Macromolecules

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Macromolecules

  1. 1. Macromolecules <br />Unit 1<br />Chapter 1<br />4<br />
  2. 2. 4 macromolecules we’re learning about:carbohydrates (CHOs), lipids, proteins & nucleic acids (DNA & RNA)<br />All of these are made from repeating subunits<br />
  3. 3. Anabolism vs. Catabolism<br />All subunits of macromolecules are assembled by dehydration synthesis or condensation reactions. Since molecules are being assembled, this reaction type is anabolic<br />Catabolic reactions are those that break larger molecules into smaller ones. E.g.. Hydrolysis<br />Side note!<br />Isomers: molecules with the same chemical formula but with a different arrangement of atoms. E.g. glucose & galactose<br />
  4. 4. Carbohydrates (CHOs)<br />Ratio C:H:O 1:2:1 , usually shaped in a ring (or rings)<br />Monosaccharides (simple sugars)- a single ring. Egs. Glucose (blood sugar), fructose (in fruits, veggis and honey)<br />Polysaccharides (complex sugars)- more than one monosaccharides attached together. Egs. Glycogen (storage form of glucose in muscles and liver), starch (storage form in plants), chitin (structure in anthropods), cellulose (structure in plants), sucrose (table sugar- made of glucose and fructose)<br />
  5. 5. Lipids<br />Made of C, H and O but not with the ratio 1:2:1, not soluble in water, not rings. Egs. triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol<br />Saturated- singles bonds, saturated with Hs, (no room for more Hs), solid at room temp., found mostly in animals, bad for health <br />Unsaturated- double bonds, spaces, liquid at room temp., from plants<br />Triglycerides (fats) are made of <br /> glycerol and 3 fatty acids<br />
  6. 6. Protein<br />made of amino acids- 20<br /> different ones. 8 are not coded for by<br /> DNA and are therefore essential<br />Includes keratin (hair & nails), collogen (bones, skin), hemoglobin (blood transport), fibrin (for blood clotting), immunoglobulins (antibodies- fight infections), enzymes (catalysts for chemical reactions) & more!<br />Shape determines the function (continue next page)<br />
  7. 7. Protein Structures<br />
  8. 8. YAY that`s the end of the notetesting time!<br />
  9. 9. Polysaccharide<br />Monosaccharide<br />Lipid<br />Glycerol<br />Saturated<br />Unsaturated<br />Polar<br />Ether <br />Disaccharide<br />CHO<br />Amino acid<br />Carboxyl <br />

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