Chapter 7 Notes - Cells


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Cell structure and function

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Chapter 7 Notes - Cells

  1. 1. CHAPTER 7 NOTES Cells
  2. 2. Microscope Types <ul><li>Light Microscope </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning Electron microscope (SEM) </li></ul><ul><li>( Scans the surface of cell) </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission Electron microscopes (TEM) </li></ul><ul><li>(Scans insides of cell) </li></ul>
  3. 4. CELLS <ul><li>The basic building blocks of all living things </li></ul>
  4. 5. Cell Theory <ul><li>1. All living organisms are made of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are the basic unit of organization in living things </li></ul><ul><li>All cells come from pre-existing cells </li></ul>
  5. 6. Structures Common to all cells <ul><li>Plasma membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>DNA (genetic material) </li></ul>
  6. 7. 2-Types of Cells <ul><li>Prokaryotic cells: </li></ul><ul><li>( Pro = before, Karyo = nucleus) </li></ul><ul><li>Do not contain a membrane bound nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: bacteria </li></ul>
  7. 8. Prokaryotic Cell
  8. 9. 2. Eukaryotic cells (Eu = true, Karyo = nucleus) <ul><li>Contains a membrane bound nucleus and organelles. </li></ul><ul><li>Plant and animal cells </li></ul>
  9. 10. Why are membranes around the nucleus important??? <ul><li>The Separation allows more chemical reactions, leading to more complexity. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Eukaryotic Cell
  11. 12. Cellular Organelles <ul><li>Small membrane bound structures located within the cell that carry on specialized functions. </li></ul><ul><li>(Just like we have organs within our bodies that carry out specialized functions) </li></ul>
  12. 13. Plasma Membrane <ul><li>Controls what goes into and out of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Selectively permeable : Allows some substances in, while keeping other substances out. </li></ul><ul><li>Phospholipid bi-layer </li></ul>
  13. 14. Phospholipid
  14. 15. Fluid Mosaic Model of the Plasma Membrane
  15. 16. Cell Wall <ul><li>Found in plant cells </li></ul><ul><li>Provides structure and support </li></ul>
  16. 17. Cell Wall
  17. 18. Nucleus <ul><li>The control center for the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Contains the DNA (genetic instructions) for the cell </li></ul>
  18. 19. Nucleus via TEM
  19. 20. Ribosomes <ul><li>Protein production </li></ul><ul><li>Free floating or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum </li></ul>
  20. 21. Endoplasmic Reticulum 2-types <ul><li>Transportation and chemical reactions </li></ul><ul><li>1.Rough ER : Ribosomes are attached giving a rough appearance (some proteins produced) </li></ul>
  21. 22. ER Types Cont… <ul><li>2. Smooth ER </li></ul><ul><li>Lacks ribosomes which gives it a smooth appearance. </li></ul><ul><li>Some lipids produced here </li></ul>
  22. 23. Endoplasmic Reticulum
  23. 24. Golgi Apparatus <ul><li>Also referred to as golgi body or golgi complex </li></ul><ul><li>Modifies, packages, and transports materials </li></ul>
  24. 25. Golgi Apparatus
  25. 26. Vacuoles <ul><li>Storage tanks </li></ul><ul><li>Larger in plants cells </li></ul>
  26. 27. Vacuoles Plant vs. Animal
  27. 28. Lysosomes <ul><li>Clean up crew </li></ul><ul><li>Contains digestive enzymes that break down old worn out cell parts, digest food, and bacteria and viruses </li></ul><ul><li>Not found in plant cells </li></ul>
  28. 29. Chloroplast <ul><li>Found in plant cells only </li></ul><ul><li>Convert light energy into chemical energy (food) </li></ul><ul><li>Contain a pigment called chlorophyll that traps light energy and gives plants their green color </li></ul>
  29. 30. Visible Chloroplasts in Cells
  30. 32. Mitochondria <ul><li>Power plant: convert food into energy the cell can use </li></ul><ul><li>Contains a outer membrane and a highly folded inner membrane </li></ul><ul><li>The folds in the inner membrane provide increased surface area for energy production </li></ul>
  31. 33. Mitochondria
  32. 34. Cytoskeleton <ul><li>Provide the framework or structure for the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of microfiliments and microtubules </li></ul>
  33. 35. Cilia and Flagella <ul><li>Provide locomotion (movement) and aid in feeding </li></ul><ul><li>Cilia is short and numerous </li></ul><ul><li>Flagella are long and few </li></ul>
  34. 36. Cilia And flagella
  35. 37. Peroxisomes <ul><li>Convert toxic peroxide into water </li></ul>