Chapter 8 NotesChapter 8 Notes
Cellular Transportation And TheCellular Transportation And The
Cell CycleCell Cycle
Cell TransportationCell Transportation::
2 main types2 main types
1.1. Passive transportPassive transport:: Does notDoes n...
Cellular TransportationCellular Transportation
Type 2Type 2
 22.. Active TransportActive Transport:: Requires energyRequi...
Passive TransportPassive Transport
(No energy required)(No energy required)
3-Types3-Types
11stst
Type Passive TransportType Passive Transport
 Simple DiffusionSimple Diffusion : Movement of any: Movement of any
...
22ndnd
Type Passive TransportType Passive Transport
 Osmosis:Osmosis: Movement ofMovement of waterwater fromfrom
areas of...
33rdrd
Type Passive TransportType Passive Transport
 Facilitated diffusionFacilitated diffusion: Movement of: Movement of...
2-Types of Active Transport2-Types of Active Transport
(Energy Required)(Energy Required)
11.. ExocytosisExocytosis: The e...
PhagocytosisPhagocytosis
 Animation:Animation: PhagocytosisPhagocytosis
Solute vs SolventSolute vs Solvent
 SoluteSolute: The dissolved substance in a: The dissolved substance in a
liquid.liqui...
Types of solutionsTypes of solutions
Isotonic solutionIsotonic solution
 Concentrations ofConcentrations of
solute are eq...
Hyp-O-tonic solutionHyp-O-tonic solution
(Hyp-Ohh no I’m swelling-tonic)(Hyp-Ohh no I’m swelling-tonic)
 HypHypOOtonicton...
Hypertonic SolutionHypertonic Solution
 Concentrations ofConcentrations of
solute are lower in thesolute are lower in the...
Limits to cell sizeLimits to cell size
 A cells size is limited, so organisms growA cells size is limited, so organisms g...
So… Why Can’t cells just growSo… Why Can’t cells just grow
larger???larger???
Three factors that limit the growthThree factors that limit the growth
of cellsof cells
 1. Diffusion across cell surface...
DiffusionDiffusion
 Diffusion is efficient over short distances,Diffusion is efficient over short distances,
but becomes ...
DNADNA
 A cell cannot survive without sufficientA cell cannot survive without sufficient
amounts of DNA to make necessary...
Surface Area to Volume RatioSurface Area to Volume Ratio
 As a cell’s size increases, its volume increasesAs a cell’s siz...
Cell ReproductionCell Reproduction
 MitosisMitosis: Asexual reproduction (Cell Cycle): Asexual reproduction (Cell Cycle)
...
The Dreaded “The Dreaded “CC” Words!” Words!
 ChromatinChromatin
 ChromosomesChromosomes
 ChromatidChromatid
 Centrome...
ChromatinChromatin
 Relaxed DNA.Relaxed DNA.
ChromosomesChromosomes
 Condensed DNA.Condensed DNA.
 DNA that is preparingDNA that is preparing
to undergo cellularto u...
Chromatids and CentromeresChromatids and Centromeres
 Sister Chromatids: Halves of a duplicatedSister Chromatids: Halves ...
Chromatin and ChromosomeChromatin and Chromosome
Centrioles- Produce the spindleCentrioles- Produce the spindle
and aid in replicationand aid in replication
The Cell CycleThe Cell Cycle
 The process ofThe process of asexuaasexual reproductionl reproduction
(mitosis) of the cell...
The Cell CycleThe Cell Cycle
Part One of the Cell CyclePart One of the Cell Cycle
InterphaseInterphase
 The cell spends the majority of its life inThe...
InterphaseInterphase
3-Parts3-Parts
 G-1G-1: Maturation.: Maturation.
 S-PhaseS-Phase: DNA replicates - makes a: DNA rep...
MitosisMitosis
 Division of theDivision of the nucleusnucleus
 4-phases4-phases
PProphaserophase
MMetaphaseetaphase
A...
Parts of MitosisParts of Mitosis
ProphaseProphase
 The chromatinThe chromatin
condense to formcondense to form
visible ch...
