new uses like reed craft making There will be trade-offs and conflicting interests of stakeholders!!! Biome Environmental Solutions 29
  30. 30. Ensure we work together • The lake is a public resource, it belongs to all of us. • The lake has both traditional and urban stakeholders as well as many institutions working on lake issues. • Unless we work together and take into accounts all points of view, there will be a lack of accountability, no monitoring, inequitable sharing • And the lake will become a liability. Biome Environmental Solutions 30
  31. 31. Thank you Reclaim your lake! Biome Environmental Solutions 31