Parts of Mitosis Cont…Parts of Mitosis Cont…
MetaphaseMetaphase
 Centrioles haveCentrioles have
moved to oppositemoved to...
Parts of Mitosis Cont…Parts of Mitosis Cont…
AnaphaseAnaphase
 The centromeres splitThe centromeres split
and the spindle...
Parts of Mitosis Cont…Parts of Mitosis Cont…
TelophaseTelophase
 The chromosomesThe chromosomes
move to oppositemove to o...
CytokinesisCytokinesis
 Division of theDivision of the
cytoplasmcytoplasm
 Begins to occurBegins to occur
during telopha...
Cytokinesis Cont…Cytokinesis Cont…
 Animal cellsAnimal cells: the plasma membrane: the plasma membrane
pinches in to form...
Mitosis animationMitosis animation
Control of the Cell CycleControl of the Cell Cycle
 The cell cycle is controlled by proteins andThe cell cycle is control...
CancerCancer
 Uncontrolled cell growth resulting inUncontrolled cell growth resulting in
tumorstumors
 Metastasis:Metast...
Causes of CancerCauses of Cancer
 Environmental factors that damage genes.Environmental factors that damage genes.
Ex: C...
Chapter 8 notes bio
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Chapter 8 notes bio

  1. 1. Chapter 8 NotesChapter 8 Notes Cellular Transportation And TheCellular Transportation And The Cell CycleCell Cycle
  2. 2. Cell TransportationCell Transportation:: 2 main types2 main types 1.1. Passive transportPassive transport:: Does notDoes not requirerequire energy from the cellenergy from the cell Moves downhill,Moves downhill, withwith the concentrationthe concentration gradientgradient
  3. 3. Cellular TransportationCellular Transportation Type 2Type 2  22.. Active TransportActive Transport:: Requires energyRequires energy toto occur.occur. Moves uphill,Moves uphill, againstagainst the concentrationthe concentration gradient.gradient.
  4. 4. Passive TransportPassive Transport (No energy required)(No energy required) 3-Types3-Types
  5. 5. 11stst Type Passive TransportType Passive Transport  Simple DiffusionSimple Diffusion : Movement of any: Movement of any substance from areas ofsubstance from areas of higher to lowerhigher to lower concentrationsconcentrations  diffusion animationdiffusion animation
  6. 6. 22ndnd Type Passive TransportType Passive Transport  Osmosis:Osmosis: Movement ofMovement of waterwater fromfrom areas ofareas of higher to lowerhigher to lower concentrationsconcentrations
  7. 7. 33rdrd Type Passive TransportType Passive Transport  Facilitated diffusionFacilitated diffusion: Movement of: Movement of substances fromsubstances from higher to lowerhigher to lower concentration with help from a proteinconcentration with help from a protein moleculemolecule Animation: How Facilitated Diffusion WorksAnimation: How Facilitated Diffusion Works
  8. 8. 2-Types of Active Transport2-Types of Active Transport (Energy Required)(Energy Required) 11.. ExocytosisExocytosis: The expulsion of particles: The expulsion of particles from the cell.from the cell. 2.2. EndocytosisEndocytosis: surrounding and engulfing: surrounding and engulfing particles.particles. PinocytosisPinocytosis: Cell drinking – the: Cell drinking – the cell takes in liquids.cell takes in liquids. PhagocytosisPhagocytosis: Surrounding and: Surrounding and taking in of large particles.taking in of large particles.
  9. 9. PhagocytosisPhagocytosis  Animation:Animation: PhagocytosisPhagocytosis
  10. 10. Solute vs SolventSolute vs Solvent  SoluteSolute: The dissolved substance in a: The dissolved substance in a liquid.liquid.  SolventSolvent: The liquid that the solute is: The liquid that the solute is dissolved in: Usually waterdissolved in: Usually water
  11. 11. Types of solutionsTypes of solutions Isotonic solutionIsotonic solution  Concentrations ofConcentrations of solute are equal in thesolute are equal in the cell and the solution.cell and the solution. (cell=solution)(cell=solution)  Water moves backWater moves back and forth at the sameand forth at the same rate.rate.  Water in =Water OutWater in =Water Out
  12. 12. Hyp-O-tonic solutionHyp-O-tonic solution (Hyp-Ohh no I’m swelling-tonic)(Hyp-Ohh no I’m swelling-tonic)  HypHypOOtonictonic: Concentrations of solute are: Concentrations of solute are higher in the cell than in the solutionhigher in the cell than in the solution (cell-higher, solution-lower)(cell-higher, solution-lower)  Water moves into the cell.Water moves into the cell.  The cellThe cell swellsswells and can burst.and can burst.
  13. 13. Hypertonic SolutionHypertonic Solution  Concentrations ofConcentrations of solute are lower in thesolute are lower in the cell than in thecell than in the solution (cell-lower,solution (cell-lower, solution-higher)solution-higher)  Water moves out ofWater moves out of the cellthe cell..  The cellThe cell shrinksshrinks..
  14. 14. Limits to cell sizeLimits to cell size  A cells size is limited, so organisms growA cells size is limited, so organisms grow by cellular division.by cellular division.  The cells of a baby are the same size asThe cells of a baby are the same size as the cells of an adult.the cells of an adult.
  15. 15. So… Why Can’t cells just growSo… Why Can’t cells just grow larger???larger???
  16. 16. Three factors that limit the growthThree factors that limit the growth of cellsof cells  1. Diffusion across cell surface.1. Diffusion across cell surface.  2. Shortage of DNA.2. Shortage of DNA.  3. Surface to volume ratio.3. Surface to volume ratio.
  17. 17. DiffusionDiffusion  Diffusion is efficient over short distances,Diffusion is efficient over short distances, but becomes inefficient and slow overbut becomes inefficient and slow over large distances.large distances.  So…cells that are large have a moreSo…cells that are large have a more difficult time getting nutrients into the celldifficult time getting nutrients into the cell and waste products out of the cell.and waste products out of the cell.
  18. 18. DNADNA  A cell cannot survive without sufficientA cell cannot survive without sufficient amounts of DNA to make necessaryamounts of DNA to make necessary proteinsproteins  Unusually large cells must have multipleUnusually large cells must have multiple nuclei in order to supply needed DNAnuclei in order to supply needed DNA
  19. 19. Surface Area to Volume RatioSurface Area to Volume Ratio  As a cell’s size increases, its volume increasesAs a cell’s size increases, its volume increases faster than its surface areafaster than its surface area
  20. 20. Cell ReproductionCell Reproduction  MitosisMitosis: Asexual reproduction (Cell Cycle): Asexual reproduction (Cell Cycle)  The process by which one cell divides intoThe process by which one cell divides into two cells, both identical to the originaltwo cells, both identical to the original parent cellparent cell
  21. 21. The Dreaded “The Dreaded “CC” Words!” Words!  ChromatinChromatin  ChromosomesChromosomes  ChromatidChromatid  CentromeresCentromeres  CentiolesCentioles
  22. 22. ChromatinChromatin  Relaxed DNA.Relaxed DNA.
  23. 23. ChromosomesChromosomes  Condensed DNA.Condensed DNA.  DNA that is preparingDNA that is preparing to undergo cellularto undergo cellular divisiondivision  Can now be seen withCan now be seen with a microscope.a microscope.
  24. 24. Chromatids and CentromeresChromatids and Centromeres  Sister Chromatids: Halves of a duplicatedSister Chromatids: Halves of a duplicated parent chromosome.parent chromosome.  Centromeres: The structure that joins twoCentromeres: The structure that joins two sister chromatids.sister chromatids.
  25. 25. Chromatin and ChromosomeChromatin and Chromosome
  26. 26. Centrioles- Produce the spindleCentrioles- Produce the spindle and aid in replicationand aid in replication
  27. 27. The Cell CycleThe Cell Cycle  The process ofThe process of asexuaasexual reproductionl reproduction (mitosis) of the cell(mitosis) of the cell  ContainsContains threethree major partsmajor parts  1. Interphase 2. Mitosis 3. Cytokinesis1. Interphase 2. Mitosis 3. Cytokinesis
  28. 28. The Cell CycleThe Cell Cycle
  29. 29. Part One of the Cell CyclePart One of the Cell Cycle InterphaseInterphase  The cell spends the majority of its life inThe cell spends the majority of its life in interphase.interphase.  A time in which the cell is preparing forA time in which the cell is preparing for division.division.  Chromosomes appear as threadlike coilsChromosomes appear as threadlike coils (chromatin)(chromatin)
  30. 30. InterphaseInterphase 3-Parts3-Parts  G-1G-1: Maturation.: Maturation.  S-PhaseS-Phase: DNA replicates - makes a: DNA replicates - makes a duplicate copy of itself. (# doubles)duplicate copy of itself. (# doubles)  G-2G-2: Organelles replicate and final: Organelles replicate and final preparations for division.preparations for division.
  31. 31. MitosisMitosis  Division of theDivision of the nucleusnucleus  4-phases4-phases PProphaserophase MMetaphaseetaphase AAnaphasenaphase TTelophaseelophase PMATPMAT
  32. 32. Parts of MitosisParts of Mitosis ProphaseProphase  The chromatinThe chromatin condense to formcondense to form visible chromosomesvisible chromosomes  The nuclear envelopeThe nuclear envelope begins to dissolvebegins to dissolve  The centrioles divideThe centrioles divide andand beginbegin to move toto move to opposite sides of theopposite sides of the cellcell
  33. 33. Parts of Mitosis Cont…Parts of Mitosis Cont… MetaphaseMetaphase  Centrioles haveCentrioles have moved to oppositemoved to opposite sides of the cellsides of the cell  The spindle hasThe spindle has formedformed  Chromosomes areChromosomes are lined up in the middlelined up in the middle of the cell across theof the cell across the equatorequator
  34. 34. Parts of Mitosis Cont…Parts of Mitosis Cont… AnaphaseAnaphase  The centromeres splitThe centromeres split and the spindles pulland the spindles pull the sister chromatidsthe sister chromatids apart toward oppositeapart toward opposite sides of the cellsides of the cell
  35. 35. Parts of Mitosis Cont…Parts of Mitosis Cont… TelophaseTelophase  The chromosomesThe chromosomes move to oppositemove to opposite sides of the cell.sides of the cell.  The nuclear envelopeThe nuclear envelope begins to reformbegins to reform around each set ofaround each set of chromosomes atchromosomes at opposite sides of theopposite sides of the cell.cell.
  36. 36. CytokinesisCytokinesis  Division of theDivision of the cytoplasmcytoplasm  Begins to occurBegins to occur during telophaseduring telophase  Different in plants andDifferent in plants and animal cellsanimal cells
  37. 37. Cytokinesis Cont…Cytokinesis Cont…  Animal cellsAnimal cells: the plasma membrane: the plasma membrane pinches in to form two separate cellspinches in to form two separate cells  Plant cellsPlant cells: A rigid cell plate begins to form: A rigid cell plate begins to form between the two new cells, dividing thembetween the two new cells, dividing them and becoming a cell wall.and becoming a cell wall.
  38. 38. Mitosis animationMitosis animation
  39. 39. Control of the Cell CycleControl of the Cell Cycle  The cell cycle is controlled by proteins andThe cell cycle is controlled by proteins and enzymesenzymes  Contact with other cells causes cell to stopContact with other cells causes cell to stop dividing.dividing.  Cell stop dividing when they lose contactCell stop dividing when they lose contact with other cellswith other cells
  40. 40. CancerCancer  Uncontrolled cell growth resulting inUncontrolled cell growth resulting in tumorstumors  Metastasis:Metastasis: Cells break lose and travelCells break lose and travel through the circulatory system spreadingthrough the circulatory system spreading throughout the body.throughout the body.
  41. 41. Causes of CancerCauses of Cancer  Environmental factors that damage genes.Environmental factors that damage genes. Ex: Cigarette smoke, UV rays from the sun,Ex: Cigarette smoke, UV rays from the sun, air and water pollution, virusesair and water pollution, viruses

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